subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = ROU
timezone = EET
utc_offset = +2
timezone_DST = EEST
utc_offset_DST = +3
map_caption = Location of Buzău
image_caption = The Communal Palace in Dacia Square, Buzău
official_name = Buzău
image_shield = COA_Buzau_BZ_RO.png
subdivision_type1 = County
subdivision_name1 = Buzău County
subdivision_type2 = Status
subdivision_name2 = Autolink|county seat
settlement_type = county seat
leader_name = Constantin Boşcodeală
leader_party = PSD
established_title = First official record
established_date = 376 AD
area_total_km2 = 81.3
elevation_m = 95
latd = 45
latm = 9
lats = 45
longd = 26
longm = 49
lats = 6
latNS = N
longEW = E
population_as_of = 2002
population_total = 134227
population_blank1 = 137161
population_blank1_title=July 1, 2004
population_footnotes= [National Institute of Statistics, [http://www.insse.ro/Anuar%202005/CHAPTERS/cp2.pdf Population of counties, municipalities and towns] , July 1, 2004]
website = http://www.primariabuzau.ro
The city of Buzău (IPA2|bu'zəw) is the county seat of
Buzău County, Romania, in the historical region of Wallachia. It lies near the right bank of the Buzău River, between the south-eastern curvature of the Carpathian Mountainsand the lowlands of Bărăgan Plain.
Attested since 376 AD, Buzău was as an important Wallachian
market townand Eastern Orthodox episcopal seein the Middle Ages. After facing a period of repeated destruction during the 17th and 18th century, Buzău slowly recovered to become nowadays an important modern city in south-eastern Romania.
At the 2002 census, the population of Buzău had the following ethnic composition:
Romanians: 128,423 - 95.67%
*Roma: 5,502 - 4.09%
, at the end of the 19th century.
From the Communal Palace, Cuza Vodă Street leads to the Bazaar. The Cuza Vodă Street features late 19th century buildings
Crâng Park", carved in the corner of a larger forest, lies in the western outskirts of the town and is a remnant of the old Codrii Vlăsiei. "Crâng" was designed in the late 19th century. It has an obelisk, erected in 1976 to celebrate 1600 years since the town's first recorded historical attestation.
The oldest building in Buzău is the
Vergu-Mănăilă house, erected in the 17th or 18th century as a boyars' mansion. Renovated between 1971-1974, it now hosts the local Museum of ethnographyand folk art.
The church of Banului, erected in the 16th century as a monastery, underwent renovation several times. In 1884, it was repainted by a team of painters including
Gheorghe Tattarescuand his uncle Nicolae Teodorescu.
An old tradition of the city is the
Drăgaica fair, a midsummerfair traced back to traditional shepherd's fairs in the Buzău mountains, that moved to Buzău sometimes before the 18th century.
Buzău is located between the
Buzău rivervalley, that forms its northern bounds, the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains' curvature and the Danube Plain. It has an oblong shape, as it is larger along the Buzău river and shorter across. The altitude of Buzău ranges from 101 meters in the North-West, near the hills to 88 meters close to the river, with a 95 meter average (as is also the altitude in the Dacia square, in the center). Petcu, pp. 102-103] Therefore, Buzău is located on a flat relief, with a 10 meters altitude difference along a 4 km line.
Annual rainfall amounts to 500 mmPetcu, pp.104-105] and the winter snow can be as high as 30cm. The Buzău river has frequent flow fluctuations, especially in spring, when snow melting in the mountains enhance the water flow. Therefore the city was built far from a deep riverbed and the river does not flood the city. At the major floods of 2005 in Romania, the waters damaged the bridge across the Buzău river north of Buzău, but did no damage whatsoever to the city.
The climate is mostly continental, with an average 92 days of frost a year (16 days with temperatures below -10 degrees Celsius), but also with 92 days of summer, prone to excessive heat and
Flora and fauna
Flora is represented in Buzău by the remainder of the
Codrii Vlăsieiin the west, a 189 hectares oakforest. Crâng Parkoccupies 10 hectares of this forest. Most streets in Buzău have trees planted alongside them, such as chestnuts on the "Nicolae Bălcescu" Boulevard and lime trees on the "Unirii" Boulevard. Flowers grown by the local people in the yard typically include various species of roses, hyacinths, tulips, peonies, cranesbills and petunias, as well as vineand ivy for shade.
