- Roderick Chisholm
Roderick M. Chisholm (born
Seekonk, Massachusettsin 1916; died Providence, Rhode Islandin 1999) was an American philosopher known for his work on epistemology, metaphysics, free will, and the philosophy of perception. He received his Ph.D. at Harvard Universityunder Clarence Irving Lewisand Donald C. Williams, and taught at Brown University.
Chisholm's first major work was "Perceiving" (1957). His epistemological views were summed up in a popular text, "Theory of Knowledge", which appeared in three very different editions (1966, 1977, and 1989). His masterwork was "Person and Object", its title deliberately contrasting with
W. V. O. Quine's "Word and Object". Chisholm was a metaphysical Platonistin the tradition of Bertrand Russelland a rationalistin the tradition of Russell, G. E. Moore, and Franz Brentano; he objected to Quine's anti-realism, behaviorism, and relativism. He defended the possibility of empirical knowledge by appeal to "a priori" epistemic principles whose consequences include that it is more reasonable to trust your senses and memory in most situations than to doubt them. His theory of knowledge was also famously "foundationalist" in character: all justified beliefs are either "directly evident" or supported by chains of justified beliefs that ultimately lead to beliefs that are directly evident. He also defended a controversial theory of volition called "agent causation" much like that of Thomas Reid. He argued that free will is incompatible with determinism, and believed that we do act freely; this combination of views is known as libertarianism. He developed a highly original theory of first person thought according to which the things we believe are properties, and believing them is a matter of self-attributing them. (A similar view was developed independently by David Kellogg Lewis, and enjoys considerable popularity, although it is now known mainly through Lewis's work.) Chisholm was also famous for defending the possibility of robust self-knowledge (against the skeptical arguments of David Hume), and an objective ethics of requirements similar to that of W. D. Ross. Chisholm's other books include "The Problem of the Criterion", "Perceiving", "The First Person" and "A Realist Theory of the Categories", though his numerous journal articles are probably better known than any of these.
Chisholm read widely in the history of philosophy, and frequently referred to the work of Ancient, Medieval, Modern, and even Continental philosophers (although the use he made of this material has sometimes been challenged). Nonetheless, he greatly respected the history of philosophy, in the face of a prevailing indifference among analytic philosophers. Chisholm translated some work by Brentano and by Husserl, and contributed to the post-1970 renaissance of
Chisholm greatly influenced a number of his graduate students and colleagues, including
Richard Taylor, Jaegwon Kim, Keith Lehrer, R. C. Sleigh, Ernest Sosa, Fred Feldman, Terence Penelhum, Selmer Bringsjord, Dean Zimmermanand Bernard K. Symonds.
Direct attribution theory of reference
Chisholm argued for the primacy of the
mentalover linguistic intentionality, as suggested in the title of "Person and Object" (1976) that was deliberately contrasted with Quine's "Word and Object" (1960). In this regard, he defended the direct attribution theory of referencein "The First Person" (1981). He argues that we refer to things other than ourselves by directly attributing properties to them, and that we indirectly or relatively attribute properties to them by directly attributing properties to ourselves. Suppose the following bed scene:
:(1) a man M is in bed B with a woman W, namely, M-B-W, or:(2) a woman W is in bed B with a man M, namely, W-B-M.
If I were M and "U" were W, then I could directly attribute to myself the property (1) or M-B-W, while indirectly to "U" the property (2) or W-B-M, "thereby referring to "U". That is, to say (1) is "relatively" to say (2), or to explicate M-B-W is to implicate W-B-M.
His idea of indirect attribution (1981) is relevant to
John Searle's "indirect speech act" (1975) and Paul Grice's " implicature" (1975), in addition to entailment.
* "Perceiving: A Philosophical Study" (Ithaca: Cornell University Press) 1957.
* "Person and Object: A Metaphysical Study" (London: G. Allen & Unwin) 1976.
* "Essays of the Philosophy of Roderick M. Chisholm" (ed. R.M. Chisholm and Ernest Sosa. Amsterdam: Rodopi) 1979.
* "The First Person: An Essay on Reference and Intentionality" (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press) 1981.
* "The Foundations of Knowing" (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press) 1982.
