John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll


John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll

Field Marshal John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll, 1st Duke of Greenwich KG (October 10, 1678October 4, 1743), known as Ian Ruaifh Cean or Red John of the Battles [http://www.gencircles.com/users/thomasholme/1/data/4267] , was a Scottish soldier and nobleman. His titles were extremely high in the precedence of the Scottish peerage.

Born in Petersham, Surrey, England to Archibald Campbell, 1st Duke of Argyll and Elizabeth Tollemache, daughter of Sir Lionel Tollemache, 3rd Bt, he succeeded his father as Duke of Argyll and Chief of Clan Campbell in 1703. In 1705, for his support of the Act of Union, he was created Baron Chatham and Earl of Greenwich. He fought during the War of the Spanish Succession under the British Army's overall commander, the Duke of Marlborough, and he fought at the battles of Oudenarde and Malplaquet.

In 1710 he was made a Knight of the Garter, and in 1711 he was appointed commander-in-chief of British forces in Spain by the Tory ministry of Lord Oxford and Lord Bolingbroke and was Governor of Minorca from 1712 to 1716. By 1713, however, Argyll had become critical of the ministry, and he joined the Whig opposition in making speeches against the government in the House of Lords. In July 1714, in Queen Anne's last illness, the unexpected presence of Argyll and the Duke of Somerset at the Privy Council prevented Bolingbroke from taking full power on the fall of Oxford, and thus perhaps secured the Hanoverian succession.

In "the Fifteen", Argyll led the government army at Sheriffmuir and defeated the Jacobites led by the Earl of Mar. In 1719 he was rewarded by being given the Dukedom of Greenwich. He was Master General of the Ordnance from 1725-1740 and was promoted to Field Marshal in 1736. He is listed as a founding Governor of the Foundling Hospital on that charity's Royal Charter, granted by the King in 1739. In 1742, a year before his death, he was given the position of Commander in Chief of the British Army.

He received the colonelcy of various regiments, including the 1st (His Majesty's Own) Troop ("The Oxford Blues") and 4th (Scots) Troop of the Horse Guards Regiment (now part of the Household Cavalry Regiment),and the 3rd (The Queen's) Dragoon Guards (now part of 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards). He was also the colonel of the 1st Regiment ("Lorne's Foot"), 2nd Regiment ("Lorne's Foot"), and Argyll's Foot.

He is buried in Westminster abbey in an elaborate tomb designed by the French sculptor, Louis François Roubiliac.

Cultural and Literary References

Argyll plays a large part in the novel, "The Heart of Midlothian" by Sir Walter Scott, being the saviour of the heroine Jeanie Deans.

In the film Rob Roy, the Duke is portrayed by Andrew Keir.

ee also

*Duke of Argyll
*Royal family
*John Campbell, 4th Duke of Argyll
*John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll
*John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll
*Caroline Townshend, 1st Baroness Greenwich
*Lady Mary Coke, his daughter
*William Wentworth, 2nd Earl of Strafford (1722-1791), his son-in-law
*Military of the United Kingdom
*History of the United Kingdom

References

* [http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/scotgaz/people/famousfirst714.html Biography on John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll]
* [http://www.regiments.org/milhist/uk/biography/FMlist.htm regiments.org List of British Field Marshals]


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