Belém


Belém

Infobox City
name = Belém
settlement_type = Municipality
official_name = The Municipality of
Belém do Pará
nickname = "Cidade das Mangueiras" ("City of Mango Trees")
motto = Os Estados do Norte estão conosco e nos seguem (Northern states are for us and follow us)



imagesize = 250px
image_caption = Belém in the morning


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mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Location of Belém in the

subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = Region
subdivision_type2 = State
subdivision_name = flag|Brazil
subdivision_name1 = North
subdivision_name2 =
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Duciomar Costa (PTB)
leader_title1 =
leader_name1 =
leader_title2 =
leader_name2 =
leader_title3 =
leader_name3 =
established_title = Founded
established_date = January 12, 1616
established_title2 =
established_date2 =
established_title3 =
established_date3 =
area_magnitude =
area_total_km2 = 1070
area_total_sq_mi =
area_land_km2 =
area_land_sq_mi =
area_water_km2 =
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area_water_percent =
area_urban_km2 =
area_urban_sq_mi =
area_metro_km2 =
area_metro_sq_mi =
population_as_of = 2007
population_note =
population_total = 1,408,847
population_density_km2 = 1322
population_density_sq_mi =
population_metro =
population_density_metro_km2 =
population_density_metro_sq_mi =
population_urban =
timezone =
utc_offset = 3
timezone_DST =
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latd= |latm= |lats= |latNS=
longd= |longm= |longs= |longEW=
elevation_m = 10
elevation_ft =
postal_code_type =
postal_code =
blank_name = HDI (2000)
blank_info = 0.806 – high
website = [http://www.belem.pa.gov.br Belém, Pará]

Belém is city of Amazonia, in the northern part of Brazil. It is the capital of the state of Pará. It is the entrance gate and, together with Manaus, Belém, is one of Brazil's busiest ports - about 60 miles upriver from the Atlantic Ocean. The river is the Pará, part of the greater Amazon River system, separated from the larger part of the Amazon delta by Ilha de Marajó (Marajo Island). Belém is built on a number of small islands intersected by channels and other rivers. [ [http://www.planetware.com/brazil/belem-bra-pa-b.htm Belem, Brazil ] ]

Founded in 1616, Belém was the first European colony on the Amazon but didn't become part of the Brazilian nation until 1775. Its metropolitan area has approximately 2.09 million inhabitants. It is also known as Metropolis of the Brazilian Amazon region or "Cidade das Mangueiras" (city of mango trees) due to the number of those trees found in the city. The newer part of the city has modern buildings and skyscrapers. The colonial portion retains the charm of tree-filled squares, churches and traditional blue tiles. Belém is served by the Val de Cães International Airport (BEL) that connects the city to the rest of the country and other cities in South America. Brazilians often refer to the city as Belém do Pará ("Belém of Pará") rather than just "Belém" so as to differentiate it from Bethlehem in Palestine.

Belém is a rainy and hot city. Humidity is very high. The climate is equatorial which means there is little variance from day to day. The wettest months are between January and May. [ [http://gosouthamerica.about.com/cs/southamerica/a/BraBelem.htm Belem, Brazil ] ]

The city is home to the Federal University of Pará. The city has a rich history and architecture from colonial times, a natural rubber boom, World War II, 1960-70s Amazonic rediscovery and, recently, a skyscraper boom.

History

The city was founded on January 12, 1616 by Captain Francisco Caldeiras de Castelo Branco, who was sent by the Portuguese crown to defend the region against French, Dutch and British colonisation attempts. For this purpose, he built a fortress called "Forte do Presépio" (currently called "Forte do Castelo"). Initially, the city was named "Feliz Lusitânia". Later it was renamed to "Santa Maria do Grão Pará" as well as "Santa Maria de Belém do Grão Pará", finally receiving its current name "Belém".

Remote from the rest of the county and strongly linked to Portugal, Belém accepted Brazil's independence only in August 1823, nearly one year after its declaration.

In 1720, the city was made the seat of the Diocese of Belém do Pará. In 1835 it was a town of about 13,000, and extended on a grid pattern for a mere eight or nine blocks from the banks of the Pará River. A small hill overlooking the main harbour was topped by a colonial Portuguese fort and shore batteries. Between 1835 and 1840 Belém witnessed the "Revolta dos Cabanos" also known as the "Cabanagem", a revolt considered to have had the most authentic popular participation in the country's history. Due to the growing importance of rubber ("Hevea brasiliensis") from the end of the 19th until the beginning of the 20th century, Belém became a very important marketplace. During this period many important buildings were constructed, such as "Palácio Lauro Sodré", "Colégio Gentil Bitencourt", "Teatro da Paz", "Palácio Antônio Lemos" and the "Ver-o-Peso" market. The "Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi" in Belém was renovated at this time also, although it had been founded in 1866. Snakes -- including one convert|10|ft|m|sing=on anaconda -- are increasingly invading Belém, driven from the rain forest by destruction of their natural habitat, the government's environmental protection agency said March 11 2008. [http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/americas/03/11/brazil.snakes.ap/index.html]

Geography

1° 27' south, 48° 29' west. As of 2004, the population is 1.421 million, which makes Belém the 10th largest city in Brazil. The metropolitan region's population is approximately 2.100.000, making it the tenth largest metropolitan region in Brazil. The southern channel of mouth of the Amazon lies just to the north of the city, as does the Island of Marajó.

