Mihail Kogălniceanu


Mihail Kogălniceanu
Mihail Kogălniceanu
Prime Minister of Romania
In office
October 11, 1863 – January 26, 1865
Preceded by Nicolae Kretzulescu
Succeeded by Nicolae Kretzulescu
Foreign Affairs Minister of Romania
In office
April 27, 1876 – July 23, 1876
April 3, 1877 – November 24, 1878
Preceded by Dimitrie Cornea
Nicolae Ionescu
Succeeded by Nicolae Ionescu
Ion C. Câmpineanu
Internal Affairs Minister of Romania
In office
October 11, 1863 – January 26, 1865
November 16, 1868 – January 24, 1870
November 17, 1878 – November 25, 1878
July 11, 1879 – April 17, 1880
Preceded by Nicolae Kretzulescu
Anton I. Arion
C. A. Rosetti
Ion Brătianu
Succeeded by Constantin Bosianu
Dimitrie Ghica
Ion Brătianu
Ion Brătianu
Personal details
Born September 6, 1817(1817-09-06)
Iaşi, Moldavia
Died July 1, 1891(1891-07-01) (aged 73)
Paris, France
Nationality Moldavian, Romanian
Political party National Liberal Party
Spouse(s) Ecaterina Jora
Profession Historian, journalist, literary critic
Religion Romanian Orthodox
Signature

Mihail Kogălniceanu (Romanian pronunciation: [mihaˈil koɡəlniˈt͡ʃe̯anu]; also known as Mihail Cogâlniceanu, Michel de Kogalnitchan; September 6, 1817 – July 1, 1891) was a Moldavian-born Romanian liberal statesman, lawyer, historian and publicist; he became Prime Minister of Romania October 11, 1863, after the 1859 union of the Danubian Principalities under Domnitor Alexander John Cuza, and later served as Foreign Minister under Carol I. He was several times Interior Minister under Cuza and Carol. A polymath, Kogălniceanu was one of the most influential Romanian intellectuals of his generation. Siding with the moderate liberal current for most of his lifetime, he began his political career as a collaborator of Prince Mihail Sturdza, while serving as head of the Iaşi Theater and issuing several publications together with the poet Vasile Alecsandri and the activist Ion Ghica. After editing the highly influential magazine Dacia Literară and serving as a professor at Academia Mihăileană, Kogălniceanu came into conflict with the authorities over his Romantic nationalist inaugural speech of 1843. He was the ideologue of the abortive 1848 Moldavian revolution, authoring its main document, Dorinţele partidei naţionale din Moldova.

Following the Crimean War, with Prince Grigore Alexandru Ghica, Kogălniceanu was responsible for drafting legislation to abolish Roma slavery. Together with Alecsandri, he edited the unionist magazine Steaua Dunării, played a prominent part during the elections for the ad-hoc Divan, and successfully promoted Cuza, his lifelong friend, to the throne. Kogălniceanu advanced legislation to revoke traditional ranks and titles, and to secularize the property of monasteries. His efforts at land reform resulted in a censure vote, leading Cuza to enforce them through a coup d'état in May 1864. However, Kogălniceanu resigned in 1865, following his own conflicts with the monarch. A decade after, he helped create the National Liberal Party, before playing an important part in Romania's decision to enter the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878—a choice which consecrated her independence. During his final years, he was a prominent member and one-time President of the Romanian Academy, and briefly served as Romanian representative to France.

Contents

Biography

Early life

Born in Iaşi, he belonged to the Kogălniceanu family of Moldavian boyars, being the son of Vornic Ilie Kogălniceanu, and the great-grandson of Constantin Kogălniceanu (noted for having signed his name to a 1749 document issued by Prince Constantine Mavrocordatos, through which serfdom was disestablished in Moldavia).[1] Mihail's mother, Catinca née Stavilla (or Stavillă), was, according to Kogălniceanu's own words, "[from] a Romanian family in Bessarabia".[2] The author took pride in noting that "my family has never searched its origins in foreign countries or peoples".[2] Nevetheless, in a speech he gave shortly before his death, Kogălniceanu commented that Catinca Stavilla had been the descendant of "a Genoese family, settled for centuries in the Genoese colony of Cetatea Albă (Akerman), whence it then scattered throughout Bessarabia".[3]

During Milhail Kogălniceanu's lifetime, there was confusion regarding his exact birth year, with several sources erroneously indicating it as 1806; in his speech to the Romanian Academy, he acknowledged this, and gave his exact birth date as present in a register kept by his father.[3] It was also then that he mentioned his godmother was Marghioala Calimach, a Callimachi boyaress who married into the Sturdza family, and was the mother of Mihail Sturdza (Kogălniceanu's would-be protector and foe).[3]

Kogălniceanu was educated at Trei Ierarhi monastery in Iaşi, before being tutored by Gherman Vida, a monk who belonged to the Transylvanian School, and who was an associate of Gheorghe Şincai.[4] He completed his primary education in Miroslava, where he attended the Cuénim boarding school.[5] It was during this early period that he first met the poet Vasile Alecsandri (they studied under both Vida and Cuénim), Costache Negri and Cuza.[6] At the time, Kogălniceanu became a passionate student of history, beginning his investigations into old Moldavian chronicles.[7]

With support from Prince Sturdza, Kogălniceanu continued his studies abroad, originally in the French city of Lunéville (where he was cared for by Sturdza's former tutor, the abbé Lhommé), and later at the University of Berlin.[8] Among his colleagues was the future philosopher Grigore Sturdza, the monarch's son.[9] His stay in Lunéville was cut short by the intervention of Russian officials, who were supervising Moldavia under the provisions of the Regulamentul Organic regime, and who believed that, through the influence of Lhommé (a participant in the French Revolution), students were being infused with rebellious ideas; all Moldavian students, including Sturdza's sons and other noblemen, were withdrawn from the school in late 1835, and reassigned to Prussian education institutions.[10]

In Berlin

During his period in Berlin, he came in contact with and was greatly influenced by Friedrich Carl von Savigny, Alexander von Humboldt, Eduard Gans, and especially Professor Leopold von Ranke,[11] whose ideas on the necessity for politicians to be acquainted with historical science he readily adopted.[7] In pages he dedicated to the influence exercised by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel on Romanian thought, Tudor Vianu noted that certain Hegelian-related principles were a common attribute of the Berlin faculty during Kogălniceanu's stay.[12] He commented that, in later years, the politician adopted views which resonated with those of Hegel, most notably the principle that legislation needed to adapt to the individual spirit of nations.[13]

Kogălniceanu later noted with pride that he had been the first of Ranke's Romanian students, and claimed that, in conversations with Humboldt, he was the first person to use the modern equivalents French-language of the words "Romanian" and "Romania" (roumain and Roumanie)—replacing the references to "Moldavia(n)" and "Wallachia(n)", as well as the antiquated versions used before him by the intellectual Gheorghe Asachi;[3] historian Nicolae Iorga also noted the part Kogălniceanu played in popularizing these references as the standard ones.[14]

Kogălniceanu was also introduced to Frederica, Duchess of Cumberland, and became relatively close to her son George of Cumberland and Teviotdale, the future ruler of Hanover.[3] Initially hosted by a community of the Huguenot diaspora, he later became the guest of a Calvinist pastor named Jonas, in whose residence he witnessed gatherings of activists in favor of German unification (see Burschenschaft).[3] According to his own recollections, his group of Moldavians was kept under close watch by Alexandru Sturdza, who, in addition, enlisted Kogălniceanu's help in writing his work Études historiques, chrétiennes et morales ("Historical, Christian and Moral Studies").[3] During summer trips to the Pomeranian town of Heringsdorf, he met the novelist Willibald Alexis, whom he befriended, and who, as Kogălniceanu recalled, lectured him on the land reform carried out by Prussian King Frederick William III.[3] Later, Kogălniceanu studied the effects of reform when on visit to Alt Schwerin, and saw the possibility for replicating its results in his native country.[3]

Front page of Histoire de la Valachie, de la Moldavie, et des Vlaques transdanubiens, signed Michel de Kogalnitchan (1837)

