Infobox UK place
region= South East England
Burford (pronEng|ˈbɜːfəd) is a Cotswold
townin Oxfordshire, England. It lies about 30 kilometres west of Oxfordon the River Windrushand is a popular centre for tourists who visit the Cotswolds, with many antique shops on the main street. The name derives from the Old English words "burh" meaning fortified town or hilltown and "ford" meaning ford (crossing).
Burford Priory stands on the site of a small
Augustinianhospital. It is a fine example of Cotswold Jacobethan domestic architecture, formerly the home of William Lenthall, Speaker of the House of Commonsin the Long Parliament, who purchased the estate in 1637. The house and later the chapelwere restored for the philanthropistE.J. Horniman, M.P., after 1912 by the architect Walter Godfrey. Today it houses The Priory of Our Lady, a community of Anglican Benedictine monks and nuns.
Burford is home to the "Blue Cross National Animal Welfare Charity". 'The
Cotswold Wildlife Park' is also located near Burford, approximately convert|2|mi|km South down the A361 towards Lechlade.
Burford County Primary School is the town's
primary schooland is located in Priory Lane, and Burford School, a mixed comprehensive school/ secondary school, is also found in the town.
Burford was recently twinned with
Potenza Picena, a small town in the Marche, on the East Adriaticcoast of Italy. Links are growing with many groups in the town including the school, football team and church.
Burford has a
feteevery summer, involving the children from the primary school. There is a procession (including a dragon) down the high street to the school, where there are stalls and games.
Burford is the home of the duly named 'Burford Golf Club' located less than convert|100|yd from the Buford roundabout (on the A361 turn-off; towards Lechlade). The course itself is separated by the A361 having 9 holes on each side.
Burford has many
hotels, restaurants and public houses all within walking distance of each other, they include:Burford House Hotel,Burford Lodge Hotel & Restaurant,The Cotswold Gateway,The Lamb Inn,The Bay Tree,The Highway,The Royal Oak,The Mermaid,The Angel,The Cotswold Arms,The Golden Pheasant,The Bull,The Aziz (Indian),The Dragon Inn (Chinese)
Burford Garden Company
Burford is also home to Burford Garden Company, a well-known, high quality store, its site spanning some 15 acres, stocking products for the home and garden, along with a susbstantial fresh food market and two restaurants. The shop is independent and a favorite with many of the celebrities who live in the Cotswolds area, including
Kate Moss, David Cameron, Gary Barlowand Kate Winsletand members of the critically acclaimed rock band Radiohead.Fact|date=July 2008
Burford has a strong selection of retail art galleries offering a wide range of art works and is ideally placed for people travelling out from London. Of note are the Wren Gallery, Salt Gallery, Brian Sinfield Gallery & Stone Gallery and also the Vintage Arts Gallery at Burford Garden Company on the
, which can still be found in the church.
Between the 14th century and the 17th century Burford was important for its
wool. The "Tolsey" is located in the centre of Burford's High Street; this was once the centre of the local wool trade. Today, the "Tolsey" is home to a museum.
The town centre features some houses dating from the 15th century. Its most notable building, however, is the
parish churchdedicated to St. John the Baptist, which is known for its merchants' guildchapel, memorial to Henry VIII's barber-surgeon, Edmund Harman, featuring South American Indians, and Kempe glass. The parish church is located at Ordnance Surveymapping six-figure grid reference SP 253124
The Easter Synod
, Abbot of Malmsbury; and many others.Wikisource1911Enc|Burford
Aldhelm was ordered at this conference to write a book against the error of the Britons in the observance of Easter. At this Synod Berthwald gave 40 cassates of land to Aldhelm who afterwards became Bishop of Shereborne. According to Spelman, the notes of the Synod were published in A.D. 705.
