- Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne
SpaceShipOne is a
spaceplanethat completed the first privately funded human spaceflighton June 21, 2004. It was developed by Scaled Composites.
SpaceShipOne was an experimental air-launched
suborbitalspaceplane that used a hybrid rocketmotor. The design featured a unique "feathering" reentrysystem where the rear half of the wing and the twin tailbooms folded upward along a hinge running the length of the wing; this increased drag while remaining stable. The achievements of SpaceShipOne are more comparable to the X-15 than orbiting spacecraft like the Space Shuttle. Accelerating a spacecraft to orbital speedrequires more than 60 times as much energy as lifting it to 100 km. [ [http://www.wired.com/science/space/magazine/15-06/ff_space_musk?currentPage=3 Elon Musk Is Betting His Fortune on a Mission Beyond Earth's Orbit ] ]
SpaceShipOne was developed by Mojave Aerospace Ventures (A joint venture between
Paul Allenand Scaled Composites, Burt Rutan's aviation company, in their Tier Oneprogram), without government funding. On June 21, 2004, it made the first privately funded human spaceflight, and on October 4, it won the $10 million Ansari X PRIZE, by reaching 100 kilometers in altitude twice in a two-week period with the equivalent of three people on board, with no more than ten percent of the non-fuel weight of the spacecraft replaced between flights. Development costs were estimated to be $25 million, funded completely by Paul Allen.
During its testing regimen, SpaceShipOne set a number of important "firsts", including first privately funded aircraft to exceed Mach 2 and Mach 3, first privately funded manned spacecraft to exceed 100km altitude, and first privately funded reusable manned spacecraft.
A common misattribution to SpaceShipOne is the first privately funded spacecraft, without qualifying it as manned. Prior unmanned privately funded space flights were successfully achieved by the Orbital Sciences Pegasus since 1990 and the
Civilian Space eXploration Team5 weeks earlier in May 2004. Scaled is also the subcontractor to Orbital Sciences who builds the composite wings and fins of their Pegasus rockets.
SpaceShipOne is registered with the FAA as Airreg|N|328KF. 'N' is the prefix for US-registered aircraft; '328KF' was chosen by Scaled Composites to stand for 328
kilofeet (about 100 kilometers), the officially designated edge of space. The original choice of registry number, N100KM, was already taken. N328KF is registered as a glider, reflecting the fact that most of its independent flight is unpowered.
SpaceShipOne's first flight, 01C, was an unmanned
captive carry flight teston May 20 2003. Glide tests followed, starting with flight 03G on August 7, 2003. Its first powered flight, flight 11P, was made on December 17, 2003, the 100th anniversary of the first powered flight.
April 1, 2004, Scaled Composites received the first license for sub-orbital rocket flights to be issued by the US Department of Transportation. This license permitted the company to conduct powered test flights over the course of one year. On June 17, 2004, Mojave Airport reclassified itself (part-time) as the Mojave Spaceport.
Flight 15P on
June 21, 2004, was SpaceShipOne's first spaceflight, and the first privately funded human spaceflight. Ansari X PRIZE flights followed, with flight 17P on October 4, 2004, winning the prize.
SpaceShipOne's spaceflights were watched by large crowds at Mojave Spaceport. A fourth suborbital flight, Flight 18P, was originally scheduled for
October 13, 2004. However, Burt Rutan decided not to risk damage to the historic craft, and cancelled it and all future flights.
July 25, 2005SpaceShipOne was taken to the Oshkosh Airshowin Oshkosh, Wisconsin. After the airshow, Mike Melvill and crew flew the White Knight, carrying SpaceShipOne, to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio, where Mike spoke to a group of about 300 military and civilian personnel. Later in the evening, Mike gave a presentation at the Dayton Engineers Club, entitled "Some Experiments in Space Flight", in honor of Wilbur Wright's now famous presentation to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1901 entitled "Some Experiments in Flight." The White Knight then transported SpaceShipOne to the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museumto be put on display. It was unveiled on Wednesday October 5, 2005in the Milestones of Flight gallery and is now on display to the public in the main atrium between the Spirit of St. Louisand the Bell X-1.
