- Troika (triumvirate)
Troika (Russian: тройка, meaning "threesome") is a
committeeconsisting of three members.
The word became notorious in the
Soviet Unionduring the Stalinist era: troikas replaced the normal legal system for quick persecution of dissidents or anybody accused of political crimes.
The word has also been used to describe the supreme officials of
Communiststates, consisting of the party leader, head of government, and head of state. This was true during periods where the positions were held by three different people, and the party leader was not viewed as sole dictator.
The most famous troika was the one that ruled briefly in the period immediately following Stalin's death:
Georgy Malenkov, Lavrentiy Beria, and Vyacheslav Molotov.
In the early 1960s, following independence from Belgium, a complicated civil war broke out in Congo. Amongst the fighting forces, there was one side supported by the
United States, another by the Soviet Union, and a third trying to secede. On top of it all, the UN Secretary General of the time, Dag Hammarskjöldwanted to establish a UN presence. Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, believing the Secretary General to be a US puppet, proposed that the Secretary-General be replaced with a troika, with one member selected by the West, one from the Communistbloc, and one from the Non-Aligned (neutral) states. He was unable to gather enough support, as the Non-Aligned states refused to back the scheme.
It is used in the
European Unionwhen referring to a group composed of the Foreign Affairs Minister of the Member State holding the Presidency of the Council of Ministers, the Secretary-General/High Representative for the common foreign and security policy, the European Commissioner in charge of external relations and European neighbourhood policy. The "Troïka" represents the European Union in external relations that fall within the scope of the common foreign and security policy (CFSP).
Presidency of Ronald Reaganthree of his most senior White Houseadvisers were known as "The Troika"; they were White House Chief of Staff James Baker III, Counsellor to the President Ed Meeseand Deputy White House Chief of Staff Michael Deaver.
It has also been briefly applied to the presidency of the
South African Republicfrom 1881 to 1883, when it was jointly governed by M.W. Pretorius, Paul Krugerand P.J. Joubert.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Troika — A general meaning of the Russian word troika (Cyrillic alphabet: тройка) is threesome , a collection of three of any kind (except the Holy Trinity). The following particular meanings entered into other languages:* A three horse drawn sled or… … Wikipedia
troika — 1842, carriage drawn by three horses abreast, from Rus. troika three horse team, any group of three, from collective numeral troe three + dim. suffix ka. Sense of any group of three administrators, triumvirate is first recorded 1945 … Etymology dictionary
troika — [troi′kə] n. [Russ < troe, three < IE * troio < base * trei ,THREE] 1. a) a Russian vehicle, esp. a sleigh or carriage, drawn by a specially trained team of three horses abreast b) the team of horses 2. any group of three; esp., an… … English World dictionary
Triumvirate — The Massacres of the Triumvirate, 1566, by Antoine Caron (Louvre Museum) A triumvirate (from Latin, of three men ) is a political regime dominated by three powerful individuals, each a triumvir (pl. triumviri). The arrangement can be formal or… … Wikipedia
troika — noun /ˈtɹɔɪ.ka/ a) A Russian carriage drawn by a team of three horses abreast of the last epoch, comparing Russia to a swift troika galloping to an unknown goal, exclaims Oh, troika, birdlike troika, who invented thee! and adds, in proud ecstasy … Wiktionary
troika — troi•ka [[t]ˈtrɔɪ kə[/t]] n. pl. kas 1) trs a Russian carriage, wagon, or sleigh drawn by a team of three horses abreast 2) a team of three horses driven abreast 3) a ruling group of three; triumvirate 4) any group of three • Etymology: 1835–45;… … From formal English to slang
troika — I (Roget s 3 Superthesaurus) n triumvirate, trinity, group ofthree. see trio II (Roget s Thesaurus II) noun A group of three individuals: three, threesome, triad, trine, trinity, trio, triple, triumvirate, triune, triunity. See GROUP … English dictionary for students
triumvirate — noun A group or association of three. Syn: troika … Wiktionary
troika — Synonyms and related words: bipartisanship, clover, coaction, coadjuvancy, coadministration, coagency, cochairmanship, codirectorship, collaboration, collaborativeness, collectivism, collusion, commensalism, common effort, common enterprise,… … Moby Thesaurus
triumvirate — (Roget s Thesaurus II) noun A group of three individuals: three, threesome, triad, trine, trinity, trio, triple, triune, tri unity, troika. See GROUP … English dictionary for students