Climate

An equatorial climate is a type of tropical climate in which there is no dry season. All months have mean precipitation values of at least 60 mm. It is usually found at latitudes within five degrees of the equator – which are dominated by the Intertropical Convergence Zone. is the natural vegetation in equatorial regions.

Vegetation

The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests and comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world. Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, and tropical forests in the Americas are consistently more species rich than the wet forests in Africa and Asia.Turner, I.M. 2001. "The ecology of trees in the tropical rain forest". Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-80183-4] As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity. More than 1/3 of all species in the world live in the Amazon Rainforest. [ [http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildplaces/amazon/index.cfm Amazon Rainforest, Amazon Plants, Amazon River Animals] ] The largest biodiversity of the planet is present across the State of Amazonas.

Tourism and recreation

Among Belém's main tourist attractions are:

Bioparque Amazonia ZOO

[http://www.bioparqueamazonia.com.br]

Rodrigues Alves Wood–Botanic Garden

Inspired by the "Bois de Boulogne" Park in Paris), the Rodrigues Alves Wood is a little piece of Amazonia preserved in the middle of the city. Comprising of 16 hectares, in the ample Avenida Almirante Barroso – one of the city’s busiest thoroughfares – having 2.500 native species, an orchidary, lakes, caverns, waterfalls and even a replica mountain. There you can see small animals characteristic to the region, such as squirrel monkeys agoutis and macaws.

The Estação das Docas Complex

The Estação das Docas Complex reopened the windows of Belém to Guajará Bay. The restoration project covers the area of old warehouses of the Pará Docks Company. Constructed from prefabricated metal structures in England and that were built at the beginning of the twentieth Century in Belém. There are 18 thousand square meters of urbanised area, with coffee bar services, various restaurants, stores, travel agencies, banks, in addition to an auditorium and two memorials: The Porto Memorial and the Fortaleza de São Pedro Nolasco Memorial There is, also, a fluvial station and extensive external area.

Mercado Ver-o-Peso (Check-the-weight Market)

Created in 1688, as a result of the Portuguese deciding to levy a tax for everything entering and leaving Amazonia. Despite resembling a large retailer, the mixture of colours, fragrances and objects is very interesting as well as folkloric. Medicinal herbs, various regional fruits, arts and crafts, domestic utilities, meats, fish and seasonings and spices can be found there. The Market brings together two thousand stalls and traders in every part and is located near to the old Mercado de Ferro (Iron market), on the quays.

Education

Portuguese is the official language of schools. English and Spanish are also part of the official high school curriculum, but most citizens only speak them limitedly.

Educational institutions

* [http://www.ufpa.br/ Universidade Federal do Pará] (UFPA);
* Universidade do Estado do Pará (UEPA);
* Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia (UFRA);
* Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica do Pará (CEFET/PA);
* and many others.

Primary and secondary schools

*Centro de Serviços Educacionais do Pará - CESEP - Private;
*Colégio Nossa Senhora do Carmo - Private;
*Escola de Aplicação da Universidade Federal da Pará [http://www.escoladeaplicacao.ufpa.br] - EA-UFPA - Public;
*Grupo Educacional Ideal - GEI - Private;
*Colégio Gentil Bittencourt - Private
*Colégio Impacto - Private;
*Colégio Marista Nossa Senhora de Nazaré - Private;
*Colégio Madre Celeste - Private;
*Colégio Moderno - Private;
*Colégio Sophos - Private;
*Colégio Santo Antônio - Private;
*Colégio Santa Catarina de Sena - Private;
*Colégio Santa Rosa - Private;
*Colégio Acrópole - Private;
*Colégio Teorema - Private;
*Instituto Dom Bosco - Private;
*Instituto Adventista Grão Pará - IAGP - Private;
*Instituto Catarina Labouré - Private;
*Colégio Estadual Paes de Carvalho - Public;
*Escola de Ensino Fundamental e Médio "Tenente Rêgo Barros" - Public/Military School;
*Instituto de Educação do Pará - IEP;
*Sistema de Ensino Universo - Private.
*Maria Luiza da Costa Rêgo (Bengui) - Public.

Culture

Círio de Nazaré

The biggest feast in Pará State happens there, Círio de Nazaré (Nazareth Taper). Festivities start on the second Sunday in the month of October and pay homage to Our Lady of Nazareth, patron saint of the State. Organised since 1793, at present it gathers around 1,5 million of followers, who go on a procession through the city on a huge suite to the Nazaré Basilica, where the image is honored. Círio de Nazaré is like Christmas for Paraenses, and special foods such as Maniçoba and Pato no Tucupi are eaten on this occasion.

Indigenous communities

Besides all the natural wealth, the State of Pará also shelters a valuable cultural treasure, about 40 indigenous groups, scattered through and area of over 23 million hectares. Of these, more than eight million have been delimited by Funai (National Foundation of the Indian), ensuring security and preservation of that space. Among the biggest indigenous communities there are the Andira Marau, Munduruku and the Kayapó.

