War of the Second Coalition


War of the Second Coalition

Infobox Military Conflict
conflict=War of the Second Coalition
partof=the French Revolutionary Wars


caption=Louis-François Lejeune: The Battle of Marengo
date=1799-1802
place=Central Europe, Italy
result=French victory, Treaty of Lunéville, Treaty of Amiens
combatant1=flagicon|Holy Roman Empire Austria [a]
flagicon|United Kingdom|1606 Great Britain [b]
flagicon|Russia Russia [f]
combatant2=flagicon|France French Republic
flagicon|Spain|1785 Spain
flagicon|Poland|state Polish Legions
flagicon|Denmark Denmark–Norway [c]
French client republics:
*flagicon|Netherlands Batavian Republic
*flagicon|Switzerland|helvetic Helvetic Republic
*flagicon|Napoleonic Italy|cisalpina Cisalpine Republic
*flagicon|Napoleonic Italy|romana Roman Republic [d]
*flagicon|Napoleonic Italy|parthenopaean Parthenopaean Republic [e]
notes=

  1. Nominally the Holy Roman Empire, of which the Austrian Netherlands and the Duchy of Milan were under direct Austrian rule. Also encompassed many other Italian states, as well as other Habsburg states such as the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.
  2. Became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801.
  3. Officially neutral but Danish fleet was attacked by Britain at the Battle of Copenhagen.
  4. Abolished following the restoration of the neutral Papal States in 1800.
  5. Short lived state that replaced the Kingdom of Naples in 1799.
  6. Left the Coalition in 1799

The "Second Coalition" (1799–1802) was the second attempt by other European powers to contain or eliminate Revolutionary France. While Napoleon Bonaparte was leading an expedition to Egypt, a number of France's enemies formed a new alliance and attempted to roll back his previous conquests. Austria and Russia raised fresh armies for campaigns in Germany and Italy in 1799.

The only military activity before the end of 1798 was in Italy, where Naples captured Rome on 28 October but was driven out by the end of the year.

In Italy, Russian general Aleksandr Suvorov won a string of victories driving the French under Moreau out of the Po Valley, and forcing them back on the French Alps and the coast around Genoa. However, the Russian armies in the Helvetic Republic ("Switzerland") were defeated by André Masséna, and Suvorov's army was eventually withdrawn for political reasons.

In Germany, Archduke Charles of Austria drove the French under Jean-Baptiste Jourdan back across the Rhine, and won several victories in Switzerland. Jourdan was replaced by Massena.

Russia left the coalition on account of British insistence that they would have the right to search any vessel on the sea.

By the end of the year, Napoleon had returned from Egypt, leaving his army behind, and took control of France in a coup d'état. He reorganized the French armies and command for the next year's campaign.

In 1800, Napoleon took personal command of the army in Italy, and eventually won a victory at the Battle of Marengo against the Austrian general Michael Melas, driving the Austrians back toward the Alps.

In Germany, General Moreau defeated Archduke Johann at the Battle of Hohenlinden, forcing him to sign an armistice.

In February 1801 the Austrians signed the Treaty of Lunéville, accepting French control up to the Rhine and the French client republics in Italy and the Netherlands.

The Treaty of Amiens between France and Britain began the longest break in the war between the two during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic periods.

ee also

French Revolutionary Wars:
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Notes


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