Greatly expanding his familiarity with historical and social subjects, Kogălniceanu also began work on his first volumes: a pioneering study on the Roma people and the French-language Histoire de la Valachie, de la Moldavie, et des Vlaques transdanubiens ("A History of Wallachia, Moldavia, and of Transdanubian Vlachs", the first volume in a synthesis of Romanian history), both of which were first published in 1837 inside the German Confederation.[15] In addition, he authored a series of studies on Romanian literature.[7] He signed these first works with a Francized version of his name, Michel de Kogalnitchan ("Michael of Kogalnitchan"),[16] which was slightly erroneous (it used the partitive case twice: once in the French particle "de", and a second time in the Romanian-based suffix "-an").[17]

Raising the suspicions of Prince Sturdza after it became apparent that he sided with the reform-minded youth of his day in opposition to the Regulamentul Organic regime, Kogălniceanu was prevented from completing his doctorate, and instead returned to Iaşi, where he became a princely adjutant in 1838.[18]

In opposition to Prince Sturdza

Over the following decade, he published a large number of works, including essays and articles, his first editions of the Moldavian chroniclers, as well as other books and articles, while founding a succession of short-lived periodicals: Alăuta Românească (1838), Foaea Sătească a Prinţipatului Moldovei (1839), Dacia Literară (1840), Arhiva Românească (1840), Calendar pentru Poporul Românesc (1842), Propăşirea (renamed Foaie Ştiinţifică şi Literară, 1843), and several almanacs.[19] Both Dacia Literară and Foaie Ştiinţifică, which he edited together with Alecsandri, Ion Ghica, and Petre Balş, were suppressed by Moldavian authorities, who considered them suspect.[20] Together with Costache Negruzzi, he printed all of Dimitrie Cantemir's works available at the time, and, in time, acquired his own printing press, which planned to issue the complete editions of Moldavian chronicles, including those of Miron Costin and Grigore Ureche (after many disruptions associated with his political choices, the project was fulfilled in 1852).[21] In this context, Kogălniceanu and Negruzzi sought to Westernize the Moldavian public, with interest ranging as far as Romanian culinary tastes: the almanacs published by them featured gourmet-themed aphorisms and recipes meant to educate local folk about the refinement and richness of European cuisine.[22] Kogălniceanu would later claim that he and his friend were "originators of the culinary art in Moldavia".[23]

With Dacia Literară, Kogălniceanu began expanding his Romantic ideal of "national specificity", which was to be a major influence on Alexandru Odobescu and other literary figures.[24] One of the main goals his publications had was expanding the coverage of modern Romanian culture beyond its early stages, during which it had mainly relied on publishing translations of Western literature—according to Garabet Ibrăileanu, this was accompanied by a veiled attack on Gheorghe Asachi and his Albina Românească.[25] Mihail Kogălniceanu later issued clear criticism of Asachi's proposed version of literary Romanian, which relied on archaisms and Francized phonemes, notably pointing out that it was inconsistent.[25] Additionally, he evidenced the influence foreign poetry had on Asachi's own work, viewing it as excessive.[26] Tensions also occurred between Kogălniceanu and Alecsandri, after the former began suspecting his collaborator of having reduced and toned down his contributions to Foaie Ştiinţifică.[27] During this period, Kogălniceanu maintained close contacts with his former colleague Costache Negri and his sister Elena, becoming one of the main figures of the intellectual circle hosted by the Negris in Mânjina.[28] He also became close to the French teacher and essayist Jean Alexandre Vaillant, who was himself involved in liberal causes while being interested in the work of Moldavian chroniclers.[29] Intellectuals of the day speculated that Kogălniceanu later contributed several sections to Vaillant's lengthy essay about Moldavia and Wallachia (La Roumanie).[29]

In May 1840, while serving as Prince Sturdza's private secretary, he became co-director (with Alecsandri and Negruzzi) of the National Theater Iaşi.[30] This followed the monarch's decision to unite the two existing theaters in the city, one of which hosted plays in French, into a single institution.[31] In later years, this venue, which staged popular comedies based on the French repertory of its age and had become the most popular of its kind in the country,[14] also hosted Alecsandri's debut as a playwright.[27] Progressively, it also became subject to Sturdza's censorship.[32]

In 1843, Kogălniceanu gave a celebrated inaugural lecture on national history at the newly-founded Academia Mihăileană in Iaşi, a speech which greatly influenced ethnic Romanian students at the University of Paris and the 1848 generation (see Cuvânt pentru deschiderea cursului de istorie naţională).[33] Other professors at the Academia, originating in several historical regions, were Ion Ghica, Eftimie Murgu, and Ion Ionescu de la Brad.[18] Kogălniceanu's introductory speech was partly prompted by Sturdza's refusal to give him imprimatur, and amounted to a revolutionary project.[34] Among other things, it made explicit references to the common cause of Romanians living in the two states of Moldavia and Wallachia, as well as in Austrian- and Russian-ruled areas:

"I view as my country everywhere on earth where Romanian is spoken, and as national history the history of all of Moldavia, that of Wallachia, and that of our brothers in Transylvania."[35]

Revolution

Cover of Dorinţele partidei naţionale din Moldova

Around 1843, Kogălniceanu's enthusiasm for change was making him a suspect with Moldavian authorities, and his lectures on History were suspended in 1844.[36] His passport was revoked while he was traveling to Vienna as the secret representative of the Moldavian political opposition (attempting to approach Metternich and discuss Sturdza's ouster).[18] Briefly imprisoned after returning to Iaşi, he soon after became involved in political agitation in Wallachia, assisting his friend Ion Ghica: in February, during a Romantic nationalist celebration, he traveled to Bucharest, where he met members of the secretive Frăţia organization and of its legal front, Soţietatea Literară (including Ghica, Nicolae Bălcescu, August Treboniu Laurian, Alexandru G. Golescu, and C. A. Rosetti).[18]

Having sold his personal library to Academia Mihăileană,[37] Kogălniceanu was in Paris and other Western European cities from 1845 to 1847, joining the Romanian student association (Societatea Studenţilor Români) that included Ghica, Bălcescu, and Rosetti and was presided over by the French poet Alphonse de Lamartine.[38] He also frequented La Bibliothèque Roumaine ("The Romanian Library"),[14] while affiliating to the Freemasonry and joining the Lodge known as L'Athénée des Étrangers ("Foreigners' Atheneum"), as did most other reform-minded Romanians in Paris.[39] In 1846, he visited Spain, wishing to witness the wedding of Queen Isabella II and the Duke of Cádiz, but also curious to assess developments in Spanish culture.[37] Upon the end of his trip, he authored Notes sur l'Espagne ("Notes on Spain"), a French-language volume combining memoir, travel writing and historiographic record.[37]

For a while, he concentrated his activities on reviewing historical sources, expanding his series of printed and edited Moldavian chronicles.[7] At the time, he renewed his contacts with Vaillant, who helped him publish articles in the Revue de l'Orient.[29] He would later state: "We did not come to Paris just to learn how to speak French like the French do, but also to borrow the ideas and useful things of a nation that is so enlightened and so free".[14]

Following the onset of the European Revolutions, Kogălniceanu was present at the forefront of nationalist politics. Though, for a number of reasons, he failed to sign the March 1848 petition-proclamation which signaled the Moldavian revolution, he was seen as one of its instigators, and Prince Sturdza ordered his arrest during the police roundup that followed.[18] While evading capture, Kogălniceanu authored some of the most vocal attacks on Sturdza, and, by July, a reward was offered for his apprehension "dead or alive".[18] During late summer, he crossed the Austrian border into Bukovina, where he took refuge on the Hurmuzachi brothers' property (in parallel, the Frăţia-led Wallachian revolution managed to gain power in Bucharest).[36]

Kogălniceanu became a member and chief ideologue of the Moldavian Central Revolutionary Committee in exile.[36] His manifesto, Dorinţele partidei naţionale din Moldova ("The Wishes of the National Party in Moldavia", August 1848), was, in effect, a constitutional project listing the goals of Romanian revolutionaries.[40] It contrasted with the earlier demands the revolutionaries had presented to Sturdza, which called for strict adherence to Regulamentul Organic and an end to abuse.[41] In its 10 sections and 120 articles,[7] the manifesto called for, among other things, internal autonomy, civil and political liberties, separation of powers, abolition of privilege, an end to corvées, and a Moldo-Wallachian union.[36] Referring to the latter ideal, Kogălniceanu stressed that it formed:

"the keystone without which the national edifice would crumble".[7]