Wild fauna in Buzău is represented by typical temperate climate city-dwelling species. The most common birds are the
house sparrow, the collared doveand the goldfinch, while the rodents are represented by the ferretand the brown rat. Lakes are inhabited by small fish such as the rhodeus amarusand eels, as well as by green lizards and snails.
First recorded historical attestation
The earliest mention on the river Buzău and the
polis(named Mousaios) on its bank is a letter from Ioannis Soranus, governor of Scytia Minor, to the archbishop of Caesarea Mazaca(about 400 A.D.). The document, kept in copies at the Vatican Library and San Marco Library in Venice, tells about the martyrdom of a Christian missionary by the name of Sabbas, drowned by the Goths in the river Buzău. He is the spiritual patron of the city of Buzău as well as of several local villages.
Several graves (3rd to 5th century AD) were found in Buzău, as well as coins that prove the continuance of the settlement.
Market Town and Bishopric in the Middle Ages
Buzău evolved during the Middle Ages as a commercial and cultural center.
Gustav Treiber, in his work "Siebenburgische Viertel Jahresschrit" states that prior to the 12th century, the city was surrounded by a wall with four gates towards the four main directions.
The earliest mention of Buzău as a market town (
târg) and customs station is found in a document, dated January 31 1431, and issued by Dan II, voivod of Wallachia. The document stated that salesmen from Braşovwere free to trade in several Wallachian towns (Buzău, among them) just as they were during the reign of Mircea cel Bătrân. These privileges have been later reinforced by Vlad III the Impaler, who stated that the roads to be taken by the salesmen were to be: "via Rucăr, Prahova, Teleajen or Buzău"Petcu, 2002, pp. 23] .
Radu cel Marecreated The Bishopric of Buzău, making the town a spiritual center of Eastern Wallachia. In 1507, Buzău appears (under the name of Boza) for the first time on a map, made by Nicolaus Germanus. At the time, the city was the 4th largest city of Wallachia, and an important trade partner of Braşov. Between 1503 and 1515, the salesmen from Buzău traded merchandise worth 2,245,835 aspresPetcu, 2002, pp. 23] (an Ottoman currency). A document dated 1536 shows that the town was administered by one "judeţ" (mayor) and 12 elected "pârgari" (city councillors) [Petcu, 2002, pp. 24] . Underground tunnels dating back to the 16th century connect the bishopric's complex, the city center and the Crâng Park(at the time, only a large forest at the town's outskirts). Their role was to store supply and evacuate people in case of danger [Petcu, 2002, pp. 24] .
of 1863, the monastery was dismantled; its church, however, was sparred.
A 1575 document mentions the
Bazaar(permanent market with shops, stores, cellars, storage rooms). The Bazaar of Buzău was the second oldest in Wallachia. At the end of the 16th century, Buzău was divided in four parts: the Bishopric with its servants, the Banu monastery and its servants, the old market and the city (located between the bishopric and the monastery).
During the last decade of the 16th century, around 18,000
Serbs settled in Wallachia. Several families made Buzău their home, by founding a neighbourhood known to this day by the name "Serbs" and located on the bank of the Buzău River. Later, in 1792-1838, many Bulgarian refugees settled in the same neighbourhood. Petcu, 2002, pp. 27-34] Due to similarities of the mother tongues spoken by the two ethnic groups, the locals called the new refugees also Serbs. The Bulgarians were given land by the river where they created vegetable gardens. Petcu, 2002, pp. 27-34]
The late Middle Ages brought a wave of destruction to the town, Buzău being completely or partially destroyed by multiple wars and foreign military invasions, as well as natural disasters.
The army of
Mihai Viteazulwas located in Buzău in 1596. After the army left, the city was devastated in 1597 by Ottoman and Tatarraids. The next year, Mihai Viteazul brought gifts to the inhabitants of the city to compensate for the damages. The chronicler Balthasar Walter described the tatar invasion of 1597:
In April 1616, many houses in Buzău were burnt down during a Polish invasion, during one of the
Moldavian Magnate Wars. The inhabitants took refuge in the nearby mountains and forests. All existing land deeds were lost at the event. One year later, in July 1617, the city was once again occupied by the Ottoman army.
