L'Anse aux Meadows


L'Anse aux Meadows

Infobox World Heritage Site
WHS = L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site


State Party = CAN
Type = Cultural
Criteria = vi
ID = 4
Region = Europe and North America
Year = 1978
Session = 2nd
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/4

L'Anse aux Meadows (from the French "L'Anse-aux-Méduses" or "Jellyfish Cove") is an archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, located in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

In 1960, the remains of a Norse village were discovered here by the Norwegian explorer Helge Ingstad and his wife Anne Stine Ingstad, an archaeologist. Archaeologists determined the site is of Norse origin due to definitive similarities between the characteristics of structures and artifacts found at the site and those of Greenlandic and Icelandic sites from around A.D. 1000. [ cite web
title = L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site of Canada
publisher = Parks Canada
date = 2007
url = http://www.pc.gc.ca/lhn-nhs/nl/meadows/index_e.asp
accessdate = 2008-02-12
] As of 2008, the site remains the only widely-accepted instance of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact.

The name "L'Anse aux Meadows" is believed to have originated with French fishermen in the area during the 19th and 20th centuries, who named the site "L'Anse aux Meduses," meaning "Jellyfish Bay." The modern name is an English corruption of the French name which occurred because the landscape in the area tends to be open, with meadows. [ cite web
title = L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site
work = Local Attractions
publisher = Adventure Boat Tours
date = 2007
url = http://www.adventureboattours.com/local_attractions.htm
accessdate = 2008-02-12
]

ignificance

L'Anse aux Meadows is the only known Norse site in North America outside of Greenland, represents the farthest known extent of European exploration and settlement of the New World before the voyages of Christopher Columbus almost 500 years later, and is one of the only genuine pieces of evidence of pre-Columbian contact between the New and Old Worlds.

L'Anse aux Meadows was named a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1978.

The Settlement

Archaeological excavation at the site was conducted in the 1960s by an international team led by Anne Stine Ingstad and again in the 1970s under the direction of Parks Canada. Following each period of excavation, the site was reburied, in an effort to protect and conserve the cultural resources.

The settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows has been dated to approximately 1,000 years ago, an assessment that agrees with the relative dating of artifact and structure types. [cite journal
author= Nydal, Reidar
title= A critical review of radiocarbon dating of a Norse settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, Canada
journal= Radiocarbon
volume= 31
pages= 976–985
year= 1989
url = http://www.digitalcommons.arizona.edu/objectviewer?o=http://radiocarbon.library.arizona.edu/Volume31/Number3/azu_radiocarbon_v31_n3_976_985_v.pdf
] The remains of eight buildings were located, believed to have been constructed of sod (turf) placed over a wooden frame. Based on associated artifacts, the buildings were variously identified as dwellings or workshops. The largest dwelling measured 28.8 by 15.6 m (94.5 by 51 ft) and consisted of several rooms. [http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=J1ARTJ0004527] From the Canadian Encyclopedia article on L'Anse aux Meadows.] Workshops were identified as an iron smithy containing a forge and iron slag, a carpentry workshop which generated wood debris, and a specialized boat repair area containing worn rivets. Besides those related to iron working, carpentry, and boat repair, many artifacts found at the site consisted of common every-day Norse items, such as a whetstone, a bronze fastening pin, a bone knitting needle, and a stone oil lamp. Food remains included butternuts, notable since these do not grow naturally north of New Brunswick, probably indicating that the Norse inhabitants travelled further south. cite web
title = Is L'Anse aux Meadows Vinland?
work = L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site of Canada
publisher = Parks Canada
date = 2003
url = http://www.pc.gc.ca/lhn-nhs/nl/meadows/natcul/vinland_e.asp
accessdate = 2008-01-20
] Archaeologists concluded that the site was inhabited by the Norse for a relatively short period of time.

In addition to the European settlement, evidence of at least five or six separate Native occupations has been identified at L'Anse aux Meadows, the oldest dated at roughly 6,000 years ago, although none was contemporaneous to the Norse occupation. The most prominent of these were the Dorset people who predated the Norse by about 200 years. [ cite web
title = Aboriginal Sites
work = L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site of Canada
publisher = Parks Canada
date = 2003
url = http://www.pc.gc.ca/lhn-nhs/nl/meadows/natcul/sites_e.asp
accessdate = 2008-01-20
]

Possible connection with Vinland sagas

Norse sagas are written versions of older oral traditions. Two Icelandic sagas, commonly called the Saga of the Greenlanders and the Saga of Eric the Red, describe the experiences of Norse Greenlanders who discovered and then attempted to settle a land to the west of Greenland, identified as Vinland. The Sagas seem to suggest that the Vinland settlement failed because of conflicts within the Norse community and between the Norse and the Native people they encountered.