At the same time, he published a more explicit "Project for a Moldavian Constitution", which expanded on how Dorinţele could be translated into reality.[18] Kogălniceanu also contributed articles to the Bukovinan journal Bucovina, the voice of revolution in Romanian-inhabited Austrian lands.[18] In January 1849, a cholera epidemic forced him to leave for the French Republic, where he carried on with his activities in support of the Romanian revolution.[18]

Prince Ghica's reforms

Ion Ghica (seated) and Vasile Alecsandri, photographed in Istanbul (1855)

In April 1849, part of the goals of the 1848 Revolution were fulfilled by the Treaty of Balta Liman, through which the two suzerain powers of the Regulamentul Organic regime—the Ottoman Empire and Russia—appointed Grigore Alexandru Ghica, a supporter of the liberal and unionist cause, as Prince of Moldova (while, on the other hand, confirming the defeat of revolutionary power in Wallachia).[18] Ghica allowed the instigators of the 1848 events to return from exile, and appointed Kogălniceanu, as well as Costache Negri and Alexander John Cuza to administrative offices.[42] The measures enforced by the prince, together with the fallout from the defeat of Russia in the Crimean War, were to bring by 1860 the introduction of virtually all liberal tenets comprised in Dorinţele partidei naţionale din Moldova.[43]

Kogălniceanu was consequently appointed to various high level government positions, while continuing his cultural contributions and becoming the main figure of the loose grouping Partida Naţională, which sought the merger of the two Danubian Principalities under a single administration.[36] In 1867, reflecting on his role, he stated:

"There is not a single reform, not a single national act, from which my name would be absent. All the major laws were made and countersigned by me."[7]

He inaugurated his career as a legislator under Prince Ghica. On December 22, 1855, legislation he drafted with Petre Mavrogheni regarding the abolition of Roma slavery was passed by the Boyar Divan.[44] This involved the freeing of privately-owned Roma slaves, as those owned by the state had been set free by Prince Sturdza in January 1844[45] (a measure which Kogălniceanu also claimed to have inspired).[46] Ghica was prompted to complete the process of liberation by the fate of Dincă, an educated Roma cook who had murdered his French wife and then killed himself after being made aware that he was not going to be set free by his Cantacuzino masters.[47]

Prince Ghica also attempted to improve the peasant situation by ordering legislating the end of quit-rents and regulating that peasants could no longer be removed from the land they were working on.[3] This measure produced little lasting effects; according to Kogălniceanu, "the cause [of this] should be sought in the all-mightiness of landowners, in the weakness of the government, who, through its very nature, was provisional, and thus powerless".[3]

Ad-hoc Divan

Proclamation of the Moldo-Wallachian union, painting by Theodor Aman

Interrupted by Russian and Austrian interventions during the Crimean War, his activity as Partida Naţională representative was successful after the 1856 Treaty of Paris, when Moldavia and Wallachia came under the direct supervision of European Powers (comprising, alongside Russia and Austria, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Second French Empire, the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, and Prussia). As he later acknowledged, members of the Divan had begun to consider the Paris agreements, and especially the 1858 convention regarding the two countries, as a Constitution of Romania, in place until 1864.[3]

In addition, Kogălniceanu began printing the magazine Steaua Dunării in Iaşi: a unionist mouthpiece, it enlisted support from Alecsandri and his România Literară.[48] Kogălniceanu encouraged Nicolae Ionescu to issue the magazine L'Étoile de Danube in Brussels, as a French-language version of Steaua Dunării which would also serve to popularize Partida Naţională's views.[49] By that time, he was in correspondence with Jean Henri Abdolonyme Ubicini, a French essayist and traveler who had played a minor part in the Wallachian uprising, and who supported the Romanian cause in his native country.[41]

Elected by the College of landowners in Dorohoi County to the ad-hoc Divan, a newly-established assembly through which Moldavians had gained the right to decide their own future, he kept in line with Wallachian representatives to their respective Divan, and resumed his campaign in favor of union and increased autonomy, as well as the principles of neutrality, representative government, and, as he said later, rule by "a foreign prince".[3] However, both Kogălniceanu and Alecsandri initially presented themselves as candidates for the regency title of Caimacam—Alecsandri, who was more popular, renounced first in order to back Costache Negri.[27] Negri's candidature was dismissed by the Ottomans, who preferred to appoint Teodor Balş (June 1856).[50]

Following the elections of September 1857, the entire Partida Naţională chose to support Cuza for the Moldavian throne.[27] This came after Nicolae Vogoride, the new Caimaicam, carried out an anti-unionist electoral fraud—a suffrage annulled by the common verdict of Napoleon III and Queen Victoria (August 9, 1857, first announced to the world on August 26).[51]

He played the decisive part in the Divan's decision to abolish boyar ranks and privileges, thus nullifying pieces of legislation first imposed under Prince Constantine Mavrocordatos.[52] The final proposal, effectively imposing one law for all, universal conscription and an end to rank-based tax exemptions, was made by a commission which included Kogălniceanu and Vasile Mălinescu, and was passed by the Divan on October 29, 1857, with 73 out of 77 votes (the remaining 4 were all abstentions).[3] Kogălniceanu noted with pride that "The entire nation has accepted this great reform, and everyone, former Princes, great boyars, low-ranking boyars, privileged strata, have received this equalitarian reform, discarding, even without special laws, all that derived from the old regime, and even all that resembled the old regime".[3] He recorded that only two members of the boyar class had subsequently refused to abide by the new principles—the Vornics Iordache Beldiman (in Moldavia) and Ioan Manu (in Wallachia).[3] In November, Partida Naţională passed legislation consecrating the end religious discrimination against all non-Orthodox Christians in Moldavia (specifically, against Roman Catholics and Gregorian Armenians).[53] The law had been initiated by Negri.[53]

Many of Kogălniceanu's efforts were centered on bringing about an end to the peasant question, but, as he admitted, his boyar electorate threatened to recall him if he was to pursue this path any further.[3] Consequently, he signed his name to the more moderate proposal of Dimitrie Rallet, which prevented boyars from instituting new corvées, while leaving other matters to be discussed by a future permanent Assembly.[3] This project was instantly rejected by a solid majority of the Assembly, that which, in Kogălniceanu's view, led to the creation of two poles, a liberal and a conservative one, thus replacing the unionist-separatist divide and causing political conflicts inside the former unionist majority (thus forming the National Liberal and Conservative parties).[3]

Outmaneuvering the opposition of Vogoride and his group of conservative followers during new elections for the Divan, Kogălniceanu was able to promote Cuza in Moldavia on January 17, 1859, leading to Cuza's election for the similar position in Wallachia (February 5)—the de facto union of the two countries as the United Principalities.[54] In October 1858, he made a clear proposal regarding the unification, which, as he noted, carried the vote with only two opposing voices (Alecu Balş and Nectarie Hermeziu, the Orthodox vicar of Roman Bishopric), being publicly acclaimed by Ion Roată, the peasant representative for Putna County.[3] During 1859, Kogălniceanu again stood in the ad-hoc Divan and rallied support for Cuza from all factions of the unionist camp, while promoting his candidature in Bucharest—thus profiting from ambiguities in the Paris Treaty.[7] On the day Cuza took the throne, to begin his rule as Domnitor, Mihail Kogălniceanu welcomed him with an emotional speech.[55]

Secularization of monastery estates

Opening session of the Romanian Parliament in February 1860

From 1859 to 1865, Kogălniceanu was numerous times the United Principalities' cabinet leader, being responsible for most of the reforms associated with Cuza's reign.[56] The latter's actions included the 1863 secularization of the monasteries, as an early step to provide plots made available through the land reform of 1864 (which came at the same time as the abolition of corvées).[56]

Although political opposition prevented him from pushing the agrarian reform at the moment he proposed it, Mihail Kogălniceanu is seen as the person responsible for the manner in which it was eventually carried out by Cuza.[57] The changes in legislation came at the end of a lengthy process, inaugurated in 1860, when the institution regulating legislative projects for the two principalities, the Conservative-dominated Common Commission of Focşani, refused to create the basis for land reform.[58] Instead, it provided for an end to corvées, while allowing peasants on boyar estates control over their own houses and a parcel of pasture.[59] Known as Legea Rurală (the "Rural Law"), the project received instant support from the then-Premier Barbu Catargiu, leader of the Conservatives, and the target of vocal criticism on Kogălniceanu's part.[58] On June 6, 1862, the project was first debated in Parliament, causing a standstill between Cuza and the Conservatives.[60] According to historian L. S. Stavrianos, the latter considered the project advantageous because, while preserving estates, it created a sizable group of landless and dependent peasants, who could provide affordable labor.[61]