Buzău was pillaged by
Tatarsagain in 1623, as pointed out by Matei Basarabin a 1633 letter:
A Turkish invasion in 1659 again led to the city being burnt down and destroyed, and the locals being taken captive. In 1679, Buzău was pillaged again by the Ottomans. The city was rebuilt every time, thus appearing on a 1700 map of Wallachia, printed in
Padovaby stolnic Constantin Cantacuzino. The map shows 22 other cities and market towns of the country.
After a period of relative peace, during which the bishopric was subsidized by the
domnto open a school in Greek and another in Slavonic, in 1739, during a Russo-Turkish War, Russian troops as well as Frilow's Cossacks ravaged through Buzău, taking the bishop with them as they went. [Petcu, 2002, p.31]
During another Russo-Turkish War, Ottoman soldiers burnt all the stores and houses, burning the city to the ground. The Bishopric church was also destroyed, and the bishop moved temporarily to Bucharest. The Banu monastery church escaped destruction, only to be destroyed in 1774 by an earthquake. Also, during the
Russo-Turkish War of 1787 - 1792, the city was once again destroyed. [Petcu, 2002, p.33] The long string of war-caused damage went on in 1806 and 1807, when the Ottoman army burnt down the city to ruins leaving 230 people dead. The locals fled to the Nişcov river valley, from where they returned only in 1812. [Petcu, 2002, p.34]
choleraand bubonic plagueepidemics at the beginning of the 19th century also decimated the city's population (see " Caragea's plague").
The last time the city was devastated by war was in 1821 at the
Greek War of Independence[Petcu, 2002, p.35] . After that, in light of the establishment of the Organic Regulations, a period of reconstruction and modernisation began. Also, Wallachia stopped being a theatre of operations in the wars between the Ottoman Empireand Russia, the conflincts moving further away, in Crimea, the Southern and Western Balkansand the Caucasus.
Thus, although Buzău is attested by documents as a polis since the 4th century AD, and as a market town since 1431, the oldest building in the city is the Vergu-Mănăilă house, erected as recently as the 18th century, around 1780. The
Vergu-Mănăilă housewas owned at the time by a high-ranking boyar named Vergu, who owned a pub and a bakery near the house.
19th Century development
During the 19th century, the city overcame the difficulties of repeated reconstruction, and started to develop as a modern city with solid businesses and a cultural life. The Crâng forest became a leisure place for the locals around 1829, and was eventually organized as a public garden by 1850.
Schools began to be set up, as in 1831 the Bishopric opened a school for
muralists and icon painters, led by Nicolae Teodorescuand attended by Gheorghe Tattarescu. One year later, the "National School" (the first school in Buzău to teach in the Romanian language) was open, and in 1838 "Şcoala Normală" (a school for teachers) was inaugurated by Dionisie Romano. "Şcoala normală" trained teachers for the city schools and for 115 villages. The Buzău theological seminar was open in 1836. It was the first secondary school in Buzău and the second theological school in Wallachia, after the one in Bucharest.
The oldest known census in Buzău showed, in 1832, a total population of 2567, of which one was Austrian, one was English, 18 were Jewish and the rest Romanian.
Around 1837-1840, public lighting was introduced on the main street. The street lamps were using
tallow candles. By 1861, the number of public street lamps grew from 38 to 50. In 1841 the streets were realigned "by urban rules". [Petcu, p.40]
By 1842, the city had a stable doctor, a
drugstore, a fire squad and an officially authorized midwife.
Wallachian revolution of 1848, a "National Guard", supervised by Barbu and Nicolae Bălcescuwas set up immediately after the government was organized in Bucharest in June. However, the revolution was crushed by Russian and Ottoman forces, and Buzău was occupied by the Russian army for three years. The Russian army briefly occupied Buzău again in 1853 during the Crimean War. After the occupation ended, the city's development was resumed. [Petcu, p.123]
At the Ad-hoc divans organized after the
Congress of Parisin 1856, a large majority of representatives of Buzău voted for Wallachia's union with Moldova. Later on, after a personal union was completed on 5 February 1859, prince Alexander John Cuzawas welcomed enthusiastically by the inhabitants of Buzău and was persuaded to spend the night in the city on his way from Iaşito Bucharest. The newly-elected Domnof both Wallachia and Moldova left the city the next day via "Strada Mare", a street known today by the name of "Bulevardul Unirii" ("Union Boulevard"). [Petcu, p. 124]
The buildings on the Cuza Vodă Street (at the time known as "Strada Târgului" -- "Market Street") were erected between 1850 and 1880 in the style of the 19th century South-Eastern European commercial houses -- two-story buildings with shops on the ground floor, and residences on the top floor.
