 Hessian matrix

In mathematics, the Hessian matrix (or simply the Hessian) is the square matrix of secondorder partial derivatives of a function; that is, it describes the local curvature of a function of many variables. The Hessian matrix was developed in the 19th century by the German mathematician Ludwig Otto Hesse and later named after him. Hesse himself had used the term "functional determinants".
Given the realvalued function
if all second partial derivatives of f exist, then the Hessian matrix of f is the matrix
where x = (x_{1}, x_{2}, ..., x_{n}) and D_{i} is the differentiation operator with respect to the ith argument and the Hessian becomes
Because f is often clear from context, H(f)(x) is frequently shortened to simply H(x).
Some mathematicians^{[1]} define the Hessian as the determinant of the above matrix.
Hessian matrices are used in largescale optimization problems within Newtontype methods because they are the coefficient of the quadratic term of a local Taylor expansion of a function. That is,
where J is the Jacobian matrix, which is a vector (the gradient for scalarvalued functions). The full Hessian matrix can be difficult to compute in practice; in such situations, quasiNewton algorithms have been developed that use approximations to the Hessian. The bestknown quasiNewton algorithm is the BFGS algorithm.
Contents
Mixed derivatives and symmetry of the Hessian
The mixed derivatives of f are the entries off the main diagonal in the Hessian. Assuming that they are continuous, the order of differentiation does not matter (Clairaut's theorem). For example,
This can also be written as:
In a formal statement: if the second derivatives of f are all continuous in a neighborhood D, then the Hessian of f is a symmetric matrix throughout D; see symmetry of second derivatives.
Critical points and discriminant
If the gradient of f (i.e., its derivative in the vector sense) is zero at some point x, then f has a critical point (or stationary point) at x. The determinant of the Hessian at x is then called the discriminant. If this determinant is zero then x is called a degenerate critical point of f, this is also called a nonMorse critical point of f. Otherwise it is nondegenerate, this is called a Morse critical point of f.
Second derivative test
Main article: Second partial derivative testThe following test can be applied at a nondegenerate critical point x. If the Hessian is positive definite at x, then f attains a local minimum at x. If the Hessian is negative definite at x, then f attains a local maximum at x. If the Hessian has both positive and negative eigenvalues then x is a saddle point for f (this is true even if x is degenerate). Otherwise the test is inconclusive.
Note that for positive semidefinite and negative semidefinite Hessians the test is inconclusive (yet a conclusion can be made that f is locally convex or concave respectively). However, more can be said from the point of view of Morse theory.
In view of what has just been said, the second derivative test for functions of one and two variables is simple. In one variable, the Hessian contains just one second derivative; if it is positive then x is a local minimum, if it is negative then x is a local maximum; if it is zero then the test is inconclusive. In two variables, the determinant can be used, because the determinant is the product of the eigenvalues. If it is positive then the eigenvalues are both positive, or both negative. If it is negative then the two eigenvalues have different signs. If it is zero, then the second derivative test is inconclusive.
Bordered Hessian
A bordered Hessian is used for the secondderivative test in certain constrained optimization problems. Given the function as before:
but adding a constraint function such that:
the bordered Hessian appears as
If there are, say, m constraints then the zero in the northwest corner is an m × m block of zeroes, and there are m border rows at the top and m border columns at the left.
The above rules of positive definite and negative definite can not apply here since a bordered Hessian can not be definite: we have z'Hz = 0 if vector z has a nonzero as its first element, followed by zeroes.
The second derivative test consists here of sign restrictions of the determinants of a certain set of n  m submatrices of the bordered Hessian.^{[2]} Intuitively, think of the m constraints as reducing the problem to one with n  m free variables. (For example, the maximization of f(x_{1},x_{2},x_{3}) subject to the constraint x_{1} + x_{2} + x_{3} = 1 can be reduced to the maximization of f(x_{1},x_{2},1 − x_{1} − x_{2}) without constraint.)
Vectorvalued functions
If f is instead a function from , i.e.
then the array of second partial derivatives is not a twodimensional matrix of size , but rather a tensor of order 3. This can be thought of as a multidimensional array with dimensions , which degenerates to the usual Hessian matrix for m = 1.
Generalizations to Riemannian manifolds
Let (M,g) be a Riemannian manifold and its LeviCivita connection. Let be a smooth function. We may define the Hessian tensor
 by ,
where we have taken advantage of the first covariant derivative of a function being the same as ordinary derivative. Choosing local coordinates {x^{i}} we obtain the local expression for the Hessian as
where are the Christoffel symbols of the connection. Other equivalent forms for the Hessian are given by
 and .
See also
 The determinant of the Hessian matrix is a covariant; see Invariant of a binary form
 Jacobian matrix
 The Hessian matrix is commonly used for expressing image processing operators in image processing and computer vision (see the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) blob detector, the determinant of Hessian (DoH) blob detector and scale space).
Notes
 ^ For instance, Binmore & Davies, (2007), Calculus Concepts and Methods, Cambridge University Press, p.190.
 ^ Neudecker, Heinz; Magnus, Jan R. (1988), Matrix differential calculus with applications in statistics and econometrics, New York: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 9780471915164, page 136
Categories: Differential operators
 Matrices
 Morse theory
 Multivariable calculus
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Matrix  получить на Академике действующий промокод Pharmacosmetica или выгодно matrix купить со скидкой на распродаже в Pharmacosmetica
Hessian Affine region detector — The Hessian Affine region detector is a feature detector used in the fields of computer vision and image analysis. Like other feature detectors, the Hessian Affine detector is typically used as a preprocessing step to algorithms that rely on… … Wikipedia
Matrix (mathematics) — Specific elements of a matrix are often denoted by a variable with two subscripts. For instance, a2,1 represents the element at the second row and first column of a matrix A. In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices, or less commonly matrixes)… … Wikipedia
Hessian — The term Hessian refers to the inhabitants of the German state of Hesse.Hessian may also mean: * Hessian (soldiers), soldiers from German states with in the Holy Roman Empire who fought in the American Revolutionary War and other conflicts *… … Wikipedia
Matrix calculus — Topics in Calculus Fundamental theorem Limits of functions Continuity Mean value theorem Differential calculus Derivative Change of variables Implicit differentiation Taylor s theorem Related rates … Wikipedia
Covariance matrix — A bivariate Gaussian probability density function centered at (0,0), with covariance matrix [ 1.00, .50 ; .50, 1.00 ] … Wikipedia
Zmatrix (chemistry) — In chemistry, the Z matrix is a way to represent a system built of atoms. A Z matrix is also known as an internal coordinate representation. It provides a description of each atom in a molecule in terms of its atomic number, bond length, bond… … Wikipedia
Symmetric matrix — In linear algebra, a symmetric matrix is a square matrix, A , that is equal to its transpose:A = A^{T}. ,!The entries of a symmetric matrix are symmetric with respect to the main diagonal (top left to bottom right). So if the entries are written… … Wikipedia
Newton's method in optimization — A comparison of gradient descent (green) and Newton s method (red) for minimizing a function (with small step sizes). Newton s method uses curvature information to take a more direct route. In mathematics, Newton s method is an iterative method… … Wikipedia
Mathematical optimization — For other uses, see Optimization (disambiguation). The maximum of a paraboloid (red dot) In mathematics, computational science, or management science, mathematical optimization (alternatively, optimization or mathematical programming) refers to… … Wikipedia
Gauss–Newton algorithm — The Gauss–Newton algorithm is a method used to solve non linear least squares problems. It can be seen as a modification of Newton s method for finding a minimum of a function. Unlike Newton s method, the Gauss–Newton algorithm can only be used… … Wikipedia