Late in the same month, Catargiu was mysteriously assassinated on Mitropoliei Hill, on his way back from Filaret, where he had attended a festivity commemorating the Wallachian revolution (he was succeeded by Nicolae Kretzulescu, after the interim premiership of Apostol Arsachi).[62] On June 23, Legea Rurală was passed by Parliament, but Cuza would not promulgate it.[63] According to Kogălniceanu, the Conservatives Arsachi and Kretzulescu were reluctant about proposing the law to be reviewed by Cuza, knowing that it was destined to be rejected.[3] Discussions then drifted toward the matter of confiscating land from the Greek Orthodox monasteries in Romania (their sizable properties and traditional tax exemptions had been the subject of controversy ever since the Phanariote period).[64] In late 1862, their revenues were taken over by the state, and, during summer of the following year, a sum of 80 million piasters was offered as compensation to the Greek monks, in exchange for all of the monasteries' land.[65]

As the Ottoman Empire proposed international mediation, Cuza took the initiative, and, on October 23, 1863, deposed the Kretzulescu cabinet, nominating instead his own selection of men: Kogălniceanu as Premier and Interior Minister, Dimitrie Bolintineanu as Minister of Religious Affairs.[65] In order to prevent further international tensions, they decided to generalize confiscation to all Eastern Orthodox Church estates, Greek as well as those of the incipient Romanian Orthodox monasteries.[65] The resolution was passed with 97 out of 100 parliamentary votes.[65] Later, the Greek Church was presented with an offer of 150 million piasters as compensation,[65] which was viewed as two low by its intended recipients, including Patriarch Sophoronius III.[66] Consequently, the Romanian state considered the matter closed.[66] As a direct consequence, one third of the arable land in Moldavia and a fourth of that in Wallachia were made available for a future land reform[67] (one fifth to one forth of the total arable land in the state as a whole).[68]

Cuza's personal regime

In the spring of 1864, the cabinet introduced a bill providing for an extensive land reform, which proposed allocating land based on peasant status:[69] the fruntaşi ("foremost people"), who owned 4 or more oxen, were to receive 5 fălci of land, or approx. 7.5 hectares; mijlocaşi ("middle people"), with two oxen—approx. 6 hectares; pălmaşi ("manual laborers"), with no oxen—approx. 3 hectares.[65] Peasants were to own their plots after making 14 yearly payments to their respective landowner.[70] This caused uproar in Parliament, which represented around 4,000 mostly boyar electors,[64] and voices from among the Conservatives deemed it "insane".[65] The latter party prepared a censure vote, based on the fact that Kogălniceanu had publicized the project through Monitorul Oficial and in contradiction with the one endorsed by the Focşani Commission, thus going against the letter of the law—he later justified himself saying: "Publication was necessary in order to quell the rural population, agitated by the [alternative project]".[3] The cabinet handed in its resignation, but Cuza refused to countersign it.[3]

Tensions mounted and, on May 14, 1864, Cuza carried out a coup d'état, coinciding with the moment when Conservatives imposed a censure vote.[71] Kogălniceanu read in Parliament the monarch's decision to dissolve it,[65] after which Cuza introduced a new constitution, titled Statutul dezvoltător al Convenţiei de la Paris ("Statute Expanding the Paris Convention").[72] It was submitted to a referendum, together with a law virtually establishing a system of universal male suffrage, gaining support from 682,621 voters out of 754,148.[73] The new regime passed its own version of Legea Rurală, thus effectively imposing land reform, as well as putting an end to corvées.[74] This was accomplished through August 1864 discussions in the newly-established Council of State, where the law was advanced by, among others, Kogălniceanu, Bolintineanu, George D. Vernescu, Gheorghe Apostoleanu and Alexandru Papadopol-Callimachi.[3]

More reserved members of the Council asked for the law not to be applied for a duration of three years, instead of the April 1865 deadline presumed, and Cuza agreed.[3] Indicating that, in his view, the decision was "the very condemnation and crushing of the law", Kogălniceanu worried that peasants, informed of their future, could no longer be persuaded to carry out corvées.[3] He threatened Cuza with his resignation, and was ultimately able to persuade all parties involved, including the opposition leader Kretzulescu, to accept the law's application as of spring 1865; a proclamation by Cuza, Către locuitorii săteşti ("To the Rural Inhabitants") accompanied the resolution, and was described by Kogălniceanu as "the political testament of Cuza".[3] Despite this measure, factors such as a growing population, the division of plots among descendants, peasant debts and enduring reliance on revenues from working on estates, together with the widespread speculation of estate leaseholders and instances where political corruption was detrimental to the allocation of land, made the reform almost completely ineffectual on the long term, and contributed to the countryside unrest which culminated in the Peasants' Revolt of 1907.[75]

With Kogălniceanu's participation, the authoritarian regime established by Cuza succeeded in promulgating a series of reforms, notably introducing the Napoleonic code, public education, and state monopolies on alcohol and tobacco.[76] In parallel, the regime became unstable and contested from all sides, especially after his adulterous affair with Marija Obrenović became the topic of scandal.[77] In early 1865, he came into conflict with his main ally Kogălniceanu, whom he dismissed soon after.[78] Over the following months, the administration went into financial collapse, becoming unable to provide salaries for its employees,[79] while Cuza came to rely on his own camarilla.[80]

After 1863, relations between Mihail Kogălniceanu and his friend Vasile Alecsandri soured dramatically, as the latter declared himself disgusted with politics.[81] Alecsandri withdrew to his estate in Mirceşti, where he wrote pieces critical of the political developments.[82]

1870s

Portrait of an aging Kogălniceanu

Domnitor Cuza was ultimately ousted by a coalition of Conservatives and Liberals in February 1866; following a period of transition and maneuvers to avert international objections, a perpetually unified Principality of Romania was established under Carol of Hohenzollern, with the adoption of the 1866 Constitution.[83] In November 1868-January 1870, he was again Minister of the Interior under Dimitrie Ghica; his term was confirmed by the 1869 election, after which he was able to persuade Alecsandri to accept a position as deputy for Roman.[82] The poet, who had been nominated without expressing his consent, cast aside hostility and became one of Kogălniceanu's main supporters in Chamber.[82]

Even after Cuza left the country and settled in Baden, relations between him and Kogălniceanu remained respectful, but distant: in summer 1868, when both of them were visiting Vienna, they happened to meet, and, without exchanging words, raised their hats as a form of greeting.[84] On May 27, 1873, Kogălniceanu, alongside Alecsandri, Costache Negri, Petre Poni and other public figures, attended Cuza's funeral in Ruginoasa.[85] Speaking later, he noted: "Cuza has committed great errors, but [the 1864 Către locuitorii săteşti] shall never fade out of the hearts of peasants, nor from Romania's history".[3]

He continued to be the leader of pragmatic reform liberalism in Romania; in loose opposition to the Conservative Party cabinet of Lascăr Catargiu (1875), he began talks with the radical faction of the liberal trend (most notably, Ion Brătianu, Dimitrie Sturdza, Ion Ghica, C. A. Rosetti, Dimitrie Brătianu, and Alexandru G. Golescu), which were carried at the Bucharest residence of Pasha Stephen Bartlett Lakeman.[86] On May 24, 1875, negotiations resulted in the creation of the National Liberal Party—the so-called Coalition of Mazar Paşa.[86] He was subsequently an outspoken adversary of his former collaborator Nicolae Ionescu, who, as leader of the liberal splinter group Fracţiunea liberă şi independentă, rejected National Liberal politics. In an 1876 speech in front of Parliament, Kogălniceanu attacked Ionescu and his supporters for their political and academic positions, this earning the approval of the conservative literary society Junimea and its anti-liberal platform Timpul.[87] He notably joined other National Liberals in expressing opposition to the trade convention Catargiu signed with Austria-Hungary, which was advantageous to the latter's exports, and which, they claimed, was leading Romanian industry to ruin.[88] A National Liberal government would repeal the agreement in 1886.[88]

