Former Qin

Former Qin

The Former Qin (zh-cp|c=前秦|p=Qiánqín; 351-394) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China. Founded by the Fu family of the Di ethnicity, it completed the unification of North China in 376. Its capital had been Xi'an up to the death of the ruler Fu Jiān. Please note that, despite its name, the Former Qin was much later and less powerful than the Qin Dynasty which ruled all of China during the 3rd century BCE.

The defeat of the Former Qin in the Battle of Fei and the subsequent uprisings split the Former Qin territory into two noncontiguous pieces after the death of Fu Jiān: one located at present day Taiyuan, Shanxi and was soon overwhelmed in 386 by the Xianbei under the Later Yan and the Dingling. The other struggled in its greatly reduced territories around the border of present day Shaanxi and Gansu until disintegration in 394 under years of invasions by the Western Qin and the Later Qin.

All rulers of the Former Qin proclaimed themselves "Emperor" except for Fu Jiān, who claimed the title "Heavenly Prince" ("Tian Wang") but was posthumoustly considered an emperor.

Rulers of the Former Qin

Temple namesPosthumous namesFamily names and given nameDurations of reignsEra names and their according durations
"Chinese convention: use family and given names"
Gaozu (高祖 Gāozǔ)Jingming (景明 Jǐngmíng)Fu Jiàn (苻健 Fú Jiàn)351-355"Huangshi (皇始 Huángshǐ)" 351-355
Did not existKing Li (厲王 Lìwáng) ¹Fu Sheng (苻生 Fú Shēng)355-357"Shouguang (壽光 Shòuguāng)" 355-357
Shizu (世祖 Shìzǔ)Xuanzhao (宣昭 Xuānzhāo)Fu Jiān (苻堅 Fú Jiān)357-385"Yongxing (永興 Yǒngxīng)" 357-359
"Ganlu (甘露 Gānlù)" 359-364
"Jianyuan (建元 Jiànyuán)" 365-385
Did not existAiping (哀平 āipíng)Fu Pi (苻丕 Fú Pī)385-386"Taian (太安 Tàiān)" 385-386
Taizong (太宗 Tàizōng)Gao (高 Gāo)Fu Deng (苻登 Fú Dēng)386-394"Taichu (太初 Tàichū)" 386-394
Did not existHouzhu (後主 Hòuzhǔ)Fu Chong (苻崇 Fú Chóng)several months in 394"Yanchu (延初 Yán Chū)" 394

¹ Fu Sheng was posthumously given the title "wang" even though he had reigned as emperor.

ee also

*Chinese history
*Chinese sovereign
*Fu Jian (disambiguation)
*Wang Meng
*Battle of Fei

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