Carnival

The four-day period before Lent leading up to Ash Wednesday is carnival time in Brazil. Rich and poor alike forget their cares as they party in the streets.

Infrastructure

International airport

Since 2001, Belém International Airport has been an example of the standard Infraero implements at its airports. Standing out in the midst of the Amazon vastness, the building design uses plane curves on its roof to permit light to enter its entire large terminal hall. The architect Sérgio Parada used his creativity to adopt multiple-use totems integrated with light projectors, a sound system, air conditioning and public telephones. Currently Belém International Airport serves demand of 2.7 million passengers a year in a constructed area of 33,255.17 square meters. Traditionally called Val-de-Cans Airport, it is responsible for increasing tourism in the region, as well as for the outflow of products and attracting new investments. The passenger terminal is fully air conditioned on two levels and has futuristic architecture, designed to take advantage of natural lighting. People with special needs have individualized service with own equipment at specific locations to facilitate their circulation. The terminal’s interior is decorated with plants native to the Amazon region and is enclosed by a source able to imitate the sound of the rains that fall every day in the region.

Highways

Main access to Belém is through the BR-153 motorway, better known as the Belém-Brasília motorway, and from BR-316, coming from northeast Brazil.

*Distances
*Manaus: 96 hours by boat or ferry;
*Marabá: 353 miles (568 km);
*Altamira: 483 miles (777 km);
*São Luís: 499 miles (803 km);
*Teresina: 566 miles (911 km);
*Brasília: 1.326 miles (2,134 km);
*São Paulo: 1.844 miles (2,967 km);
*Rio de Janeiro: 2.017 miles (3,246 km).

Port

Port of Belém has restaurants, art galleries, a small beer factory, ice-cream shops, artisanship stands, regional food kiosks, coffee houses, a space for fairs and events, a theatre for 400 spectators and a touristic harbour.

ister City

*flagicon|Martinique Fort-de-France, Martinique

References

External links

* [http://www.webbusca.com.br/pagam/guia_belem.htm Belém Yellow Pages (in Portuguese)]
* [http://www.flickr.com/groups/belem Pictures from Belém]

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Belém (PA) — Belém Pour les articles homonymes, voir Belém (homonymie). 1° 27′ 21″ S 48° 30′ 14″ W …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Bélem — Belém Pour les articles homonymes, voir Belém (homonymie). 1° 27′ 21″ S 48° 30′ 14″ W …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Belem — steht für: Belem (Schiff), ein französischer Windjammer Belém (der portugiesische Name von Betlehem) ist der Name folgender Orte: Belém (Alagoas), Gemeinde in Brasilien Belém (Pará), die Landeshauptstadt des brasilianischen Bundesstaates Pará… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • BELÉM — Ville du Brésil, capitale de l’État de Pará, Belém a eu au XXe siècle une croissance accélérée: elle, qui ne comptait que 96 000 habitants en 1900 et 200 000 en 1940, avait 400 000 habitants en 1960, 642 000 en 1970, 756 000 en 1980 et 1 246 000… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Belém — Belem steht für: Belem (Schiff), ein französischer Windjammer Belém (der portugiesische Name von Betlehem) ist der Name folgender Orte: Belém (Brasilien), die Landeshauptstadt des brasilianischen Bundesstaates Pará Belém (Paraíba), eine Stadt im… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Belem — can refer to: *The Belem (ship) , a three masted barque from France *Belem Vitor, Portuguese plastic artist.Belém is the Portuguese word for Bethlehem. This spelling may refer to: * Belém, capital city of the Brazilian state of Pará * Belém,… …   Wikipedia

  • Belém —   [be lɛ̃j],    1) westlicher Vorort von Lissabon, Portugal. Weltberühmt ist das Hieronymitenkloster (wahrscheinlich um 1502 72), ein Hauptwerk des Emanuelstils (nach Entwürfen von D. Boytac, 1517 22 unter Leitung von J. de Castilho erbaut) mit… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Belém — es la capital del estado brasileño de Pará. * * * C. de Portugal, agregada a Lisboa. C. de Brasil, cap. del estado de Pará, en el delta del Amazonas; 1 235 625 h. Gran puerto fluvial. * * * Ciudad (pob., est. 2000: área metrop., 1.271.615 hab.)… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Belem — Belem, 1) Stadt u. Hauptort der brasilianischen Provinz Para, Sitz des Statthalters u. eines Bischofs, eines Seminars u. Collegiums; Handel mit Kaffee, Gummi etc.; 10,000 Ew.; 2) Stadttheil Lissabons, hat seinen Namen von der Kirche Nossa Senhora …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Belém — (spr. bĕläng), 1) Vorstadt von Lissabon (s. d.). – 2) B., vollständig Nossa Senhora de B., offizieller Name für die Hauptstadt des brasil. Staates Para (s. d.) …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Belem — (spr. läng), Vorstadt von Lissabon. – B., Stadt in Brasilien, s. Pará …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon


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