Serving as Foreign Affairs Minister in the Ion Brătianu cabinet (spring-summer 1876, and again from April 1877 to November 1878), Kogălniceanu was responsible for Romania entering the War of 1877-1878 on the Russian side, which led the country to proclaim its independence.[56] With Rosetti and Brătianu, he supported the transit of Russian troops, and, during April, persuaded Carol to accept the Russian alliance, contrary to the initial advice of the Crown Council.[89] He also sought advice on this matter from the French Third Republic, who was still one of the powers supervising Romania; Louis, duc Decazes, the French Foreign Minister, declined to give him a reassuring answer, and pointed that, were Romania to join the Imperial Russian side, the powers would cease offering protection.[49] Making note of this, Kogălniceanu expressed his hope that France would still support his country at the decisive moment.[49]

On May 9, 1877, it was through his speech in Parliament that Romania acknowledged she was discarding Ottoman suzerainty.[90] Over the following year, he coordinated efforts to have the act recognized by all European states, and stated that his government's policies were centered on "as rapid as possible, the transformation of foreign diplomatic agencies and consulates in Bucharest into legations".[91]

Berlin Congress and final years

Kogălniceanu's grave in Iaşi

Upon the war's end, he and Brătianu headed the Romanian delegation to the Berlin Congress.[92] In this capacity, they protested Russia's offer to exchange the previously Ottoman-ruled Northern Dobruja for the portion of southern Bessarabia which Romania had been awarded by the 1856 Treaty of Paris.[93] The Conference's ultimate decision was in favor of Russia's proposal, largely due to support from Gyula Andrássy, the Foreign Minister of Austria-Hungary, and William Henry Waddington, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs.[94] Additional pressures came from Otto von Bismarck, the Imperial German Chancellor.[95] This outcome was the subject of controversy in Romania, where the exchange was generally considered unfair, with some voices even arguing that the country could again accept Ottoman suzerainty as a means to overturn the state of affairs.[96] In parallel, Russian demands for Romania to grant it the right of indefinite military transit through Northern Dobruja were made ineffectual by opposition from other European states.[97]

At the time, as an effect of Waddington's intervention,[98] Romania also agreed to resolve the issue of Jewish Emancipation, and to naturalize all of its non-Christian residents (see History of the Jews in Romania).[99] The resolution was debated inside Romania over the following year, and such a measure in respect to Jews was not introduced until 1922-1923.[100] At the same time, Kogălniceanu's intercession played a part in the ethnic policies regarding Northern Dobruja: he is reported to have personally urged the Romanian pastoralists (mocani) to abandon their traditional lifestyle and their temporary home in Russian-held Budjak, offering them the option of purchasing Northern Dobrujan land.[101]

Kogălniceanu subsequently represented his country to France (1880),[102] being the first Romanian envoy to Paris, and having Alexandru Lahovary as a member of his staff.[91] In January 1880-1881, he oversaw the first diplomatic contacts between Romania and Qing China, as an exchange of correspondence between the Romanian Embassy to France and Zeng Jize, the Chinese Ambassador to the United Kingdom.[103] By 1883, he was becoming known as the speaker of a liberal conservative faction of the National Liberal group. Kogălniceanu and his supporters criticized Rosetti and others who pushed for universal (male) suffrage, and argued that Romania's fragile international standing did not permit electoral divisiveness.[104]

After withdrawing from political life, Kogălniceanu, who had been elected to the Romanian Academy's Historical Section in 1868,[56] served as the Academy's President from 1887 to 1889.[105] Having fallen severely ill in 1886,[106] he spent his final years editing historical documents of the Eudoxiu Hurmuzaki fund, publicizing Ancient Greek and Roman archeological finds in Northern Dobruja, and collecting foreign documents related to Romanian history.[105] One of his last speeches, held in front of the Academy and witnessed by both Carol, who had since become King of Romania, and his wife Elisabeth of Wied, was a summary of his entire career as a politician, intellectual, and civil servant.[107] In August 1890, while traveling through the Austrian region of Vorarlberg, he was troubled by news that Alecsandri had died at his home in Mirceşti.[108] Writing to Alecsandri's wife Paulina, he asked: "I could not be present at his funeral, [therefore] you'll allow me, my lady, since I have unable to kiss him either alive or dead, to at least kiss his grave!"[109]

Mihail Kogălniceanu died while undergoing surgery in Paris, and was succeeded in his seat at the Academy by Alexandru Dimitrie Xenopol.[105] He was buried in his native Iaşi, at the Eternitatea cemetery.[105]

Views

Liberalism and conservatism

Mihail Kogălniceanu's contributions as a leader of opinion and statesman have won acclaim for their role in shaping the development of modern Romania before and after 1848.[56] Nicolae Iorga, a major historian of the 20th century, celebrated Kogălniceanu as "the founder of modern Romanian culture, the thinker who has seen in clarity the free and complete Romania [...], the redeemer of peasants thrown into serfdom [a reference to corvées], the person understanding all the many, secretive, and indissoluble connections linking the life of a people to the moral quality and the energy of its soul".[105]

Kogălniceanu was a democratic and nationalist politician who combined liberalism with the conservative principles acquired during his education, taking inspiration from the policies of the Prussian statesmen Baron vom und zum Stein and Karl August von Hardenberg.[110] Supportive of constitutionalism, civil liberties, and other liberal positions, he prioritized the nation over individualism, an approach with resonated with the tendencies of all his fellow Moldavian revolutionaries.[18] In maturity, Kogălniceanu had become a skeptic in respect to the French Revolution and its Jacobin legacy, arguing: "civilization stops when revolutions begin".[111] At the same time, his connections within the Freemasonry, mirroring the conviction and affiliation of most 1848 revolutionaries, were an important factor in ensuring the success of Romanian causes abroad, and arguably played a part in the election of Cuza, who was himself a member of the secretive organization.[39]

Inside the Romanian liberal faction, and in contrast to his moderation on other topics, he was among the very few to tie together modernization, democracy, and the need to improve the situation of peasants (other notable politicians to do so were Nicolae Bălcescu, who died in late 1852, and Rosetti, who advocated a strict adherence to majoritarianism).[112] Kogălniceanu praised Bălcescu's manifestos and activism in favor of the peasantry, indicating that they formed a precedent for his own accomplishments, while deploring the Wallachian uprising's failure to advance a definitive land reform.[3] When faced with a negative response in the census-elected Parliament just prior to Cuza's coup, he defended his land reform project with the words:

"Two thousand boyars do not a nation make; that is an undeniable truth."[65]

Late in his life, while crediting the University of Berlin and its notions of patriotism with having provided him with "the love for the Romanian motherland and the liberal spirit [emphasis in original]", he stressed:

"In my lengthy combats and actions, in the grim persecutions that have more than once been exercised as a means to crush me, I always had before my eyes those beautiful words which [...] Prince Hardenberg indicated as the strongest means to reawaken the character and manliness of the German people in order to liberate it from the foreign yoke, to raise and increase Germany: «Democratic principles as part of a monarchic government!»"[3]

Like many of his fellow Romanian liberals, Kogălniceanu advocated a series of antisemitic policies. He used his position as Internal Affairs Minister in the Dimitrie Ghica executive to resume the expulsions of Jewish community members from the countryside (and thus denying them various sources of income).[113] When faced with the official protests of European states, he replied that the matter was nobody's business but Romania's.[114] He usually referred to the Jewish community in general with the insulting term jidani, and accepted their presence on Romanian soil as a concession to their alleged "too numerous and too powerful presence in Europe".[115] During the 1930s, such attitudes, together with Kogălniceanu's involvement in peasant causes, were cited as a precedent by politicians of the fascist National Christian Party and Iron Guard, who, while promoting rural traditionalism, advocated restricting civil rights for the Jewish community.[116]

