- List of rulers of Transylvania
List of rulers of
Transylvania, from the first mention of a ruler in the tenth century, until 1918.
The administration of the eastern parts of the Hungarian Kingdom referred as "Partes Transsylvana" was in the hands of a voivod appointed by the King. The word voivod or voievod first appeared in historical documents in 1193. Prior to that, the term ispán was used for the chief official of the County of Alba. The whole historical territory of Transylvania came under the jurisdiction of the voievod after 1263, when the functions of Count of Szolnok (Doboka) and Count of Alba were terminated.
The Voivode of Transylvania (woyuoda Transsiluanus) was one of the barons of the kingdom. The voivode was, in effect, a territorial governor or viceroy appointed by the Hungarian crown. He was also the chief magistrate and military commander of Transylvania's (seven) counties (except some administrative untis eg free royal cities, Universitas Saxorum and Szekelyland), and this power inevitably drew the Székely and Saxon territories into his sphere of influence however these territories were governed by counts who were nominally independent of the voivode.
In the 16th century, the conflict between
Habsburgs and the Ottoman Empireallowed Transylvania to gain a certain indepedence until it was finally integrated until the Habsburg Monarchyaround 1700. The Habsburg rulers continued to use the title of "Prince of Transylvania" (and later "Grand Prince of Transylvania") as part of their official title until the end of their monarchy. The territory was administered by an appointed governoruntil 1867, when it was dissolved as an administrative unit in the wake of the Austro-Hungarian Ausgleichof 1867 and integrated into the Kingdom of Hungary. At the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1919, Transylvania became part of the Kingdom of Romania. It was divided between Romania and Hungary in 1940but reverted back to Romania in 1945.
* [http://www.heraldique-europeenne.org/Regions/Europe_Orientale/Transylvanie.htm Heraldique Europeenne] including the coats-of-arms of Transylvania and its rulers 1526-1690
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