- Task-based language learning
Task-based language learning (TBLL), also known as Task-based language teaching (TBLT) or Task-based instruction (TBI) is a method of instruction in the field of
language acquisition. It focuses on the use of authentic language, and to students doing meaningful tasks using the target language; for example, visiting the doctor, conducting an interview, or calling customer services for help. Assessment is primarily based on task outcome (ie: the appropriate completion of tasks) rather than simply accuracy of language forms. This makes TBLL especially popular for developing target language fluency and student confidence.
TBLL was popularized by
N. Prabhuwhile working in Bangalore, India. Prabhu figured out that his students could learn language just as easily with a non-linguistic problem as when they are concentrating on linguistic questions.
Jane Willis broke it into three sections. The pre-task, the task cycle, and the language focus.
The core of the lesson is, as the name suggests, the task. All parts of the language used are deemphasized during the activity itself, in order to get students to focus on the task. Although there may be several effective frameworks for creating a task-based learning lesson, here is a rather comprehensive one suggested by Jane Willis:Frost, Richard. “A Task-based Approach.” British Counsel Teaching English. http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/methodology/task_based.shtml 4/12/2006] Harmer, Jeremy. The Practice of English Language Teaching. 3rd Edition. pg. 79-80. Essex: Pearson Education Ltd., 2001] Dave and Jane Willis (2007). Doing Task-based Teaching. OUP] Note that each lesson may be broken into several stages with some stages removed or others added as the instructor sees fit:
In the pre-task, the teacher will present what will be expected of the students in the task phase. Additionally, the teacher may prime the students with key vocabulary or grammatical constructs, although, in "pure" task-based learning lessons, these will be presented as suggestions and the students would be encouraged to use what they are comfortable with in order to complete the task. The instructor may also present a model of the task by either doing it themselves or by presenting picture, audio, or video demonstrating the task.
During the task phase, the students perform the task, typically in small groups, although this is dependent on the type of activity. And unless the teacher plays a particular role in the task, then the teacher's role is typically limited to one of an observer or counselor—thus the reason for it being a more student-centered methodology.
Having completed the task, the students prepare either a written or oral report to present to the class. The instructor takes questions and otherwise simply monitors the students.
The students then present this information to the rest of the class. Here the teacher may provide written or oral feedback, as appropriate, and the students observing may do the same.
Here the focus returns to the teacher who reviews what happened in the task, in regards to language. It may include language forms that the students were using, problems that students had, and perhaps forms that need to be covered more or were not used enough.
The practice stage may be used to cover material mentioned by the teacher in the analysis stage. It is an opportunity for the teacher to emphasize key language.
Task-based learning is advantageous to the student because it is more student-centered, allows for more meaningful communication, and often provides for practical extra-linguistic skill building. Although the teacher may present language in the pre-task, the students are ultimately free to use what grammar constructs and vocabulary they want. This allows them to use all the language they know and are learning, rather than just the 'target language' of the lesson. Furthermore, as the tasks are likely to be familiar to the students (eg: visiting the doctor), students are more likely to be engaged, which may further motivate them in their language learning.
There have been criticisms that task-based learning is not appropriate as the foundation of a class for beginning students. Others claim that students are only exposed to certain forms of language, and are being neglected of others, such as discussion or debate. Teachers may want to keep these in mind when designing a task-based learning lesson plan. [ [http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/September_06_home.php Ellis, Oxford, Nunan, "Task Based Teaching", Asian EFL Journal, 2006.] ]
* [http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/methodology/task_based.shtml British Council Teaching English - Methodology: A Task-based approach]
* [http://www.willis-elt.co.uk Jane and Dave Willis website]
* [http://www.widgets-inc.com Widgets: A task-based course in practical English]
* [http://www.teachinteract.com Interact: Learn Through Experience website]
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0838440851/ Atlas: Learning-centered communication]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Computer-assisted language learning — (CALL) is succinctly defined in a seminal work by Levy (1997: p. 1) as the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning . CALL embraces a wide range of ICT applications and approaches to teaching… … Wikipedia
Community language learning — (CLL) is an approach in which students work together to develop what aspects of a language they would like to learn. The teacher acts as a counsellor and a paraphraser, while the learner acts as a collaborator, although sometimes this role can be … Wikipedia
Second language learning — (SLL) is the process by which people consciously learn a second language. According to the linguist Stephen Krashen, there is a difference in language learning and language acquisition.Explaining Second Language LearningThe linguist Stephen… … Wikipedia
Motivation in second-language learning — Motivation is often defined as the psychological quality that leads people to achieve a goal. For language learners, mastery of a language may be a goal. For others, communicative competence or even basic communication skills could be a goal. In… … Wikipedia
Language teaching methods — Main article: Language education Language education may take place as a general school subject or in a specialized language school. There are many methods of teaching languages. Some have fallen into relative obscurity and others are widely used; … Wikipedia
Language transfer — (also known as L1 interference, linguistic interference, and crossmeaning) refers to speakers or writers applying knowledge from their native language to a second language. It is most commonly discussed in the context of English language learning … Wikipedia
Language development — is a process that starts early in human life, when a person begins to acquire language by learning it as it is spoken and by mimicry. Children s language development moves from simplicity to complexity. Infants start without language. Yet by four … Wikipedia
language — /lang gwij/, n. 1. a body of words and the systems for their use common to a people who are of the same community or nation, the same geographical area, or the same cultural tradition: the two languages of Belgium; a Bantu language; the French… … Universalium
Learning — Learn and Learned redirect here. For other uses, see Learn (disambiguation) and Learned (disambiguation). Neuropsychology Topics … Wikipedia
Learning object — A learning object is a collection of content items, practice items, and assessment items that are combined based on a single learning objective . The term is credited to Wayne Hogins when he created a working group in 1994 bearing the name  … Wikipedia