Nevertheless, Kogălniceanu's antisemitic discourse was nuanced and less violent than that of various of his contemporaries. According to historian George Voicu, he stood for "a complicated balance in dealing with the 'Jewish question'", one between "antisemitic intransigence" and "concessions".[117] The more radical antisemite and National Liberal Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu expressed much criticism of this moderate stance (which he also believed was represented within the party by Rosetti and Ion Ghica), and he even claimed that Kogălniceanu was a secret "faithful" of the Talmud.[117] In 1885, Kogălniceanu strongly objected to a National Liberal cabinet decision to expel Moses Gaster, a renowned Jewish scholar, stating that the latter was "[the] only man who works in this country" (he would later celebrate him as the man "to whom Romanian literature owes so much").[118] Five years later, as rapporteur on naturalization issues, he conferred citizenship upon Marxist thinker Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea, who was a Russian-born Jewish immigrant.[119] Shortly before his death, he reportedly endorsed a similar measure for Jewish scholar Lazăr Şăineanu, expressing condemnation for those antisemites within his own party who made efforts to block it.[120]

Cultural tenets

In his polemic history tracing the development of literary criticism and its role in Romanian culture, the 20th century author Garabet Ibrăileanu made ample mention of Kogălniceanu's role in combating nationalist excesses, in particular the post-1840 attempts by Transylvanian and Wallachian intellectuals to change the fabric of the Romanian language by introducing strong influences from Latin or other modern Romance languages.[121] To illustrate this view, he cited Kogălniceanu's Cuvânt pentru deschiderea cursului de istorie naţională, which notably states:

"In me you shall find a Romanian, but ever to the point where I would contribute in increasing Romanomania, that is to say the mania of calling ourselves Romans, a passion currently reigning foremost in Transylvania and among some of the writers in Wallachia."[122]

Ibrăileanu additionally credited the Moldavian faction, Kogălniceanu included, with having helped introduce spoken Romanian into the literary language, at a time when both Ion Heliade Rădulescu and successors of the Transylvanian School made use of the dialect prevalent in Orthodox and Greek-Catholic religious culture.[123] This was in connection with Kogălniceanu's advocacy of pragmatic Westernization: "Civilization never does banish the national ideas and habits, but rather improves them for the benefit of the nation in particular and of humanity in general".[124]

A generation younger than Ibrăileanu, George Călinescu also noted the contrast between Mihail Kogălniceanu and his predecessors, as two sets of "Messianist" intellectuals—in this contrast, Heliade Rădulescu was "hazy and egotist", whereas Kogălniceanu and others had "a mission which they knew how to translate into positive terms".[34] As a historian, Kogălniceanu notably introduced several more or less influential Romantic nationalist theses: after 1840, he was noted for stressing the image of the 17th century Wallachian Prince Michael the Brave as a unifier of Romania, although this view was not present in his earlier essays; he proposed that his was among the first European peoples to record history in their national language, in contrast with the fact that the earliest Romanian-language chronicles were written during the 17th century; additionally, he argued that the Second Bulgarian Empire was a Romanian state.[125] In some of his works, he claimed that Romanians traditionally practiced endogamy to preserve their purity.[126]

As early as 1840, Mihail Kogălniceanu was urging writers to seek inspiration for their work in Romanian folklore in creating a "cultured literature".[127] In 1855, after the Wallachian revolution was defeated and most of its leaders went into exile, he noted that the lighter toll Russian intervention had in Moldavia contributed to the preservation of literature; alongside similar statements made by Vasile Alecsandri, this allowed Ibrăileanu to conclude that, after 1848, Moldavia played a bigger part in shaping the cultural landscape of Romania.[128] Writing more than half a century after the critic, historian Lucian Boia also noted that, while Kogălniceanu stressed national unity, his discourse tended to place emphasis on Moldavian particularities.[129] Also according to Ibrăileanu, Kogălniceanu and Alecu Russo have set the foundation for the local school of literary criticism, and, together, had announced the cultural professionalism advocated by Junimea after the 1860s.[130] The latter conclusion was partly shared by Călinescu, Tudor Vianu and literary researcher Z. Ornea.[131] Nevertheless, in its reaction against the 1848 generation, Junimea, and especially its main figure Titu Maiorescu, tended to ignore or outright dismiss Kogălniceanu's causes and the attitudes he expressed.[132]

While commenting on the differences between Moldavian and Wallachian literature, Paul Zarifopol gave a more reserved assessment of Kogălniceanu's position, arguing that the emphasis he had placed on "national taste" would occasionally result in acclaim for mediocre writers such as Alexandru Hrisoverghi.[26] Călinescu observed that much of Kogălniceanu's own prose works imitated the style of his friend Costache Negruzzi, without carrying the same artistic weight, while noting that his few works of autobiography featured "pages of gracious [and] good-natured melancholy", which he attributed to the author's traditional upbringing.[133] Also among Kogălniceanu's anthumous writings was Fiziologia provincialului în Iaşi ("The Physiology of the Parochial Man in Iaşi"), closely based on a French model by Pierre Durand and, through it, echoing Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin's Physiologie du goût.[23] It was part of a series of such texts, popular in his generation and deemed "the first age of Romanian realism" by researcher Maria Protase.[22] Among the other pieces were two comedy plays, both written in 1840, when he was co-director of the National Theater Iaşi: Două femei împotriva unui bărbat ("Two Women against One Man") and Orbul fericit ("The Happy Blind Man").[134] Kogălniceanu's Notes sur l'Espagne was published decades after his death, and received much critical acclaim.[37]

Legacy

Descendants

From right: Vasile, Ion and Lucia Kogălniceanu, photographed during the 1850s

Mihail Kogălniceanu was married to Ecaterina Jora (1827–1907), the widow of Iorgu Scorţescu, a Moldavian Militia colonel; they had more than eight children together (three of whom were boys).[135] The eldest son, Constantin, studied Law and had a career in diplomacy, being the author of an unfinished work on Romanian history.[105] Ion, his brother, was born in 1859 and died in 1892, being the only one of Mihail Kogălniceanu's male children to have heirs[136] (his line was still surviving in the early 2000s).[137] Ion's son, also named Mihail, established the Mihail Kogălniceanu Cultural Foundation in 1935 (in 1939-1946, it published a magazine named Arhiva Românească, which aimed to be a new series of the one published during the 1840s; its other projects were rendered ineffectual by the outbreak of World War II).[138]

Vasile Kogălniceanu, the youngest son, was noted for his involvement in agrarian and left-wing politics during the early 20th century. A founder of Partida Ţărănească (which served as an inspiration for the Peasants' Party after 1918), he was a collaborator of Vintilă Rosetti in campaigning for the universal suffrage and the legislating of Sunday as a public holiday.[105] A manifesto to the peasants, issued by him just before the Peasants' Revolt of 1907, was interpreted by the authorities as a call to rebellion, and led to Kogălniceanu's imprisonment for a duration of five months.[105] A member of the Chamber of Deputies for Ilfov County, he served as a rapporteur for the Alexandru Averescu executive during the 1921 debates regarding an extensive land reform.[105]

Vasile's sister Lucia (or Lucie) studied at a boarding school in Dresden during the late 1860s-early 1870s.[137] Her third husband, Leon Bogdan, was a local leader of the Conservatives in Neamţ County (according to the memoirist Constantin Argetoianu, Lucia was the one exercising real control over the organization's branch).[139] After the Conservative Party faded out of politics as a result of World War I, she came to support the People's Party.[139] Argetoianu later speculated that she was the most intelligent of the Kogălniceanu children, and claimed that Mihail Kogălniceanu had himself acknowledged this (quoting him as saying, "too bad Lucie is not a boy").[139] She was the mother of eight; one of her daughters, Manuela, married into the Ghica family.[137]

Kogălniceanu's nephew, Grigore, himself a local leader of the Conservative Party and a major landowner, married to Adela Cantacuzino-Paşcanu, a member of the Cantacuzino family.[140] He died in 1904, leaving his wife a large fortune, which she spent on a large collection of jewels and fortune-telling séances.[140] Adela Kogălniceanu was robbed and murdered in October 1920; rumor had it that she had been killed by her own son, but this path was never pursued by authorities, who were quick to cancel the investigation (at the time, they were faced with the major strikes of 1920).[140]

Landmarks and portrayals

Kogălniceanu's statue in Bucharest

Mihail Kogălniceanu's residence in Iaşi is kept as a memorial house and public museum. His vacation house in the city, located in Copou area and known locally as Casa cu turn ("The House with a Tower"), was the residence of composer George Enescu for part of the Romanian Campaign, and, in 1930, was purchased by novelist Mihail Sadoveanu (in 1980, it became a museum dedicated to Sadoveanu's memory).[141] The Kogălniceanu property in Râpile, Bacău County, was sold and divided during the early 20th century.[138]

