Squeak


Squeak

Infobox programming language
name = Squeak

paradigm = object-oriented
year = 1996
designer = Alan Kay, Dan Ingalls, Adele Goldberg
developer = Alan Kay, Dan Ingalls, Ted Kaehler, Scott Wallace, John Maloney, Andreas Raab, Mike Rueger
latest release version = 3.9
latest release date = 8 December 2006
typing = dynamic
implementations = Squeak, Croquet
dialects =
influenced_by = Smalltalk, Lisp, Logo; Sketchpad, Simula; Self
influenced = Etoys, Tweak, Croquet
operating_system =
license =
website = http://www.squeak.org/
The Squeak programming language is a Smalltalk implementation, derived directly from Smalltalk-80 by a group at Apple Computer that included some of the original Smalltalk-80 developers. Its development was continued by the same group at Walt Disney Imagineering, where it was intended for use in internal Disney projects. Some Squeak users refer to Squeak as a programming language rather than as a Smalltalk implementation. It is object-oriented, class-based, and reflective. Squeak is available for many platforms, and programs produced on one platform run bit-identical on all other platforms. The Squeak system includes code for generating a new version of the virtual machine (VM) on which it runs. It also includes a VM simulator written in itself (Squeak). For this reason, it is easily ported.

Developers

Dan Ingalls is one of the important contributors to the Squeak project. Ingalls wrote the paper " [http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=263754&coll=portal&dl=ACM Back to the Future: the story of Squeak, a practical Smalltalk written in itself] ", as well as built the architecture for five generations of the Smalltalk language upon which Squeak is built. Squeak incorporates many of the elements Alan Kay proposed in the Dynabook concept, which he formulated in the 1960s. Kay is an important contributor to the Squeak project. Andreas Raab seems to have the most commits.

User interface frameworks

Squeak includes a number of user interface frameworks:
* An implementation of Morphic, Self's graphical direct manipulation interface framework. This is Squeak's main interface.
* Tile-based, limited visual programming scripting in eToys, based on Morphic.
* A new, experimental interface called [http://tweakproject.org Tweak] . In 2001, it became clear that the eToy architecture in Squeak had reached its limits in what the Morphic interface infrastructure could do. Hewlett-Packard researcher Andreas Raab proposed defining a "script process" and providing a default scheduling mechanism that avoids several more general problems [http://tweakproject.org/ABOUT/FAQ/OriginalTweakMemo/] . The result was a new user interface, proposed to replace the Squeak Morphic user interface in the future. Tweak added mechanisms of islands, asynchronous messaging, players and costumes, language extensions, projects, and tile scripting [http://tweakproject.org/TECHNOLOGY/Whitepapers/] . Its underlying object system is class-based, but to users, during programming (scripting), it acts like it is prototype-based. Tweak objects are created and run in Tweak project windows.
* MVC, derived from the original Smalltalk-80 user interface framework which first introduced and popularized the Model-View-Controller architectural pattern [http://st-www.cs.uiuc.edu/users/smarch/st-docs/mvc.html] (so named after the three core classes of the framework). Thus, the term "MVC" in the context of Squeak refers to both one of the available user interface frameworks and the pattern the framework follows. MVC is provided for programmers who wish to use this older type of interface.

Uses

Many Squeak contributors collaborate on the free and open source Croquet project, which is built on Squeak, and offers a networked, real time, collaborative workspace with 2D and 3D abilities.

Squeak is also used in the es operating system.

License

Squeak may be downloaded at no cost, including all its source code. Unlike other languages, Squeak is distributed in a prebuilt virtual machine image form rather than bootstrappable source code.