Cultural life blossomed, as in 1852, the first theater show in Buzău took place. In 1854, a
printing presswas imported by the Bishopric from Vienna, and was subsequently used to print the "Buzău Bible", the fourth Romanian bible (the first three being the Bucharest Biblein 1688, one printed in Blajin 1792 and another printed in Saint Petersburgin 1819).
Public lighting was enhanced in 1860 by introducing petrol lamps. In the same year, street numbers were assigned to houses, and streets were paved with stones. The Gârlaşi Hospital (nowadays, the Infectious Diseases Hospital) was open in 1865, being the first permanent city hospital.
The "Moldavia" theater was open in 1898 in a building in central Buzău. The 400 seats hall was the location where important Romanian artists that came to Buzău, such as
Nicolae Leonard, Constantin Nottaraand George Enescuperformed.
In 1899, mayor Nicu Constantinescu began the construction of the Communal Palace, a project completed in 1903. The Communal Palace is now the city's most prominent landmark. Constantinescu also decided to refactor the central streets of Buzău, which were narrow and winding, an heritage of the market town history and the repeated destructions followed by disorganized rebuilding of the city. Thus, the wide and straight "Park Boulevard" (linking the city center and the Crâng Park) and the "Railway Station Boulevard" (linking the center to the railway station) were built.
During this period, Constantin Brâncuşi and
Ion Luca Caragialewere briefly residents of Buzău. Caragiale leased a restaurant near the railway station in 1894 and lived there for a year. During this period, he also held a public conference, whose intended subject, " Prosewriting techniques" was changed at the last moment into "Causes of human stupidity". [cite news|title=Casele lui Caragiale|url=http://www.adevarul.ro/articole/casele-lui-caragiale/5553|publisher=Adevărul|date= 2002-01-30|accessdate=2007-10-12|language=Romanian] Brâncuşi lived in the city in the summer of 1914, after Eliza Seceleanu, a young local landowner's widow, had commissioned him to create two sculptures: "Prayer" and the bust of Petre Stănescu, her late husband. After creating the two sculptures in Paris, Brâncuşi brought them to Buzău and lived there for a few months while working to prepare the sculptures' stands. Both sculptures decorated Stănescu's tomb at the local "Dumbrava" cemetery for a while, but they were since moved to the " National Museum of Art of Romania" in Bucharest, being replaced by two copies. [Ştefan, pp. 58-61] The copies have been stolen in 1999 and have not been replaced since.
The first electric light bulb in the city was installed in 1899, in front of the public garden in the center of Buzău. The first cinema show in Buzău took place in 1904, in a beer pub on the Park Boulevard, by a local named Nicolae Mihăilescu. [Petcu, pp. 63-63]
The World Wars and the interbellum
World War I, the city was occupied, from 14 December 1916to 14 November 1918, by German forces, and many of the inhabitants took refuge in Moldaviaor in the country side. Buzău returned to Romanian administration at the end of the war.
After 1918, Buzău continued to develop, slowly becoming an industrial center. Also, a football team, named "Vârtejul" was created in 1921, and the first
boxingmatch in Buzău took place in 1931, when a sports newspaper was first printed.
The most important mayor of Buzău between the two world wars was
Stan Săraru, who erected in 1935 a modern food market, which nowadays is the most important market in the city and is named the "Stan Săraru market". He also started the construction of the Crâng Stadium, and a public bathhouseand paved the main streets with cobblestone[Petcu, pp. 75-77] .
An eagle, nicknamed "Ilie" by the locals and raised by a salesman who lived nearby was the railway station's
mascotbetween 1930 and 1943. Ilie came to the train station often, and ate out of people's hands. The eagle died during World War II, shot by Nazi soldiers. A beer brewed in Buzău was named "Vulturul" ("The eagle"), and a street in Buzău was named "Strada Vulturului" ("Eagle street") in his memory [Petcu, p. 74] .
was arrested in Bucharest and his pro-Nazi government overthrown. The Heroes' Cemetery, which lies in the western part of the city, is the burial ground of the Soviet, German, and Romanian soldiers who died at that time.