Chronicles edited by Kogălniceanu and Costache Negruzzi were the source of inspiration for several historical novelists, beginning with Alexandru Odobescu.[142] His relationship with the peasant representative to the ad-hoc Divan, Ion Roată, is briefly mentioned in an anecdote authored by Ion Creangă (Moş Ion Roată). He is also the subject of a short writing by Ion Luca Caragiale (first published by Vatra in 1894).[143] Symbolist poet Dimitrie Anghel, whose father, the National Liberal parliamentarian Dimitrie A. Anghel, had been well acquainted with Kogălniceanu, authored a memoir detailing the fluctuating relationship between the two political figures, as well as detailing one of the former Premier's last speeches.[144]

Kogălniceanu is the subject of many paintings, and features prominently in Costin Petrescu's fresco at the Romanian Athenaeum (where he is shown alongside Cuza, who is handing a deed to a peasant).[145] In 1936, the Mihail Kogălniceanu Cultural Foundation commissioned Oscar Han to create a monument dedicated to Kogălniceanu, which was erected in Bucharest during the same year.[138] Actors have portrayed Kogălniceanu in several Romanian films—most notably, Ion Niculescu in the 1912 Independenţa României, and George Constantin in Sergiu Nicolaescu's 1977 Războiul Independenţei. During the latter stages of the Romanian Communist regime, under Nicolae Ceauşescu, Mihail Kogălniceanu's image was present in official propaganda, alongside those of other historical figures who were considered progressive.[146]

The historian's name was given to several places and landmarks; these include downtown Bucharest's Mihail Kogălniceanu Square (near the Izvor metro station, and housing Han's sculpture) and Mihail Kogălniceanu Boulevard, the Mihail Kogălniceanu commune in Constanţa County, the Mihail Kogălniceanu International Airport (situated 26 km northwest of Constanţa, and serving that city, the airport also houses a U.S. Military Forces base), and the Mihail Kogălniceanu University in Iaşi (the first private university in Moldavia, founded in 1990).

Notes

  1. ^ Gorovei, p.6, 7, 8, 10
  2. ^ a b Gorovei, p.6
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Dezrobirea ţiganilor,...
  4. ^ Anineanu, p.62; Gorovei, p.9
  5. ^ Anineanu, p.62; Gorovei, p.9; Maciu, p.66
  6. ^ Encyclopedia of Revolutions; Anineanu, p.62; Gorovei, p.9; Maciu, p.66
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Gorovei, p.9
  8. ^ Dezrobirea ţiganilor,...; Encyclopedia of Revolutions; Gorovei, p.9; Iorga, La Monarchie de juillet et les Roumains
  9. ^ Dezrobirea ţiganilor,...; Vianu, Vol.II, p.281
  10. ^ Dezrobirea ţiganilor,...; Iorga, La Monarchie de juillet et les Roumains
  11. ^ Dezrobirea ţiganilor,...; Encyclopedia of Revolutions; Vianu, Vol.II, p.273-277
  12. ^ Vianu, Vol.II, p.273-277
  13. ^ Vianu, Vol.II, p.276-277, 311
  14. ^ a b c d Iorga, La Monarchie de juillet et les Roumains
  15. ^ Encyclopedia of Revolutions; Gorovei, p.9; Iorga, La Monarchie de juillet et les Roumains
  16. ^ Djuvara, p.128-129; Iorga, La Monarchie de juillet et les Roumains
  17. ^ Djuvara, p.129
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Encyclopedia of Revolutions
  19. ^ Encyclopedia of Revolutions; Călinescu, p.77; Gorovei, p.9; Iorga, La Monarchie de juillet et les Roumains; Vianu, p.250
  20. ^ Anineanu, p.63-64; Călinescu, p.77
  21. ^ Călinescu, p.77; Vianu, Vol.I, p.82
  22. ^ a b Grigorescu, p.20-21
  23. ^ a b Grigorescu, p.21
  24. ^ Vianu, Vol.I, p.71, 104, 413
  25. ^ a b Ibrăileanu, Amestec de curente...
  26. ^ a b (Romanian) Paul Zarifopol, Poezia românească în epoca lui Asachi şi Eliade (wikisource)
  27. ^ a b c d Anineanu, p.64
  28. ^ Maciu, p.66
  29. ^ a b c Ursu, p.15
  30. ^ Encyclopedia of Revolutions; Anineanu, p.64; Călinescu, p.77; Iorga, La Monarchie de juillet et les Roumains; Senelick, p.311-313
  31. ^ Senelick, p.313
  32. ^ Senelick, p.314-315
  33. ^ Encyclopedia of Revolutions; Călinescu, p.77; Gorovei, p.9
  34. ^ a b Călinescu, p.77
  35. ^ Encyclopedia of Revolutions; Boia, History and Myth, p.131
  36. ^ a b c d e Encyclopedia of Revolutions; Gorovei, p.9
  37. ^ a b c d (Romanian) Eugen Denize, "Călători români în Spania secolului al XIX-lea", in Tribuna, Nr. 28, November 2003
  38. ^ Encyclopedia of Revolutions; Ursu, p.15
  39. ^ a b (Romanian) Vasile Surcel, "Istoria României şi lojile masonice", in Jurnalul Naţional, October 11, 2004
  40. ^ Encyclopedia of Revolutions; Gorovei, p.9; Maciu, p.66
  41. ^ a b Iorga, La Révolution de 1848...
  42. ^ Encyclopedia of Revolutions; Maciu, p.67
  43. ^ Encyclopedia of Revolutions; Djuvara, p.332-333
  44. ^ Dezrobirea ţiganilor,...; Achim, p.111-112; Djuvara, p.278
  45. ^ Dezrobirea ţiganilor,...; Achim, p.111-112
  46. ^ Dezrobirea ţiganilor,...
  47. ^ Djuvara, p.275-278
  48. ^ Anineanu, p.64; Maciu, p.67
  49. ^ a b c Iorga, La guerre de Crimée...
  50. ^ Maciu, p.67-68
  51. ^ Djuvara, p.355-356; Iorga, La guerre de Crimée...
  52. ^ Dezrobirea ţiganilor,...; Maciu, p.68
  53. ^ a b Maciu, p.68
  54. ^ Encyclopedia of Revolutions; Djuvara, p.332, 356; Gorovei, p.9-10
  55. ^ Gorovei, p.9-10
  56. ^ a b c d e Encyclopedia of Revolutions; Gorovei, p.10
  57. ^ Boia, Romania: Borderland of Europe, p.81; Dénes, p.448-449; Gorovei, p.10
  58. ^ a b Dezrobirea ţiganilor,...; Giurescu, p.147
  59. ^ Dezrobirea ţiganilor,...; Stavrianos, p.353
  60. ^ Dezrobirea ţiganilor,...; Giurescu, p.147-148
  61. ^ Stavrianos, p.353
  62. ^ Dezrobirea ţiganilor,...; Giurescu, p.148
  63. ^ Giurescu, p.148; Stavrianos, p.353
  64. ^ a b Clark, p.53; Giurescu, p.148; Stavrianos, p.352
  65. ^ a b c d e f g h i Giurescu, p.148
  66. ^ a b Giurescu, p.148; Stavrianos, p.352
  67. ^ Stavrianos, p.352
  68. ^ Dezrobirea ţiganilor,...; Clark, p.53
  69. ^ Dezrobirea ţiganilor,...; Clark, p.53; Giurescu, p.148
  70. ^ Clark, p.53
  71. ^ Boia, Romania: Borderland of Europe, p.81; Clark, p.53; Giurescu, p.148; Stavrianos, p.352
  72. ^ Clark, p.53; Giurescu, p.148; Iorga, La guerre de Crimée...
  73. ^ Clark, p.53; Giurescu, p.148; Stavrianos, p.353
  74. ^ Dezrobirea ţiganilor,...; Clark, p.53; Giurescu, p.148-149; Stavrianos, p.353
  75. ^ Stavrianos, p.353-355
  76. ^ Clark, p.54; Stavrianos, p.355-356
  77. ^ Boia, Romania: Borderland of Europe, p.81; Stavrianos, p.355-356
  78. ^ Dezrobirea ţiganilor,...; Stavrianos, p.356
  79. ^ Stavrianos, p.356
  80. ^ Boia, Romania: Borderland of Europe, p.81
  81. ^ Anineanu, p.64-65
  82. ^ a b c Anineanu, p.65
  83. ^ Stavrianos, p.356-357
  84. ^ Vitcu, p.20
  85. ^ Vitcu, p.22
  86. ^ a b Cernovodeanu, p.40-41
  87. ^ Ornea, Junimea..., p.293-295
  88. ^ a b Giurescu, p.291
  89. ^ Clark, p.60
  90. ^ Giurescu, p.153; Gorovei, p.10
  91. ^ a b Davier, p.60
  92. ^ Ciorănescu; Clark, p.61-62; Norton Medlicott, p.90; Ornea, Anii treizeci..., p.390
  93. ^ Ciorănescu; Clark, p.61-62; Norton Medlicott, p.89-93
  94. ^ Ciorănescu; Iorga, La guerre de Crimée...
  95. ^ Clark, p.62
  96. ^ Ciorănescu
  97. ^ Norton Medlicott, p.189-190
  98. ^ Clark, p.62; Iorga, La guerre de Crimée...
  99. ^ Clark, p.62; Iorga, La guerre de Crimée...; Ornea, Anii treizeci..., p.390
  100. ^ Clark, p.62, 352; Ornea, Anii treizeci..., p.390
  101. ^ Ion I. Ghelase, "Mocanii din Dobrogea", in Viaţa Românească, Nr. 1-2/1933, p.127
  102. ^ Davier, p.60; Gorovei, p.10
  103. ^ Anna Eva Budura, "Primii diplomaţi chinezi în Occident", in Magazin Istoric, November 2007, p.40
  104. ^ (Romanian) Sorin Radu, "Liberalii şi problema reformei electorale în România (1866 — 1914) (I)", in the 1 December University of Alba Iulia Annales Universitatis Apulensis, Series Historica, Nr. 4-5, 2000-2001, p.134
  105. ^ a b c d e f g h i Gorovei, p.10
  106. ^ Anineanu, p.66
  107. ^ Dezrobirea ţiganilor,...; Gorovei, p.10
  108. ^ Anineanu, p.66-67
  109. ^ Anineanu, p.67
  110. ^ Encyclopedia of Revolutions; Dezrobirea ţiganilor,...; Ibrăileanu, Recunoaşterea necesităţii criticii...
  111. ^ Jerzy W. Borejsza, "The French Revolution in Relation to Poland and East-Central Europe", in Joseph Klaits, Michael H. Haltzel (eds.), Global Ramifications of the French Revolution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge etc., 2002, p.65. ISBN 0-521-52447-4
  112. ^ Dénes, p.449
  113. ^ Final Report, p.24-25
  114. ^ Final Report, p.25
  115. ^ Lindemann, p.136
  116. ^ Final Report, p.22, 25, 45; Ornea, Anii treizeci..., p.31
  117. ^ a b George Voicu, "The 'Judaisation' of the Enemy in the Romanian Political Culture at the Beginning of the 20th Century", in the Babeş-Bolyai University's Studia Judaica, 2007, p.139-140
  118. ^ Lucica Bercovici, "Românul Moses Gaster, un modus vivendi", in Magazin Istoric, November 2007, p.53
  119. ^ Ornea, Junimea..., p.316
  120. ^ Lazare Sainéan, Une carrière philologique en Roumanie (1885-1900). I. Les péripéties d'une naturalisation; mémoire auto-biographique, Émile Storck & Éditions Larousse, Bucharest & Paris, 1901, p.16. OCLC 47918962
  121. ^ Ibrăileanu, Veacul al XIX-lea...
  122. ^ Ibrăileanu, Veacul al XIX-lea...
  123. ^ Ibrăileanu, Veacul al XIX-lea..., Recunoaşterea necesităţii criticii...
  124. ^ Ibrăileanu, Recunoaşterea necesităţii criticii...
  125. ^ Boia, Hystory and Myth, p.40-41, 49-50, 115
  126. ^ Boia, Hystory and Myth, p.154
  127. ^ Virgiliu Ene, "Studiu introductiv", in Basme populare româneşti, Editura Albatros, Bucharest, 1977, p.XX. OCLC 5279951
  128. ^ Ibrăileanu, Veacul al XIX-lea...
  129. ^ Boia, History and Myth, p.131
  130. ^ Ibrăileanu, Recunoaşterea necesităţii criticii...; Evoluţia spiritului critic...
  131. ^ Călinescu, p.78; Ornea, Junimea..., p.111; Vianu, Vol.II, p.19
  132. ^ Ibrăileanu, Evoluţia spiritului critic...; Vianu, Vol.I, p.391-392; Vol.II, p.52, 244
  133. ^ Călinescu, p.77-78
  134. ^ Senelick, p.312
  135. ^ Guţanu, p.8, 9
  136. ^ Gorovei, p.60; Guţanu, p.8
  137. ^ a b c Guţanu, p.8
  138. ^ a b c Gorovei, p.60
  139. ^ a b c Guţanu, p.9
  140. ^ a b c (Romanian) Silvia Craus, "Bijuterii mortale", in Ieşeanul, March 7, 2006
  141. ^ (Romanian) Adrian Pârvu, "Casa cu turn din Copou", in Jurnalul Naţional, October 28, 2005
  142. ^ Vianu, Vol.I, p.82
  143. ^ (Romanian) Paul Zarifopol, Introduceri la ediţia critică I.L. Caragiale, opere (wikisource)
  144. ^ Dimitrie Anghel, Versuri şi proză, Editura Albatros, Bucharest, 1978, p.67-69 (Eugen Marinescu, "Tabel cronologic", p.XL). OCLC 5833024
  145. ^ Boia, Romania: Borderland of Europe, p.80; History and Myth, p.260
  146. ^ Boia, History and Myth, p.272