There is some debate as to whether the Squeak license qualifies as free software or not, due to the presence of an indemnity clause in the original Squeak License.Version 1.1 of the environment, originally released on October 1997 under the Squeak License, has been released in May 2006 under the free and open source Apple Public Source License.It has been relicensed under the Apache License allowing inclusion in the One Laptop Per Child initiative. [http://laptop.media.mit.edu/laptopnews.nsf/2e76a5a80bc36cbf85256cd700545fa5/fd078b45d9ffd8e7852571f9005be555?OpenDocument]

ee also

*Croquet project
*Seaside
*Scratch
*Alice
*EToys
*SqueakNOS

External links

* [http://www.squeak.org/ Squeak.org]
* [http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=263754&coll=portal&dl=ACM/ Back to the future: the story of Squeak, a practical Smalltalk written in itself] [http://www.vpri.org/pdf/backto_TR-1997-001.pdf (PDF version)]
* [http://users.ipa.net/~dwighth/squeak/oopsla_squeak.html History of Squeak]
*dmoz|Computers/Programming/Languages/Smalltalk/Squeak
* [http://www.squeakland.org/ Squeakland.org]
* [http://wiki.squeak.org/squeak/ Squeak Swiki]
* [http://squeak-swicki.eurekster.com/ Search engine related to squeak]
* [http://www.squeakcmi.org SqueakCMI] Champaign, IL
*es icon [http://www.small-land.org Small-Land.org]

Books

* [http://www.squeakbyexample.org Squeak by Example] Squeak by Example is a new open-source book about the Squeak development environment.
* [http://stephane.ducasse.free.fr/FreeBooks.html Downloadable books about Smalltalk] Permission obtained to make these books freely available. Over a dozen full texts scanned from print.)
* [http://smalltalk.consultar.com Programando con Smalltalk - Un ambiente de objetos vivos] Book in Spanish by Diego Gomez Deck.


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Squeak — Entwickler The Squeak Community Aktuelle Version 4.2 (4. Februar 2011) Betriebssystem …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Squeak — est une implémentation libre du langage de programmation Smalltalk. Sommaire 1 Introduction 2 Squeak et l éducation 3 Aspects techniques 4 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Squeak — 3.9. Squeak, como la reencarnación de los proyectos Dynabook y Smalltalk de los años 70, busca ser un meta medio. Un lugar donde convivan todos los medios de expresión conocidos hasta la fecha (texto, video, sonido, música, gráficos 2D, gráficos… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Squeak — Семантика: объектно ориентированная Появился в: 1996 Автор(ы): Алан Кэй, Дэн Ингаллс, Адель Гольдберг Релиз …   Википедия

  • squeak — [skwēk] vi. [ME squeken, prob. akin to ON skvakka, to gurgle] 1. to make or utter a short, sharp, high pitched sound or cry 2. [Informal, Chiefly Brit.] to act as an informer; squeal vt. 1. to utter or produce in a squeak 2. to cause (a door, etc …   English World dictionary

  • squeak´i|ly — squeak|y «SKWEE kee», adjective, squeak|i|er, squeak|i|est. 1. characterized by squeaking sounds; tending to squeak: »a squeaky window. 2. squeak …   Useful english dictionary

  • squeak|y — «SKWEE kee», adjective, squeak|i|er, squeak|i|est. 1. characterized by squeaking sounds; tending to squeak: »a squeaky window. 2. squeak …   Useful english dictionary

  • squeak — ► NOUN 1) a short, high pitched sound or cry. 2) a single remark or communication: I didn t hear a squeak from him. ► VERB 1) make a squeak. 2) say something in a high pitched tone. 3) informal succeed in achieving something by a very narrow… …   English terms dictionary

  • Squeak — Squeak, n. A sharp, shrill, disagreeable sound suddenly uttered, either of the human voice or of any animal or instrument, such as is made by carriage wheels when dry, by the soles of leather shoes, or by a pipe or reed. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Squeak — (skw[=e]k), v. i. [imp. & p. p. {Squeaked} (skw[=e]kt); p. pr. & vb. n. {Squeaking}.] [Probably of imitative origin; cf. Sw. sqv[ a]ka to croak, Icel. skvakka to give a sound as of water shaken in a bottle.] 1. To utter a sharp, shrill cry,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Squeak — Squeak, como la reencarnación de los proyectos Dynabook y Smalltalk de los años 1970, busca ser un meta medio. Un lugar donde convivan todos los medios de expresión conocidos hasta la fecha (texto, video, sonido, música, gráficos 2D, gráficos 3D …   Enciclopedia Universal


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.