- Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
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Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam Secretary-General K Anbazhagan Leader in Lok Sabha T. R. Baalu Founded 1949 Headquarters Anna Arivalayam, Anna Salai, Chennai – 600018 Newspaper Murasoli & The Rising Sun Labour wing Labour Progressive Federation Ideology Social Democratic
Political position Centre Alliance National Democratic Alliance (1999–2004)
United Progressive Alliance (2004–present)
Seats in Lok Sabha Seats in Rajya Sabha Election symbol Website http://www.dmk.in Politics of India
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (Tamil: திராவிட முன்னேற்ற கழகம்) (literally "Dravidian Progress Federation" ) (founded 1949, Madras Presidency, India) is a state political party in the states of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, India. It is a Dravidian party founded by C. N. Annadurai as a breakaway faction from the Dravidar Kazhagam (known as Justice Party till 1944) headed by Periyar. Since 1969, DMK is headed by M Karunanidhi, the prior Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. DMK holds the distinction of being the first party other than the Indian National Congress to win state-level elections with clear majority on its own in any state in India.
DMK traces its roots to the South Indian Liberal Federation (Justice Party) formed in 1916, by P. Thiyagarayar, Dr. P.T. Rajan, Dr. Natesanar and few others. The Justice Party, whose objectives included social equality and justice, came to power in the first General Elections to Madras Presidency in 1920. E. V. Ramasami Naicker, a popular Tamil leader of the time, who had joined Indian National Congress in 1919, to oppose what he considered as the Brahminic leadership of the party. Naicker's experience at the Vaikom Satyagraha made him to start the Self-Respect Movement in 1926 which was rationalistic and "violently anti-Brahminic". He quit Congress and in 1935, he joined the Justice Party. In the 1937 elections, the Justice Party lost and the Indian National Congress under C. Rajagopalachari ("Rajaji") came to power in Madras Presidency. Rajaji's introduction of Hindi as a compulsory subject in schools led to the anti-Hindi agitations, led by Periyar and his associates.
In August 1944, Periyar created the 'Dravida Kazhagham' out of the Justice Party and the Self-Respect Movement at the Salem Provincial Conference. Dravidar Kazhagam insisted on an independent nation for Dravidians called Dravida Nadu consisting of areas that were covered under Madras Presidency.
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Over the years, many disputes arose between Periyar and his followers. In 1949, several of his followers led by C. N. Annadurai, decided to split from Dravidar Kazhagham, after an aged Periyar married a young woman Maniammai and anointed his young wife to act as his successor to lead the party, superseding senior party leaders. Until then E. V. K. Sampath, the nephew of Periyar, was considered as his political heir.
Annadurai, on 17 September 1949 along with V. R. Nedunchezhiyan, K.A. Mathiazhagan, K. Anbazhagan, N.V. Natarajan, E. V. K. Sampath and thousands of others in Robinson park in Royapuram in Chennai announced the formation of the DMK.
In 1953, actor M. G. Ramachandran ("MGR") joined the DMK, popularised the party flag and symbol which at that time stood for secession from India by showing it in his movies. MGR was a member of the DMK, and he was seen as an icon of the DMK and spread its message through films like Anbe Vaa. DMK entered the electoral fray rather unsuccessfully in 1957 with even senior leader V. R. Nedunchezhiyan losing from Salem although M Karunanidhi won after initially having opposed all-Indian government and later supporting only those parties which promised to help its secession from India cause.
Annadurai wanted a separate Dravida Nadu but the DMK changed its stance with the Chinese invasion in 1962 and suspended its demand for the length of the war and supported India raising funds for the war. When the war ended, nationalistic feelings were so strong that DMK gave up the separate Dravida nation idea.
The Anti-Hindi agitations of 1965 forced the central government to abandon its efforts to impose Hindi as the only official language of the country; still Hindi imposition continued as Indian government employees are asked to write as much as 65% of the letters and memoranda in Hindi.
In 1967, DMK came to power in Madras province 18 years after its formation and 10 years after it had first entered electoral politics. This began the Dravidian era in Madras province which later became Tamil Nadu.
In 1969, party general secretary and founder, CN Annadurai died. After his death, there came the power tussle between M Karunanidhi and V. R. Nedunchezhiyan. Most of the elected MLAs of DMK, including leaders like Mathialagan, Nanjil Manoharan and the celluloid hero MGR favoured Karunanidhi as CM in preference to Nedunchezhiyan, the Senior leader after Anna. To pacify V. R. Nedunchezhiyan a new post called party president was created for M Karunanidhi and V. R. Nedunchezhiyan was the post of general secretary . MGR was appointed as the Treasurer of the Party.
