- Ivan Shuvalov
name =Ivan Shuvalov
caption =Ivan Shuvalov in 1760, as painted by
birth_date =birth date|1727|11|1|df=y
death_date =death date and age|1797|11|14|1727|11|1|df=y
Shuvalov Palace, Saint Petersburg
occupation =Russian Minister of Education
Ivan Ivanovich Shuvalov (
1 November, 1727ndash 14 November, 1797) was called the Maecenasof the Russian Enlightenmentand the first Russian Minister of Education. Russia's first theatre, university, and academy of arts were instituted with his active participation.
Love affair with the Empress
He was born in
Moscow, the only son of an army captain, who died when the boy was ten. The Shuvalov family fortunes changed drastically in 1741, when Elizaveta Petrovna(Empress Elizabeth Petrovna) ascended the Russian throne with some help from Ivan's powerful cousinsndash Peter Shuvalov and Alexander Shuvalov. The following year, they had the fourteen-year-old Ivan attached to the imperial court as a page.
In July 1749, when Ivan was visiting his brother-in-law Prince
Galitzineat his country estate near Moscow, the Shuvalov brothers arranged his meeting with the Empress, who was making a pilgrimage to the Monastery of St. Sabbas. The Shuvalovs were not disappointed in their calculations: the 49-year-old Empress took notice of the handsome page, who was 27 years her junior, and bid him accompany her in the upcoming pilgrimage to the New Jerusalem Monastery.
Three months later, Shuvalov was appointed a "kammer-junker", and his liaison with the Empress began. Although the cousins planned to use him as a pawn in their court intrigues, Shuvalov refused to get enmeshed in their machinations. As his biographers like to point out, Shuvalov was "mild and generous to all" and "had no enemies whatsoever".
His position at court grew stronger during Elizaveta's declining years, when he served as a virtual master of petitions to her, eclipsing her previous favourite and rumoured husband,
Aleksey Razumovsky. Promoted general in 1760, Shuvalov refused most other honours that the Empress wished to bestow upon him, including the title of count.
Patronage of Lomonosov
Unlike the self-seeking favourites of
Catherine the Great, Shuvalov determined to put his good fortune to constructive use for the advancement of education and the promotion of fine arts in his country. A model of the enlightened courtier, he maintained correspondence with the leading French thinkersndash Helvetius, d'Alembert, Diderot, and Voltaire. He supplied the latter with materials necessary for his "Histoire de l'empire de Russie sous Pierre le Grand" and was later instrumental in publishing it in Russia.
Shuvalov's activity brought him in touch with
Mikhail Lomonosov, a Russian scholar who aspired to establish a universityin Russia. Lomonosov found a loyal patron in Shuvalov and paid tribute to his accomplishments in his dedication of a couple of odes and "meditations" to him. On January 25, 1755ndash the name-day of Shuvalov's mother Tatiana Rodionovnandash the Empress endorsed their project to set up the Moscow University"for all sorts and conditions of people". Tatiana Dayis still celebrated in Russia as "Students Day".
Shuvalov became the university's first
curatorand attracted the finest scholars to teach there. He came up with the idea of establishing "The Moscow News" ("Московские ведомости"), a newspaper published by the university press, which was also founded at Shuvalov's instigation. Apart from two colleges affiliated with the Moscow University, he also helped establish the first Russian college outside Moscowndash in Kazan.
Academy of Arts
In 1757, Shuvalov submitted to the Senate his project for establishing the Academy of Three Noble Arts at his own palace in
Saint Petersburg. This institutionndash later transformed into the Imperial Academy of Artsndash was envisioned by him for the education of the most gifted boys from all strata of society. At first no formal examination was required to enter the Academy; even peasants' childrenndash like Fyodor Rokotovand Fedot Shubinndash were admitted on Shuvalov's personal recommendation.
Shuvalov served as the Academy's first president until 1763, when he was succeeded by
Ivan Betskoy. In 1758, he donated to the Academy his own collection of Western drawings and paintings, which formed the nucleus of its formidable holdings of fine art. At the time, his palace also hosted performances by Russia's first theatrical troupe, led by Fyodor Volkovand Ivan Dmitrievsky.
Upon Elizaveta's death and the ascension of
Catherine II, Shuvalov set off for Europe, ostensibly with the purpose of improving his frail health. During fourteen years of foreign travels, he acquired choice works of art for the Academy and the Hermitage Museum. He also commissioned copies of the finest Roman sculptures in Rome, Florenceand Naplesand later presented these to the Academy of Arts.
As regards politics, Shuvalov's life abroad was not as exciting as the previous period of his career. On Catherine II's request, he would go on diplomatic errands; thus it was he who persuaded the Pope to replace Durini, a
Russophobic nuncioat Warsaw, with the more pliant Count Giuseppe Garampi.
His eventual return to Russia in 1777 occasioned
Derzhavin's well-known epistle, while the Empress made him High Chamberlain. Shuvalov's mansion was to be frequented by the new generation of Russian intellectuals: Ekaterina Dashkova, Denis Fonvizin, Mikhail Kheraskov, Ivan Dmitriev, Aleksandr Shishkovndash many of them products of the university he had established. While living at his palace, the poet Kostrov produced the first Russian translation of the " Iliad".
After his imperial lover's demise Shuvalov never married and had no children. He died in the
Shuvalov Palace, Saint Petersburgon 14 November, 1797. His tomb is in the Annunciation Church of the Alexander Nevsky Monastery. In 2003, a memorial statue of Shuvalov was unveiled in the inner court of the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg. Its sculptor is Zurab Tsereteli, the current president of the Academy that Shuvalov founded. Another commemorative statue was erected in front of the Moscow University Library in 2004.
*Pavel Bartenev. "Ivan Ivanovich Shuvalov: A Biography". Moscow, 1857.
*"Ivan Ivanovich Shuvalov (1727-1797): prosveshchonnaya lichnost' v rossiiskoi istorii". SPb, 1998.
*ru icon [http://www.rah.ru/content/ru/main_menu/section-academy/section-academy_history/section-presidents/person_container-presidents/person-2004-11-11-22-12-57.html Ivan Shuvalov on the website of the Russian Academy of Arts]
NAME= Shuvalov, Ivan Ivanovich
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Russian Minister of Education
DATE OF BIRTH=
1 November, 1727
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=
14 November, 1797
PLACE OF DEATH=
Shuvalov Palace, Saint Petersburg
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