The communist period
After the war, when Romanian government was taken over by a
communistregime, Buzău lost its county seat status in 1952, being included in the Ploieşti Region. Then Buzău county was later reinstated in 1968.
All the factories in Buzău were nationalized and the central government in Bucharest ran a policy of building monotonous and drab blocks of flats. Consequently, some old neighborhoods in Buzău were demolished to make way for the new buildings. Before 1953, the residential areas were exclusively made up of houses, but many of them were razed to build blocks of flats. The process was slow at first, but between 1980 and 1988, all the houses on the main street of the city were demolished and blocks of flats were built. During that time, many historic buildings were destroyed, such as the "Moldavia" theater. Of the historic city center, only the "Cuza Vodă" street buildings escaped demolition. Also, in 1969, a residential area was built into the Crâng Park, reducing its size. This development was sometimes chaotic, as it happened in 1985, when the new "Unirii" Boulevard was rerouted by mayor Dochia who ordered that the foundations of some blocks that were being built be buried during one night and the street to run over the covered foundations. [Petcu, p. 94]
Forced industrialization took place during the communist regime, as the Buzău-South industrial platform was inaugurated in 1963. The location was chosen as to use some barren land and to have the local winds move the pollution away from the city.
However, some city improvements have also been made during this period. The "Tineretului" Park was built in the Eastern side of the city, with a sports hall and a swimming pool. [Petcu, p. 94] In 1981, a movie theater with 650 seats was open, and a major
hospitalwas built in 1971-1973. [Petcu, p. 90] In 1976, the city celebrated 1,600 years since its oldest historical attestation. To mark the event, an obelisk was erected in Crâng Park. In the same year, the "Dacia square", the city's main square located in front of the Communal Palace, was repaved, with white, red and grey Măgura marble, with patterns similar to those on traditional folk costumes from the Bisocaarea. [Petcu, p. 92]
Post-communism (1990-present day)
The process of demolition of homes was stopped after the fall of Communism in Romania, in late December 1989. The city's economy stagnated for some years, but Buzău slowly started to develop, as state-owned factories were privatized and some new industries emerged.
Work for construction of an orthodox cathedral, named the "St. Sava Cathedral" was started in 1991. In 1995, a theater was open again in Buzău, named "George Ciprian Theater".
During the Middle Ages, Buzău's economy was centered on trade, as this market town was a customs point, taking advantage of its position at the Carpathians' curvature, at a point where roads that linked
Wallachia, Moldaviaand Transylvaniamet.
As a consequence of the agricultural reform that took place during the reign of
Alexander John Cuzain 1897 and 1898, the Bulgarian gardeners rented some land that the state had taken over from the bishopric. They developed a distribution network for their products in Buzău, as well as in the nearby cities Braşov, Ploieştiand Râmnicu Sărat. Their activity became more successful after some of them took over ownership of their land after a second land reform in 1921. [Petcu, 2002, p. 134]
After the destruction period had ended, the economical development took on an industrial component. Towards the end of the 19th century, the development of the Romanian railway network, in which Buzău was an important hub, gave a strong momentum to the evolution from small workshops to full scale industrial plants. The first industrial facility was the "Garoflid" mill, open in 1883, which also functioned as a textile factory.Petcu, 2002, p. 135] In 1894, the "Saturn" society opened an
oilrefinery, which functioned for fifty years.
After a severe national-wide drop of the industrial production level, caused by
World War I(the 1919 total production was merely a quarter of the 1913 production), industrial development accelerated again during the interbellum. The baking industry was an important part of the local economy. The first industrial mill in the city, "Garoflid", renamed "Zangopol" after its new owned, managed to have a capital of 5 million lei in 1928, and 30 million lei in 1938, and the society that managed the mill had about 100 employees.Petcu, 2002, p. 136] Another important business that started at this time was the "Metalurgica şi Turnătorie – S.A." (Metalurgica and Metal Casting) factory, founded in 1928 with a capital of over 9 million lei. Although it had to overcom several difficulties at the beginning, being closed during the Great Crisis, it reopened in 1933.