During the Indian President election, there was divided opinion between the leaders of Indian National Congress. Though the party nominated Dr.Sanjiva Reddy as the Official Candidate, the then Prime Minister, Mrs.Indira Gandhi had suddenly switched her allegiance to Dr.V.V.Giri, the Opposition-sponsored Candidate. She had also advised all party elected members to vote according to their conscience. Dr.V.V.Giri was elected as the President of India with the support of Mrs.Indira Gandhi. This has resulted in the split of Congress Party and in October 1969. Senior Leaders like Morarji Desai, Athulya Ghosh, Kamarajar, S K Patil and Nijalingappa on the one side as Congress (Organisation) and Indira Gandhi, Shankar Dayal Sharma, Jagjivan Ram, C Subramaniam on the Other Side as Congress (Indira). The DMK, led by Mr.Karunanidhi took a stance to support Mrs.Indira Gandhi in certain reforms like abolition of privy purse, nationalisation of Banks.
In 1971 election, the DMK fought in alliance with Congress (Indira)and the Opposition alliance which consisted of the two Senior National Leaders, Rajaji and Kamarajar was termed as a strong alliance and was widely supported by Media to re-capture power in Tamil Nadu. However, the DMK emerged victorious with a vast majority of 183 seats out of 234. The Opposition Grand alliance could capture only 25 seats.
M. G. Ramachandran (MGR) who was a popular actor and the then party treasurer had played a vital part in popularizing the party's ideologies. The political feud between MGR and the party president Karunanidhi emerged as an aftermath of the latter calling himself "Mujib of Tamil Nadu". In 1972, MGR called for a boycott of the party's General Council. With the crisis falling into call for corruption probe by MGR, he was eventually suspended from the General Council. Thus emerged a new party All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK).
In April 1974, the DMK government brought in a resolution in the House urging the Centre to accept the Rajamannar Committee recommendations on state autonomy and amend the Constitution of India to pave the way for a true federal system.
In 1977, DMK lost the Assembly elections to MGR's AIADMK, and stayed out of power in the state till 1989. After MGR's death in December 1987, AIADMK split into two factions between Janaki (MGR's wife) and Jayalalithaa. DMK returned to power in 1989 State assembly elections and Karunanidhi took over as chief minister in January 1989. Subsequent to this, the LTTE "sent personal emissaries to Karunanidhi for seeking his active support in their battle against the IPKF".
Then in 1991 elections are arranged to be held for both State and Central government. In 21 May 1991 Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in Sriperumbudur, near Chennai in an election campaign meeting. It was later found the he has been killed by suicide bomber from LTTE, citing IPKF atrocities  in Srilanka as a reason.
This led to a sympathy wave in favor of AIADMK–Congress alliance and the DMK was deprived of any seats in the Parliament. This brought about the rise of a new political rival J.Jayalalithaa for the DMK. The AIADMK won the 1991 state Assembly elections and Jayalalithaa took over as the new Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu.
In the 1996 state elections, DMK came to power on strength of corruption charges against J.Jayalalithaa and the alliance with Tamil Maanila Congress (TMC), headed by G.K. Moopanar and supported by cine actor Rajinikanth. However, in 2001, the AIADMK, on strength of a strong alliance and the incumbency factor against DMK, came back to power in the state assembly elections.
In the 2004 parliamentary elections, DMK formed an alliance with Congress and the Pattali Makkal Katchi (PMK) and swept a grand Victory, the alliance winning all 40 seats including Puducherry. This enabled 7 ministerial posts in the Central government and influential power to DMK.
Two years later in 2006, the same alliance won in the state assembly elections and the DMK, for the first time formed a minority government in the state with help from Congress. Mr. M Karunanidhi become the Chief Minister of the State for the fifth time. The DMK-Congress alliance was also successful in the 2009 parliamentary elections, securing a majority of the Lok Sabha seats.
Post 2009, the party was mired in a series of corruption charges linked to its telecom ministers in Parliament, including the 2G Spectrum scam. In the Tamil Nadu legislative assembly election, 2011, the party lost power to the AIADMK-DMDK alliance and J.Jayalalithaa once again took over as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu on May 2011. Fledgling party Desiya Murpokku Dravidar Kazhagam (DMDK), presided by cine actor Vijayakanth became the main opposition party in the state, pushing DMK to third place.
The party's election symbol is the sun arising from between two mountains, called the Rising Sun.