* "Brentano and Meinong Studies" (Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press) 1982.
* "Brentano and Intrinsic Value" (New York: Cambridge University Press) 1986.
* "Roderick M. Chisholm" (ed. Radu J. Bogdan. Boston: D. Reidel Publishing Company) 1986.
* "On Metaphysics" (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press) 1989.
* "Theory of knowledge" (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall) 1st ed. 1966, 2nd ed. 1977, 3rd ed. 1989.
* "The Nature of Epistemic Principles," "Nous" 24: 209-16, 1990.
* "On the Simplicity of the Soul," "Philosophical Perspectives" 5: 157-81, 1991.
* "Agents, Causes, and Events: The Problem of Free Will" in: Timothy O'Connor, ed. "Agents, Causes, and Events: Essays on Indeterminism and Free Will" (New York: Oxford University Press): 95-100, 1995.
* "A Realistic Theory of Categories: An Essay on Ontology" (New York: Cambridge University Press) 1996.
* Hahn, L. E., ed., 1997. "The Philosophy of Roderick Chisholm" (The Library of Living Philosophers). Open Court. Includes an autobiographical essay and a complete bibliography.
* [http://www.brown.edu/Departments/Philosophy/people/chisholm.html Chisholm's page at Brown University]
* [http://www.informationphilosopher.com/solutions/philosophers/chisholm/ Information Philosopher on Roderick Chisholm on Free Will]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Roderick Chisholm — Roderick Milton Chisholm (* 1916 in Seekonk, Massachusetts; † 1999 in Providence) war ein amerikanischer Philosoph, der sich vor allem mit der Epistemologie, Metaphysik, der Philosophie der Wahrnehmung, dem Materialismus, der Ontologie und… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Roderick Chisholm — Roderick M. Chisholm (Seekonk, Massachusetts, 1916 Providence, Rhode Island, 1999) fue un filósofo estadounidense conocido por su obra en los campos de la epistemología, metafísica, libre albedrío y filosofía de la percepción. Se doctoró en la… … Wikipedia Español
Roderick M. Chisholm — Roderick Milton Chisholm (* 1916 in Seekonk, Massachusetts; † 1999 in Providence) war ein amerikanischer Philosoph, der sich vor allem mit der Epistemologie, Metaphysik, der Philosophie der Wahrnehmung, dem Materialismus, der Ontologie und… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Roderick Milton Chisholm — (* 1916 in Seekonk, Massachusetts; † 1999 in Providence) war ein amerikanischer Philosoph, der sich vor allem mit der Epistemologie, Metaphysik, der Philosophie der Wahrnehmung, dem Materialismus, der Ontologie und Wertetheorien befasste.… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Chisholm (surname) — Chisholm Family name Meaning cheese + piece of dry land in a fen Region of origin Scotland Language(s) of origin Old English Related names Siosal; Shiosal … Wikipedia
Chisholm — (vom Namen des schottischen Clans Chisholm) steht für Personen: Ashleigh Chisholm (* 1990), australische Schauspielerin Brock Chisholm (1896–1971), kanadischer Psychiater und Generaldirektor der WHO Caroline Chisholm ( 1808–1877), australische… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Roderick — ist der Familienname von Brande Roderick (* 1971), US amerikanisches Fotomodell sowie der Vorname von Roderick MacKinnon (* 1956), US amerikanischer Biochemiker Roderick Miranda (* 1991), portugiesischer Fußballspieler Roderick Murchison… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Chisholm — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Chisholm est un nom de clan écossais, devenu patronyme et nom de lieu. Nom de famille … Wikipédia en Français
Chisholm — [tʃɪzm], Roderick Milton, amerikanischer Philosoph, * North Attleboro (Massachusetts) 27. 11. 1916, ✝ Providence (Rhode Island) 19. 1. 1999; lehrte ab 1947 in Providence (Rhode Island); Mitherausgeber der Gesamtausgabe der Werke A. Meinongs und … Universal-Lexikon
Roderick Murchison — Sir Roderick Murchison Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, 1st Baronet KCB DCL FRS FRSE FLS PRGS PBA MRIA (22 February 1792 – 22 October 1871) was a Scottish geologist who first described and investigated the Silurian system … Wikipedia