World War II, the establishment of the Communist government, and the nationalization decision of 11 June 1948all companies in Buzău became state property. Also, the Communist government began implementing forced industrialization, some of the industries that developed in Buzău during the Communist rule being unsuitable for the location.Petcu, 2002, p. 137] In 1965 the industrial platform Buzău South was inaugurated, on 318 ha of land, in the area where the "Saturn" refinery previously had existed, before being blown up during World War II. The most important factories in Buzău, created or enhanced at this time, are located in the Buzău South industrial zone: "The Steel Wire and Steel Wire-by Products" (renamed "Ductil" after 1990), "The Railway Equipment Factory" (after 1990, "Apcarom"), "Metalurgica" (founded in 1928), "The Glass Factory".
Other industrial state enterprises opened in Buzău in other parts of the city. Thus, "The Contactors Factory" is located in the north-western part of the city and the plastic factory (after 1990, "Romcarbon S.A.") is located in the north side.
In spite of the forced industrialization process, Buzău was not based on solely one leading industry, as it happened in other Romanian cities, and there was no single factory on which the entire city economy depended. According to a new law of commercial societies, adopted 1990, after the fall of the Communist regime, the factories in the city reorganized as joint stock companies. Only some of the companies failed to become competitive on a
market economyand were closed during the transition process, many others, after reorganizing, became functional businesses.
The largest Buzău-based company is the "Romet"
holding, with Romanian capital, made up of several companies that produce isolation material for water and gas pipes, water purifiers, fire-extinguishers and other such products. The company became successful during the 1990s, by selling its "Aquator" water purifier. In 1999, this group acquired "Aromet S.A.", company which managed the "Metalurgica" factory, founded in 1928. [Petcu, p. 141]
Other companies in Buzău were privatized by programs supervised by the
World Bank. "Apcarom S.A.", the only Romanian producer of railway equipment,Petcu, 2002, p. 138] was taken over by the Austrian company VAE, and had, as of 2008a social capitalof 7.38 milloan lei [Cite web|url=http://www.standard.ro/articol_29999/vae_apcarom__afaceri_de_22_mil__euro_in_2007.html|title=VAE Apcarom, afaceri de 22 mil. euro in 2007|date= 14 February 2008|accessdate=2008-02-22|author=Senica Micu|publisher=Business Standard|language=Romanian] . "Ductil S.A." [http://www.ductil.ro/] , one of the largest businesses in Buzău, was privatized in 1999 and subsequently diveded by the new majority shareholder, "FRO Spa", which kept only the electrods and weldingequipment section and sold the other departments. The section that produces steel wire and steel wire products, steel nets and concrete became "Ductil Steel S.A." [http://www.ductilsteel.ro/mainRO.html] and is now part of the portfolio of the Italian company "Sidersipe" [Cite web|url=http://www.standard.ro/articol_6897/constructiile_sporesc_afacerile_ductil_steel.html|title=Constructiile sporesc afacerile Ductil Steel|date= 18 iulie2007|accessdate=2008-02-22|publisher=Business Standard|language=Romanian] . The iron powder section was renamed "Ductil Iron Powder". In 2007, "FRO Spa" sold their majority shares of "Ductil S.A." to the Russian "Mechel" company, for 90 million euros. [Cite web|title=Mechel bought Ductil Buzau for €90 mln|url=http://www.standard.ro/articol_14635/mechel_bought_ductil_buzau_for____90_mln.html|author=Ionuţ Giuşcă|publisher=Business Standard|date= 5 October 2007|accessdate=2008-02-22] "Zahărul S.A.", the local sugar producer, was acquired by the "Agrana România" Austrian capital group, which owns other sugar factories in Roman and Ţăndărei. [Cite web|url=http://www.standard.ro/articol_19162/change_of_management_at_agrana_factories.html|title=Change of management at Agrana factories|publisher=Business Standard|date= 15 November 2007|accessdate=2008-02-22|author=Viorela Pitulice]
The baking industry still plays an important role in the local economy. The largest producer on this market in Buzău is "Boromir Prod", whose majority shareholder is the "Boromir Ind" group of
Râmnicu Vâlcea. [Cite web|url=http://www.standard.ro/articol_2684/boromir_prod_vrea_sa_si_majoreze_capitalul.html|title=Boromir Prod vrea sa-si majoreze capitalul|date= 12 June 2007|accessdate=2008-02-22|author=Otilia Caloian|publisher=Business Standard|language=Romanian]
Buzău is an important railway hub, connecting
Bucharestand Ploieştito Focşani, Galaţiand Constanţa. The city railway station was inaugurated in 1872, together with the Bucharest-Galaţi railroad.
