- War of the Second Coalition
Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=War of the Second Coalition
French Revolutionary Wars
Louis-François Lejeune: The Battle of Marengo
Central Europe, Italy
Treaty of Lunéville, Treaty of Amiens
combatant1=flagicon|Holy Roman Empire Austria [a]
flagicon|United Kingdom|1606 Great Britain [b]
flagicon|Russia Russia [f]
combatant2=flagicon|France French Republic
flagicon|Poland|state Polish Legions
Denmark–Norway[c] French client republics:
*flagicon|Napoleonic Italy|romana Roman Republic [d]
- Nominally the
Holy Roman Empire, of which the Austrian Netherlandsand the Duchy of Milanwere under direct Austrian rule. Also encompassed many other Italian states, as well as other Habsburgstates such as the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.
- Became the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Irelandon 1 January 1801.
- Officially neutral but Danish fleet was attacked by Britain at the
Battle of Copenhagen.
- Abolished following the restoration of the neutral
Papal Statesin 1800.
- Short lived state that replaced the Kingdom of Naples in 1799.
- Left the Coalition in 1799
The "Second Coalition" (
1799– 1802) was the second attempt by other European powers to contain or eliminate Revolutionary France. While Napoleon Bonapartewas leading an expedition to Egypt, a number of France's enemies formed a new alliance and attempted to roll back his previous conquests. Austria and Russia raised fresh armies for campaigns in Germanyand Italyin 1799.
The only military activity before the end of 1798 was in Italy, where Naples captured Rome on
28 Octoberbut was driven out by the end of the year.
In Italy, Russian general
Aleksandr Suvorovwon a string of victories driving the French under Moreau out of the Po Valley, and forcing them back on the French Alpsand the coast around Genoa. However, the Russian armies in the Helvetic Republic(" Switzerland") were defeated by André Masséna, and Suvorov's army was eventually withdrawn for political reasons.
Archduke Charles of Austriadrove the French under Jean-Baptiste Jourdanback across the Rhine, and won several victories in Switzerland. Jourdan was replaced by Massena.
Russia left the coalition on account of British insistence that they would have the right to search any vessel on the sea.
By the end of the year, Napoleon had returned from Egypt, leaving his army behind, and took control of France in a coup d'état. He reorganized the French armies and command for the next year's campaign.
1800, Napoleon took personal command of the army in Italy, and eventually won a victory at the Battle of Marengoagainst the Austrian general Michael Melas, driving the Austrians back toward the Alps.
In Germany, General Moreau defeated Archduke Johann at the
Battle of Hohenlinden, forcing him to sign an armistice.
1801the Austrians signed the Treaty of Lunéville, accepting French control up to the Rhineand the French client republics in Italy and the Netherlands.
French Revolutionary Wars:
- Nominally the
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