GIRD


GIRD

Russian Group of Study of Reactive Motion (in Russian: Группа изучения реактивного движения (ГИРД), transliterated GIRD) was a Soviet research bureau founded in 1931 to study various aspects of rocketry, which was later incorporated into the Reaction-Engine Scientific Research Institute (RNII).

History

GIRD was created on September 15, 1931. There were a number of amateur groups and solitary researchers in existence, but GIRD was the world's first large professional rocketry program. The group was organized as four brigades and ten projects to study rocket engines and also winged and wingless missiles. Sergey Korolev, the future leader of the Soviet space program, was the over-all director of GIRD, as well as a brigade leader and the chairman of its technical council.

Fridrikh Tsander headed the GIRD's 1st Brigade, which comprised Tsander's research team, transferred from the Institute of Aircraft Engine Construction (IAM). Tsander had begun to consider rocket-powered interplanetary flight as early as 1907 and was one of the founding members of the Society for the Study of Interplanetary Communication in 1924

Tsander had begun work on the OR-1 experimental engine in 1929 while still at the IAM; this subsequently became GIRD Project 01. It ran on compressed air and gasoline and Tsander used it to investigate high-energy fuels including powdered metals mixed with gasoline. The chamber was cooled regeneratively by air entering at the nozzle end and also by water circulating through a coil.

Project 02, the OR-2 engine, was designed for Korolev's RP-1 rocket-powered glider. It burned oxygen and gasoline, and its nozzle was made from heat-resistant graphite. The engine was later modified to burn alcohol, which generated less heat than gasoline, and its thrust was increased. After cooling the engine walls, the compressed oxygen entered the top end of the chamber in a swirling pattern. Fuel was injected through an atomizer at the center, to create efficient mixing and combustion.

GIRD-X

In January 1933 Tsander began development of the GIRD-X missile. It was originally to use a metallic propellant, but after various metals had been tested without success it was designed without a metallic propellant, and was powered by the Project 10 engine which was first bench tested in March 1933. This design burned liquid oxygen and gasoline and was one of the first engines to be regeneratively cooled by the liquid oxygen, which flowed around the inner wall of the combustion chamber before entering it. Problems with burn-through during testing prompted a switch from gasoline to less energetic alcohol. The final missile, convert|2.2|m|ft long by convert|140|mm|in in diameter, had a mass of convert|30|kg|lb, and it was anticipated that it could carry a convert|2|kg|lb payload to an altitude of convert|5.5|km|mi.cite book | last = Albrecht | first = Ulrich | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = The Soviet Armaments Industry | publisher = Routledge | date = 1993 | location = | pages = pp. 74-75 | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 3718653133]

Tsander died unexpectedly from an illness on March 28, 1933, and his engineer, Leonid Konstinovich Korneev, became the new leader of his Brigade. An exact copy of the GIRD-X can be found on Tsander's headstone in Kislovodsk.

GIRD-9

The first Soviet rocket launch was the GIRD-9, on 17 August 1933, which reached the modest altitude of convert|400|m|ft

Project 05

Mikhail Klavdievich Tikhonravov, who would later supervise the design of Sputnik I and the Luna programme, headed GIRD's 2nd Brigade, responsible for the Project 05 rocket in a joint effort with the Gas Dynamics Lab (GDL) in Leningrad. Project 05 used the ORM-50 engine developed by Valentin Glushko, which was fuelled by nitric acid and kerosene with its nozzle regeneratively cooled by the flow of acid. First tested in November 1933, the ORM-50 predated Eugen Sänger's regeneratively cooled engine, which was not tested in Austria until May 1934. The 05 rocket contained four long tanks, enclosed in a body with a four-lobed cross section. It was never completed, but its design formed the basis of the later Aviavnito rocket, powered by Leonid Dushkin's 12-K engine and fueled by liquid oxygen and alcohol, which was first launched in 1936 and achieved an altitude of convert|3000|m|abbr=on in 1937.

RNII

On 16 May 1932 Mikhail Tukhachevsky filed a memorandum to the effect that GIRD and the State Gas Dynamics Laboratory (GDL) of Leningrad should be combined, and the result was the Reaction-Engine Scientific Research Institute (RNII), founded on 21 September 1933.

Notes

External links

* [http://www.mentallandscape.com/S_GIRD.htm Group for the Study of Jet Propulsion]
* [http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/gird09.htm Information on rocket Gird-09]
* [http://www.scienceandsociety.co.uk/results.asp?
]


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  • girdələmə — «Girdələmək»dən f. is …   Azərbaycan dilinin izahlı lüğəti

  • girdələnmə — «Girdələnmək»dən f. is …   Azərbaycan dilinin izahlı lüğəti

  • girdələşmə — «Girdələşmək»dən f. is …   Azərbaycan dilinin izahlı lüğəti

  • girdələtmə — «Girdələtmək»dən f. is …   Azərbaycan dilinin izahlı lüğəti

  • GIRD — (russisch Группа изучения реактивного движения, Gruppe zur Erforschung reaktiver Antriebe) war eine 1931 gegründete Gruppe zur Erforschung von Rückstoßantrieben wie sie von Konstantin Ziolkowski vorausgesagt wurden. Bereits in den 1920er… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Gird — (g[ e]rd), v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Girt}or {Girded}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Girding}.] [OE. girden, gurden, AS. gyrdan; akin to OS. gurdian, D. gorden, OHG. gurten, G. g[ u]rten, Icel. gyr[eth]a, Sw. gjorda, Dan. giorde, Goth. biga[ i]rdan to begird, and… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • gird — [gə:d US gə:rd] v past tense and past participle girded or girt [gə:t US gə:rt] [: Old English; Origin: gyrdan] 1.) gird (up) your loins to get ready to do something difficult used humorously 2.) [I and T] if you gird for something, or gird… …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Gird — Gird, v. t. [See {Gird}, n., and cf. {Girde}, v.] [1913 Webster] 1. To strike; to smite. [Obs.] [1913 Webster] To slay him and to girden off his head. Chaucer. [1913 Webster] 2. To sneer at; to mock; to gibe. [1913 Webster] Being moved, he will… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Gird — (g[ e]rd), n. [See {Yard} a measure.] [1913 Webster] 1. A stroke with a rod or switch; a severe spasm; a twinge; a pang. [1913 Webster] Conscience . . . is freed from many fearful girds and twinges which the atheist feels. Tillotson. [1913… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Gird — Gird, v. i. To gibe; to sneer; to break a scornful jest; to utter severe sarcasms. [1913 Webster] Men of all sorts take a pride to gird at me. Shak. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • gird — [ gɜrd ] verb transitive to prepare for a difficult activity: The army is girding itself for a renewed assault by the rebels. a. gird up your loins OFTEN HUMOROUS or gird yourself (up) to prepare for something difficult or dangerous …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English