A branch of that railroad, running from Buzău to
Mărăşeştiwas open a few years later, on 13 June 1881[ [http://www.cfr.ro/jf/romana/0111/buzau.htm History of the Buzău-Mărăşeşti line] , on the CFR web site] , becoming the first railroad designed by Romanian engineers.
The "Buzău-Nehoiaşu" commuter railway line, open in 1908, links Buzău to most communes on the
Buzău Rivervalley, including the towns of Nehoiuand Pătârlagele.
Buzău is reachable by road via
DN2(E85) from Bucharestand the main cities from Moldavia. DN1Bconnects Buzău to Ploieşti and DN10crosses the Carpathian Mountains at their curvature through the Buzău Passto Braşov. Galaţi and Brăilacan be reached via DN2B.
Two inter-city bus stations, one located in the north of the city, the other in the south, near the railway station, are in use for private passenger transport companies who provide coach connections to other cities or run commuter lines with nearby communes.
The closest airport to Buzău is
Henri Coandă International Airport, in Otopeni, 110 km away.
Buzău's public transportation includes 10 regular bus lines, connecting the residential areas to the main industrial zones (including the Buzău Sud platform), city center and railway station. Several taxi companies are licensed and operate throughout the city and the nearby communes.
The mayor of Buzău is Constantin Boşcodeală (since 1996).
The local council is made up of 25 councillors, and has the following party composition:
Education and culture
The first school in Buzău was the school for church and icon painters, opened by Chesarie, the bishop of Buzău. The school functioned at the bishopric of Buzău, and was managed by
Nicolae Teodorescu. Gheorghe Tattarescustarted learning painting here.
The city's most important educational landmark is the "Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu" National College, attended by the Nobel prize winner
George Emil Paladein his youth. The "Hasdeu" high school was inaugurated in 1867.
The city's public library was opened in 1893, under the name of "
Carol IPublic Library". Later it took the name of Vasile Voiculescu, Buzău's most prominent author, writer, and poet.
The "George Ciprian" stage theatre was created in 1996. It does not have an acting crew of its own, relying on contracts. Its first manager was playwright
The first university in the city was the Economic University College, inaugurated in 1992, a branch of the
Academy of Economic Studiesin Bucharest.
The main museum in Buzău is the "Buzău County Museum", which exhibits items related to the region's history. The same museum oversees the
ethnographyexhibition at the Vergu-Mănăilă House, as well as the " AmberMuseum" in Colţiand the "Vasile Voiculescu Memorial House" in Pârscov.
Vasile Voiculescu, poet, writer, playwright
Vasile Cârlova, poet
Alexandru Marghiloman, statesman, Prime Minister of Romania
George Ciprian, actor, playwright
Mihaela Runceanu, pop singer
Ion Băieşu, playwright
Constantin C. Giurescu, historian
Paul Ioachim, Actor, playwright
Cristea Mateescu, engineer, member of the Romanian Academy
Radu G. Vlădescu, professor at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Agronomical Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Bucharest, member of the Romanian Academyand corespondent member of the French Academy
Mihai Florea, publicist, theater historian, script writer for radio and TV programs, TV presenter.
Romulus Bucuroiu, gymnast.
Ştefan Guşă, Romanian Army general
Oudenaarde, Belgium, since 1999
Agios Dimitrios, Greece, since 2006
*cite book | first=Gheorghe | last=Petcu|coauthors=Constantin Stan, Doina Ciobanu, Constanţa Tănase, Doina Filoti | title = Municipiul Buzău. Monografie | location = Buzău | publisher = Editura Alpha| year = 2002|language=Romanian | isbn = 73-8054-59-1
*cite book | first=Corneliu | last=Ştefan | title = La noapte, Cotidianul | location = Bucharest | publisher = Editura Eminescu| year = 1985|language=Romanian
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