The Golden Dragon
Malmesbury and other chroniclers give accounts of a battle fought in Burford in 752 AD. The battle waged long and bloody. All day the arrows strewed the ground with wounded and dying men, while the Saxon battle-axe and the spiked mace played their terrible part in the conflict. The slaughter was enormous and in the end
Æthelhumthe mighty standard-bearer who carried the flag with the golden dragonemblazoned upon it was killed by the lance of his Saxon rival. As noted in the Anglo Saxon Chronicles"A.D 752. This year Cuthred, king of the West Saxons, in the 12th year of his reign, fought at Burford, against Æthelbald king of the Mercians, and put him to flight." Camden thus tells the tale, "Isis now and then overflowing, the lower grounds receives its first addition from the Windrush, which, flowing out of the Cotteswold, salutes Burford standing on the banks of it, in Saxon Beorgford, where Cuthred, king of the West Saxons, then tributary to the Mercians, not being able to endure any longer the cruelty and base exactions of king Æthelbald, met him in the open field with an army and beat him, taking his standard, which was a portraiture of a golden dragon." The origin of the golden dragon standard is most likely that of Uther Pendragon, the father of King Arthurof which Geoffrey of Monmouth says "Mindful of the explanation given by Merlin of the star about which I have told you, he ordered two Dragons to be fashioned in gold, in the likeness of the one which he had seen in the ray which shone from that star. As soon as the Dragons had been completed this with the most marvellous craftsmanship - he made a present of one of them to the congregation of the cathedral church of the see of Winchester. The second one he kept for himself, so that he could carry it around to his wars." [ The History of the Kings of Britain, Geoffrey of Monmouth, c. 1136 ]
It would appear that the anniversary of this battle was annually celebrated by the good folk of Burford, to keep alive wholesome remembrance of the glorious tradition of the golden dragon of the Britons [ Gardener's Directory of Oxfordshire, 1852 ] , for
William Camden, in describing other festivals, says, "There has been a custom in the town of making a great dragon yearly, and carrying it up and down the streets in great jollity on midsummer eve". In addition to the dragon they also carried a giant. The field of engagement is called Battle Edgeto this day.
On 21st November, 1814, a large
freestone sarcophaguswas discovered near to Battle Edge convert|3|ft|m below the surface, weighing 16 cwt with the feet pointing almost due South. The cavity is convert|6|ft|m in length and convert|2|ft|2|in|m in breadth. On examination it was found to contain the remains of a human body, possibly the mighty Æthelhum, and portions of a leathern cuirassstudded with metal nails. The skeleton was found in near perfect state due to the exclusion of air from the sarcophagus. The coffin is now preserved in Burford Church Yard, near the West gate.
"Whose fame is in that dark green tomb? Four stones with their heads of moss stand there. They mark the narrow house of death. Some chief of fame is here! Raise the songs of old! Awake their memory in the tomb."
* The fictional
GI Joecharacter Big Ben is from Burford.
* [http://www.geograph.org.uk/search.php?i=2652508 www.geograph.co.uk : photos of Burford and surrounding area]
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Burford — ist der Name folgender Ortschaften: Burford (Cheshire), England Burford (Devon), England Burford (Ontario), Kanada Burford (Oxfordshire), England Burford (Shropshire), England Burford (Somerset), England Burford ist der Name folgender Personen:… … Deutsch Wikipedia
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Burford — (spr. Borford), Marktflecken an der Windrush in der englischen Grafschaft Oxford; 1400 Ew.; fertigen Sattel, wollene u. leinene Zeuge. Hier 750 Sieg des Königs Cuthred von Wessex über Ethelbald von Mercia. Später gehörte B. den Grafen von… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Burford — (spr. bör ), Marktflecken in Oxfordshire (England), am Windrush, 27 km nordwestlich von Oxford, mit alter, meist gotischer Kirche, Lateinschule und (1901) 3638 Einw. – In angelsächsischer Zeit war der Name des Ortes Beorgford. 752 schlug hier… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Burford — This interesting name is of English locational origin from either Burford in Oxfordshire, recorded Beorgfeord in 752, in the Anglo Saxon Chronicles and Bureford in the Domesday Book 1086, or a place of the same name in Shropshire, which was… … Surnames reference
Burford — Original name in latin Burford Name in other language Beorgford, Burford, bafodo, Бърфорд State code GB Continent/City Europe/London longitude 51.80915 latitude 1.63628 altitude 107 Population 1340 Date 2012 04 12 … Cities with a population over 1000 database
Burford — ▪ England, United Kingdom town (parish), West Oxfordshire district, administrative and historic county of Oxfordshire, southern England, on the River Windrush, in the Cotswolds. The town was acquired by Robert FitzHamon, earl of Gloucester … Universalium
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Burford (disambiguation) — Burford could be*Burford, Oxfordshire *Burford, Cheshire *Burford, Ontario *Burford, Shropshire*George Burford, American soccer coach*HMS Burford , the name of three ships of the Royal NavySee also: Buford … Wikipedia