SpaceShipOne became a popular
model rocketin 2004. Estes Industriescurrently offers several flying model rockets of SpaceShipOne. A piece of SpaceShipOne's carbon fibermaterial was launched aboard the New Horizonsmission to Plutoin 2006. [cite news | title=Pluto Mission to Carry Piece of SpaceShipOne | date=December 20, 2005 | publisher=Space.com|url=http://www.space.com/astronotes/astronotes.html ]
A year after its appearance in the Oshkosh Airventure airshow, the
Experimental Aircraft Associationfeatured a full-scale replica of the spacecraft in a wing of its museum which housed other creations of Burt Rutan. Using the same fiberglass molds as the original, it was so exact in its replication - despite not having any doors or interior - that it was dubbed "Serial 2 Scaled" by Scaled Composites. Each and every painstaking detail in its appearance was matched, down to the N328KF serial number on its fuselage. It is so precise that, during a video presentation held every hour in the museum, it can display the two different modes of its 'feathering' ability, albeit through the aid of pulleys and wires (there is no internal machinery in the replica). cite web |url=http://www.airventuremuseum.org/collection/aircraft/SpaceShipOne.asp |title=SpaceShipOne |accessdate=2008-06-21 |date=29 July 2005 |author=Jeff Hecht |publisher=New Scientist ]
The development of a larger, more powerful space plane capable of reaching 120km was announced in 2004. It will be named
Scaled Composites SpaceShipTwo, and is currently under development by The Spaceship Company, a joint venture between Scaled Composites and Sir Richard Branson's Virgin Group, as part of the Tier 1bprogram. The Virgin Galacticspaceliner plans to operate a fleet of five of these craft in passenger-carrying private spaceflightservice starting in late 2009. [cite web |url=http://www.space.com/spacenews/businessmonday_070226.html |title=Virgin Galactic Spaceliner Steps Forward |accessdate=2007-04-06 |author=Leonard David |publisher=Space News ] cite web |url=http://space.newscientist.com/article/dn7747 |title=Space tourism company to fly in 2008 |accessdate=2007-04-06 |publisher=AirVenture Museum ]
The vehicle itself will not be unveiled to the public until just before flight testing starts, expected in early 2008. Following a series of 50 – 100 test flights, the first paying customers are expected to fly aboard the craft in late 2009.cite web |url=http://science.slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=157540&threshold=1&commentsort=5&tid=160&mode=nested&cid=13205378 |title=Notes on Rutan presentations at EAA Oshkosh |accessdate=2007-04-06 |date=July 30 2006 |author=jnhtx (87543) |publisher=Slashdot ] In August 2005, Virgin Galactic stated that if the upcoming suborbital service with SpaceShipTwo is successful, the follow-up
SpaceShipThreewill be an orbital craft.cite web |url=http://www.flightglobal.com/Articles/2005/08/23/Navigation/200/201097/SpaceShipThree+poised+to+follow+if+SS2+succeeds.html |title=SpaceShipThree poised to follow if SS2 succeeds |accessdate=2007-04-06 |date=23 August 2005 |publisher=Flight International ]
All of the flights of SpaceShipOne were from the
Mojave Airport Civilian Flight Test Center. Flights were numbered, starting with flight 01 on May 20 2003. One or two letters are appended to the number to indicate the type of mission. An appended C indicates that the flight was a captive carry, G indicates an unpowered glide, and P indicates a powered flight. If the actual flight differs in category from the intended flight, two letters are appended: the first indicating the intended mission and the second the mission actually performed.
In the table below, the "top speed" reported is the
Mach numberat burn-out (the end of the rocket burn). This is not an absolute speed.
The flights were accompanied by two
chase planes; an Extra 300owned and flown by Chuck Coleman, and a Beechcraft Starship[http://www.devsite.org/lab/spaceshipone/data.shtml] .
The SpaceShipOne pilots came from a variety of
aerospacebackgrounds. Mike Melvillis a test pilot, Brian Binniewas a Navy pilot, and Doug Shaneand Peter Sieboldare engineers at Scaled Composites. They qualified to fly SpaceShipOne by training on the Tier One flight simulator and in White Knight and other Scaled Composites aircraft.
