Chanson


Chanson

A chanson (French pronunciation: [ʃɑ̃sɔ̃], "song", from Latin cantio) is in general any lyric-driven French song, usually polyphonic and secular. A singer specialising in chansons is known as a "chanteur" (male) or "chanteuse" (female); a collection of chansons, especially from the late Middle Ages and Renaissance, is also known as a chansonnier.

Contents

Chanson de geste

The earliest chansons were the epic poems performed to simple monophonic melodies by a professional class of jongleurs or ménestrels. These usually recounted the famous deeds (geste) of past heroes, legendary and semi-historical. The Song of Roland is the most famous of these, but in general the chansons de geste are studied as literature since very little of their music survives.

Chanson courtoise

The chanson courtoise or grand chant was an early form of monophonic chanson, the chief lyric poetic genre of the trouvères. It was an adaptation to Old French of the Occitan canso. It was practised in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Thematically, as its name implies, it was a song of courtly love, written usually by a man to his noble lover. Some later chansons were polyphonic and some had refrains and were called chansons avec des refrains. A Crusade song was known as a chanson de croisade.

Burgundian chanson

In its typical specialised usage, the word chanson refers to a polyphonic French song of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance. Early chansons tended to be in one of the formes fixes—ballade, rondeau or virelai (formerly the chanson baladée)—though some composers later set popular poetry in a variety of forms. The earliest chansons were for two, three or four voices, with first three becoming the norm, expanding to four voices by the sixteenth century. Sometimes, the singers were accompanied by instruments.

The first important composer of chansons was Guillaume de Machaut, who composed three-voice works in the formes fixes during the 14th century. Guillaume Dufay and Gilles Binchois, who wrote so-called Burgundian chansons (because they were from the area known as Burgundy), were the most important chanson composers of the next generation (c. 1420-1470). Their chansons while somewhat simple in style, are also generally in three voices with a structural tenor.

Parisian chanson

Later 15th- and early 16th-century figures in the genre included Johannes Ockeghem and Josquin des Prez, whose works cease to be constrained by formes fixes and begin to feature a similar pervading imitation to that found in contemporary motets and liturgical music. At mid-century, Claudin de Sermisy and Clément Janequin were composers of so-called Parisian chansons, which also abandoned the formes fixes and were in a simpler, more homophonic style, sometimes featuring music that was meant to be evocative of certain imagery. Many of these Parisian works were published by Pierre Attaingnant. Composers of their generation, as well as later composers, such as Orlando de Lassus, were influenced by the Italian madrigal. Many early instrumental works were ornamented variations (diminutions) on chansons, with this genre becoming the canzone, a progenitor of the sonata.

The first book of sheet music printed from movable type was Harmonice Musices Odhecaton, a collection of ninety-six chansons by many composers, published in Venice in 1501 by Ottaviano Petrucci.

Modern chanson

French solo song developed in the late 16th century, probably from the aforementioned Parisian works. During the 17th century, the air de cour, chanson pour boire and other like genres, generally accompanied by lute or keyboard, flourished, with contributions by such composers as Antoine Boesset, Denis Gaultier, Michel Lambert and Michel-Richard de Lalande.

During the 18th century, vocal music in France was dominated by Opera, but solo song underwent a renaissance in the 19th century, first with salon melodies, but by mid-century with highly sophisticated works influenced by the German Lieder which had been introduced into the country. Louis Niedermeyer, under the particular spell of Schubert, was a pivotal figure in this movement, followed by Édouard Lalo, Felicien David and many others.

Another offshoot of chanson called chanson réaliste (realist song), was a popular musical genre in France, primarily from the 1880s until the end of World War II.[1][2] Born of the cafés-concerts and cabarets of the Montmartre district of Paris and influenced by literary realism and the naturalist movements in literature and theatre, chanson réaliste was a musical style which was mainly performed by women and dealt with the lives of Paris's poor and working class.[1][3][4] Some of the more well-known performers of the genre include Damia, Fréhel and Édith Piaf.

Later 19th-century composers of French song, called either mélodie or chanson, included Ernest Chausson, Emmanuel Chabrier, Gabriel Fauré and Claude Debussy, while many 20th-century French composers have continued this strong tradition.

Chanson today

In France today "chanson" typically refers to the music of singers such as Charles Trenet, Jacques Brel, Jean Ferrat, Georges Brassens, Édith Piaf, Charles Aznavour, Barbara, Serge Reggiani, Léo Ferré, Mireille Mathieu and Serge Gainsbourg. Chanson can be distinguished from the rest of French "pop" music by following the rhythms of French language, rather than those of English.