References

External links



Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Mihail Kogălniceanu — Mihail Kogălniceanu. Mihail Kogălniceanu (6 de septiembre de 1817 – 1 de julio de 1891) fue un estadista liberal rumano nacido en Moldavia, y también abogado, historiador y publicista; llegó a ser primer ministro de Rumania en el 11 de octubre …   Wikipedia Español

  • Mihail Kogălniceanu — Mandats 4e Premier ministre roumain 11&# …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Mihail Kogalniceanu — Mihail Kogălniceanu Mihail Kogălniceanu (* 6. September 1817 in Iaşi; † 1. Juli 1891 in Paris) war ein rumänischer Staatsmann, Historiker und Publizist. Er wurde nach der Vereinigung der beiden Fürstentümer Moldau und Walachei am …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mihail Kogalniceanu — Mihail Kogălniceanu Mihail Kogălniceanu 4e Premier ministre roumain …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Mihail Kogălniceanu — (* 6. September 1817 in Iași; † 1. Juli 1891 in Paris, Frankreich) war ein rumänischer Politiker, Historiker und Publizist. Er wurde nach der Vereinigung der beiden Fürstentümer …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mihail Kogalniceanu — 1 Original name in latin Mihail Koglniceanu Name in other language Cogalniceanu, Coglniceanu, Mihail Kogalniceanu, Mihail Koglniceanu, Mihail Cogalniceanu, Mihail Coglniceanu State code RO Continent/City Europe/Bucharest longitude 45.03333… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Mihail Kogălniceanu (Begriffsklärung) — Mihail Kogălniceanu bezeichnet: Mihail Kogălniceanu, rumänischer Staatsmann und Historiker Internationaler Flughafen Mihail Kogălniceanu der Stadt Constanța, siehe Flughafen Constanța Mihail Kogălniceanu ist der Name folgender Orte in Rumänien:… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mihail Kogălniceanu (disambiguation) — Mihail Kogălniceanu may refer to: Mihail Kogălniceanu, a Romanian politician Mihail Kogălniceanu International Airport, a Romanian airport and an United States Army base in Constanţa County Mihail Kogălniceanu, Constanţa, a commune in Constanţa… …   Wikipedia

  • Mihail Kogălniceanu (Constanţa) — Mihail Kogălniceanu Karamurat Hilfe zu Wappen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Mihail Kogălniceanu (Constanța) — Mihail Kogălniceanu Karamurat Hilfe zu Wappen …   Deutsch Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.