plane or copter?= plane
jet or prop?= jet
ref=astronautix.com [cite web
length main=16 ft 5 in
length alt=5 m
span main=16 ft 5 in
span alt=5 m
area main=161.4 ft²
area alt=15 m²
empty weight main=2,640 lb
empty weight alt=1,200 kg
loaded weight main=7,920 lb
loaded weight alt=3,600 kg
useful load main=
useful load alt=
max takeoff weight main=
max takeoff weight alt=
more general=Isp: 250 s (2450 Ns/kg)
* Burn time: 87 seconds
* Aspect Ratio: 1.6
max speed main=Mach 3.09
max speed alt=2,170 mph, 3,518 km/h
cruise speed main=
cruise speed alt=
never exceed speed main=
never exceed speed alt=
stall speed main=
stall speed alt=
range main=35 nm
range alt=40 mi, 65 km
ceiling main=367,360 ft
ceiling alt=112,000 m
climb rate main=82,000 ft/min
climb rate alt=416.6 m/s
loading main=49.07 lb/ft²
loading alt=240 kg/m²
* [http://scaled.com/projects/tierone/index.htm Tier One home page] at Scaled Composites's website
** Flight profile [http://scaled.com/projects/tierone/data_sheets/PDF/SS1_flight_profile.pdf in PDF format] and [http://scaled.com/projects/tierone/data_sheets/html/images/lithograph---SS1_flight_profile.jpgin JPG format]
* [http://www.SpaceDev.com SpaceDev]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsa/n5ctrl/events04/sci/spaceship1/nb_60km.ram SpaceShipOne video footage] of flight 14P
* [http://youtube.com/watch?v=_YWrjWWC7EI Spaceship One music video]
* [http://dsc.discovery.com/news/briefs/20040531/xprize.html "Private Craft to Shoot for Space" by Irene Mona Klotz, Discovery News]
* [http://www.wired.com/news/space/0,2697,64123,00.html Wired News: SpaceShipOne Back on Course]
* [http://registry.faa.gov/aircraftinquiry/NNumSQL.asp?NNumbertxt=328KF&cmndfind.x=0&cmndfind.y=0 SpaceShipOne's FAA registration]
* [http://www.xprize.org The Ansari X PRIZE]
* [http://www.DesertTurtle.com SpaceShipOne documentary DVD - "Mojave Magic"]
** [http://www.DesertTurtle.com/Song.html Song "I Want To Go In A Space Ship" about SpaceShipOne from "Mojave Magic"]
** [http://www.DesertTurtle.com/Oshkosh.html Video of Burt Rutan singing the song at the 2005 Oshkosh airshow]
List of spaceflights (2004)
Space Ship One (album)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne — SpaceShipOne во время приземления SpaceShipOne (англ. Спейс Шип Уан) частный пилотируемый суборбитальный космический корабль многоразового использования. Изготовлен компанией Scaled Composites LLC (США), с 1982 года занимающейся производством… … Википедия
Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne — SpaceShipOne Le SpaceShipOne (Vaisseau Spatial 1) est le premier avion expérimental privé américain ayant volé dans l espace à plus de 100 km d altitude, c est à dire au delà de l atmosphère terrestre (selon la définition de l UAI). SpaceShipOne … Wikipédia en Français
Scaled Composites Tier One — Tier One redirects here. For other uses, see Tier 1 (disambiguation). Tier One is Scaled Composites program of suborbital human spaceflight using the reusable spacecraft SpaceShipOne and its launcher White Knight. The craft was designed by Burt … Wikipedia
Scaled Composites White Knight — White Knight White Knight carrying SpaceShipOne Role Carrier aircraft … Wikipedia
Scaled Composites — Барт Рутан на фоне WhiteKnight Scaled Composites LLC американская авиастроительная компания. Основана в 1982 году в Мохаве … Википедия
Scaled Composites, LLC — Scaled Composites ist eine US amerikanische Firma, die innovative Flugzeugprototypen entwickelt. Gegründet wurde die Firma als Rutan Aircraft Factory im Jahr 1982 von Burt Rutan, einem bekannten Luft und Raumfahrtingenieur. Die Firma hat ihren… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Scaled Composites — Scaled Composites, LLC Rechtsform Limited Liability Company Gründung 1982 Sitz … Deutsch Wikipedia
Scaled Composites — frecuentemente abreviado Scaled es una compañía aeroespacial propiedad de Northrop Grumman desde 2007 que fue fundada en 1982 en Mojave, California por el famoso diseñador de aviones Burt Rutan y anteriormente llamada Rutan Aircraft Factory. La… … Wikipedia Español
Scaled Composites Proteus — Scaled Composites Proteus … Deutsch Wikipedia
Scaled Composites — Infobox Company company name = Scaled Composites, LLC company company type = Division company slogan = Question, never defend foundation = Mojave, California (1982) key people = Doug Shane President Burt Rutan Founder/CTO location = Poway,… … Wikipedia