See also

  • Shanson - Russian criminal song genre

External links

References

  • Brown, Howard Mayer, et al. "Chanson." In Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online.
  • Dobbins, Frank. "Chanson." In The Oxford Companion to Music, edited by Alison Latham. Oxford Music Online.
  • Michail Scherbakov. Russian Сhanson. "Deja."
  • Grout, Donald Jay, and Palisca, Claude V. (2001). A History of Western Music, 6th ed. New York: W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-97527-4.
  1. ^ a b Sweeney, Regina M. (2001). Singing Our Way to Victory: French Cultural Politics and Music During the Great War, Wesleyan University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0819564737.
  2. ^ Fagot, Sylvain & Uzel, Jean-Philippe (2006). Énonciation artistique et socialité: actes du colloque international de Montréal des 3 et 4 mars 2005, L'Harmattan. pp. 200-203. ISBN 2296001769. (French text)
  3. ^ Wilson, Elizabeth (1992). The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Women, University of California Press. p. 62. ISBN 0520078640
  4. ^ Conway, Kelly (2004). Chanteuse in the City: The Realist Singer in French Film. University of California Press. p. 6. ISBN 0520244079

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • CHANSON — Chanson: un mot clé dans l’histoire de la sensibilité, un mot déconcertant aussi, tant le sens en est à la fois multiple et imprécis. Car le spécialiste qui voudrait récapituler toutes les significations du terme «chanson» devrait en appeler à la …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • chanson — CHANSON. s. f. Genre de Poésie. Vers que l on chante sur quelque air. Chanson nouvelle. Vieille chanson. Chanson amoureuse. Chanson à danser. Danser aux chansons. Chanson à boire ou chanson bachique. Faire une chanson. Un couplet de chanson. Le… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • chanson — Chanson. s. f. v. Paroles en vers que l on chante sur quelque air. Chanson nouvelle. vieille chanson. chanson spirituelle. chanson amoureuse. chanson à danser. danser aux chansons. chanson à boire, ou chanson bachique. faire, composer une chanson …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • Chanson — es un término francés, que en español se refiere a cualquier canción con letra en francés y, más específicamente, a piezas vocales de tema amoroso, y también a las de crítica social y política, en particular las pertenecientes al estilo de los… …   Wikipedia Español

  • chanson — Chanson, Cantio, Praecentio, Musa, Carmen, Canticum, Psalmus. Belle chanson, Lepida et suauis cantio. Chanson legiere qui n est point de choses graves, Cantiuncula. Chansons mal basties et faconnées, qui sont sans aucune mesure, Carmina incondita …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • Chanson — Sn geselliges Lied erw. fach. (17. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus frz. chanson f. Lied , dieses aus l. cantio f., einer Ableitung von l. canere (cantum) singen . Zunächst entlehnt als (französisches) Liedchen ; dann im Kabarett ein freches,… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • Chanson — Le nom pourrait venir du Cantal, où il est très présent. Désigne celui qui est originaire de Chanson, toponyme rencontré parfois dans le Massif Central (notamment dans le 42 et le 43), mais dont le sens précis ne m est pas connu. Il semble… …   Noms de famille

  • chanson — (izg. šansȏn) m DEFINICIJA glazb. pov. kraća svjetovna vokalna kompozicija, ob. s francuskog govornog područja, od 11. st. do danas, usp. šansona SINTAGMA chanson de geste (izg. chanson d žȅst) knjiž. pov. francuski ep razvijenog srednjeg vijeka… …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Chanson — Chanson: Das in der 1. Hälfte des 18. Jh.s aus frz. chanson entlehnte Fremdwort wurde zunächst in dessen Bedeutung »‹Volks›lied« gebraucht. Unter dem Einfluss des Kabaretts wurde es dann zur Bezeichnung eines den Zeitgeist persiflierenden,… …   Das Herkunftswörterbuch

  • chanson — ANSÓN/ s. n. compoziţie vocală polifonică, cu text francez, ajunsă la înflorire în epoca Renaşterii. (< fr. chanson) Trimis de raduborza, 15.09.2007. Sursa: MDN …   Dicționar Român

  • Chanson — Chan son, n. [F., fr. L. cantion song. See {Cantion}, {Canzone}.] A song. Shak. [1913 Webster] || …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English


We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.