See pdf for summary. DMK's worst poll performance ever in this state was registered in 1991 and its peak in 1971.
Year General Election Votes Polled Seats Won 1962 3rd Assembly 3,435,633 50 1967 4th Assembly 6,230,552 137 Year General Election Votes Polled Seats Won 1962 3rd Lok Sabha 2,315,610 7 1967 4th Lok Sabha 5,524,514 25
Year Election Votes Polled Seats Won Alliance(s) 1971 5th Assembly 7,654,935 184 INC(I)/CPI/AIFB/PSP/IUML 1977 6th Assembly 4,258,771 48 None 1980 7th Assembly 4,164,389 37 INC(I) 1984 8th Assembly 6,362,770 24 CPI/CPM]/JP 1989 9th Assembly 8,001,222 150 None 1991 10th Assembly 5,535,668 2 TMK/CPI/CPM]/JD 1996 11th Assembly 11,423,380 173 TMC 2001 12th Assembly 8,669,864 31 NDA 2006 13th Assembly 8,728,716 96 DPA (UPA, LF) 2011 14th Assembly TBA 23 INC/PMK/VCK/IUML/KMK Year Election Votes Polled Seats Won Alliance(s) 1971 5th Lok Sabha 5,622,758 23 INC(I) 1977 6th Lok Sabha 3,323,320 2 JP 1980 7th Lok Sabha 4,236,537 16 INC(I) 1984 8th Lok Sabha 5,597,507 2 CPI/CPM]/JP/TNC 1989 9th Lok Sabha 7,038,849 0 CPI/CPM]/JD 1991 10th Lok Sabha 5,601,597 0 NF 1996 11th Lok Sabha 6,967,679 17 UF 1998 12th Lok Sabha 5,140,266 5 UF 1999 13th Lok Sabha 6,298,832 12 NDA 2004 14th Lok Sabha 7,064,393 16 DPA (UPA, LF) 2009 15th Lok Sabha 7,625,397 18 UPA
Year Election Votes Polled Seats Won 1974 3rd Assembly 47,823 2 1977 4th Assembly 30,441 3 1980 5th Assembly 68,030 14 1985 6th Assembly 87,754 5 1990 7th Assembly 101,127 9 1991 8th Assembly 96,607 4 1996 9th Assembly 105,392 7 2001 10th Assembly 83,679 7 2006 11th Assembly 7 Year Election Votes Polled Seats Won 1984 8th Lok Sabha 97,672 0 1989 9th Lok Sabha 157,250 0 1991 10th Lok Sabha 140,313 0 1996 11th Lok Sabha 183,702 0 1998 12th Lok Sabha 168,122 1
- ^ http://news.outlookindia.com/item.aspx?671797
- ^ Rao, MSA (1979) Urban Sociology in India Orient Longman Publishers.
- ^ Chakrabarty, Bidyut (2008). Indian Politics and Society Since Independence. Routledge. pp. 110–111. ISBN 0415408687. http://books.google.com/?id=QzQHZ178C24C.
- ^ Radhan, O.P. (2002). "A Time-Bound Plan for Muslim India". Encyclopaedia of Political Parties. Anmol Publications. pp. 187. ISBN 8174888659.
- ^ Omvedt, Gail (2006). Dalit Visions: The Anti-caste Movement and the Construction on an Indian Identity. Orient Longman. pp. 54–55. ISBN 8125028951.
- ^ "Ethnic balance". India Today. 20 December 2007. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&issueid=2138&id=2714§ionid=30&Itemid=1. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- ^ Dirks, Nicholas B. (2001). Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India. Princeton University Press. pp. 263. ISBN 978-0691088952.
- ^ Priest-less weddings in TN VIP families – Sify News
- ^ Robert L. Hardgrave, Jr.(1973) Politics and the Film in Tamilnadu: The Stars and the DMK. Asian Survey. University of California Press.
- ^ "Jain commission interim report indicts FM, ex-Prime Minister". Indian Express. 9 November 1997. http://www.expressindia.com/news/fe/daily/19971109/31355243.html. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
- ^ IPKF ATROCITIES http://pallavaram-ravi.blogspot.com/2009/03/monday-december-22-2008-touching-moment.html
- The official party website
- Election reports by EC
- Manisegaran on Dravida Movement
- Dravida Munnetra Kalagam at wordpress.com
Dravidian political parties Related topics ForerunnersList of Dravidian parties Defunct parties Current partiesChief Ministers from Dravidian parties Madras Presidency Tamil Nadu
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