While it is not possible to verify that L'Anse aux Meadows is indeed the Vinland of the Sagas, this remains a possibility, and it is often referred to as such in discussions of the site. Some archaeologists believe that the L'Anse aux Meadows site is not Vinland itself, but an exploration base and winter camp for expeditions heading further south to Vinland, which may have extended to the St. Lawrence River and New Brunswick. cite web
title = Is L'Anse aux Meadows Vinland?
work = L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site of Canada
publisher = Parks Canada
date = 2003
url = http://www.pc.gc.ca/lhn-nhs/nl/meadows/natcul/vinland_e.asp
accessdate = 2008-01-20
]

ee also

* Thorfinn Karlsefni
* Helluland
* History of Greenland
* List of communities in Newfoundland and Labrador
* Markland
* Norse colonization of the Americas
* Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact
* Skálholt Vinland Map
* Skrælingar
* Vikings
* Vinland
* Vinland map

References and notes

External links

* [http://whc.unesco.org/sites/4.htm UNESCO]
* [http://www.pc.gc.ca/lhn-nhs/nl/meadows/index_e.asp Parks Canada]
* [http://base.kb.dk/pls/hsk_web/hsk_vis.forside?p_hs_loebenr=31&p_navtype=rel&p_lang=eng Skalholt Map]
* [http://www.ggc-asmi.ucdavis.edu/Other/LAM.htm ASM International Historic Landmark Dediction]
* [http://www.WHTour.org/4 L'Anse aux Meadows World Heritage Site in panographies] - 360 degree interactive imaging
* [http://www.histori.ca/minutes/minute.do?id=10121 Historica’s Heritage Minute video docudrama about the “Vikings.”] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash_Player (Adobe Flash Player.)]

Pictures


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Anse aux Meadows, L' —   [englisch læns əʊ medəʊz], Fischerdorf an der Nordspitze der Insel Neufundland, Kanada. Nahebei entdeckte der Norweger H. Ingstad 1960 den bisher einzigen Wohnplatz von Wikingern in Amerika (außerhalb von Grönland). Ausgegraben wurden 1961 64… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • L'Anse Aux Meadows — Lieu historique national de L’Anse aux Meadows 1 Patrimoine mondial de l humanité établi par l UNESCO Site reconstitué de la colonisation des Vikings à L’Anse aux Meadows …   Wikipédia en Français

  • L'Anse aux Meadows — Lieu historique national de L’Anse aux Meadows * …   Wikipédia en Français

  • L'anse aux meadows — Lieu historique national de L’Anse aux Meadows 1 Patrimoine mondial de l humanité établi par l UNESCO Site reconstitué de la colonisation des Vikings à L’Anse aux Meadows …   Wikipédia en Français

  • L'Anse aux Meadows — Territorios, viajes y conquistas vikingas. Sitio Histórico Nacional de L Anse aux Meadows …   Wikipedia Español

  • L'Anse Aux Meadows — Rekonstruktion einer Wikingersiedlung in Vinland in L’Anse aux Meadows (Neufundland) L’Anse aux Meadows ist eine Wikingersiedlung auf Neufundland. Sie liegt am nördlichsten Ende der Insel. Der Ortsname ist eine französisch/englische Mischform wie …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • L'Anse aux Meadows — Rekonstruktion einer Wikingersiedlung in Vinland in L’Anse aux Meadows (Neufundland) L’Anse aux Meadows ist eine Wikingersiedlung auf Neufundland. Sie liegt am nördlichsten Ende der Insel. Der Ortsname ist eine französisch/englische Mischform wie …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • L’Anse aux Meadows — Lage der Siedlung Rekonstruktion der Wiki …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • L'Anse aux Meadows — Site on the northern tip of Newfoundland of the first known European settlements in the New World. Norse settlers may have established as many as three settlements there near the end of the 10th century. After initially fighting each other, the… …   Universalium

  • L'Anse aux Meadows — Punto del extremo septentrional de Terranova donde tuvieron lugar los primeros asentamientos europeos conocidos en el Nuevo Mundo. Se estima que grupos de colonos escandinavos fundaron unos tres asentamientos en la zona a fines del s. X. Aunque… …   Enciclopedia Universal


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