Carnegie stages

Carnegie stages

In embryology, Carnegie stages are a standardized system of 23 stages used to provide a unified developmental chronology of the vertebrate embryo.

The stages are delineated through the development of structures, not by size or the number of days of development, and so the chronology can vary between species, and to a certain extent between embryos. It only covers the first 60 days of development; at that point the term embryo is usually replaced with the term fetus.

It was based on work by Streeter (1942) and O'Rahilly and Müller (1987). The name "Carnegie stages" comes from the Carnegie Institute.

While the Carnegie stages provide a universal system for staging and comparing the embryonic development of most vertebrates, other systems are occasionally used for the common model organisms in developmental biology, such as the Hamburger-Hamilton stages in the chick.

tages

Days are approximate, and reflect the days since the last ovulation before pregnancy ("Postovulatory age").

tage 1: 1 days

* fertilization
* polar bodies

tage 2: 2-3 days

* cleavage
* morula
* compaction

tage 3: 4-5 days

* blastocyst and blastocoele
* embryonic disk
* trophoblast and embryoblast

tage 4: 6 days

* syncytiotrophoblast
* cytotrophoblast
* amniotic ectoderm

tage 5 (a-c): 7-12 days

* implantation
* bilaminar germ disk
* primary yolk sac
* amniotic cavity

tage 6: ca 17 days

* primitive streak
* primitive groove
* chorionic villi
* secondary yolk sac

tage 7: ca 19 days

* gastrulation
* neural plate
* start of hematopoiesis
* notochord

tage 8: ca 23 days

* primitive pit

tage 9: ca 25 days

* neural groove
* neural folds
* septum transversum
* placode
* early heart

tage 10: ca 28 days

* pharyngeal arches #1 and #2
* cardiac loop
* intermediate mesoderm

tage 11: ca 29 days

* sinus venosus
* mesonephric duct

tage 12: ca 30 days

* upper limb buds

tage 13: ca 32 days

* septum primum
* foramen primum

tage 14: ca 33 days

* ureteric bud

tage 15: ca 36 days

tage 16: ca 39 days

tage 17: ca 41 days

tage 18: ca 44 days

* septum secundum

tage 19: ca 46 days

tage 20: ca 49 days

tage 21: ca 51days

tage 22: ca 53 days

tage 23: ca 56 days

ee also

* Mammalian embryogenesis

External links

*
*
* [http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/wwwhuman/Stages/Images/Cst800.jpgPhotos at unsw.edu.au]
* [http://embryo.soad.umich.edu/carnStages/carnStages.html Overview at umich.edu]
* [http://virtualhumanembryo.lsuhsc.edu/HEIRLOOM/Stages/HEP_StagesFS.htm Details on stages at lsuhsc.edu]
* [http://genex.hgu.mrc.ac.uk/Databases/HumanAnatomy/new/ List of structures by week, at mrc.ac.uk]
* [http://www.visembryo.com/baby/index.html Diagrams at actual size at Visible Embryo]


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См. также в других словарях:

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