PARRY


PARRY

PARRY is, besides ELIZA, the other famous early chatterbot.

Contents

History

PARRY was written in 1972 by psychiatrist Kenneth Colby, then at Stanford University.[1] While ELIZA was a tongue-in-cheek simulation of a Rogerian therapist, PARRY attempted to simulate a paranoid schizophrenic.[1] The program implemented a crude model of the behavior of a paranoid schizophrenic based on concepts, conceptualizations, and beliefs (judgements about conceptualizations: accept, reject, neutral). It also embodied a conversational strategy, and as such was a much more serious and advanced program than ELIZA. It was described as "ELIZA with attitude".[2]

PARRY was tested in the early 1970s using a variation of the Turing Test. A group of experienced psychiatrists analysed a combination of real patients and computers running PARRY through teleprinters. Another group of 33 psychiatrists were shown transcripts of the conversations. The two groups were then asked to identify which of the "patients" were human and which were computer programs.[3] The psychiatrists were able to make the correct identification only 48 percent of the time — a figure consistent with random guessing.[4]

PARRY and ELIZA (also known as "the Doctor"[5][6]) "met" several times.[1]RFC 439[5] The most famous of these exchanges occurred at the ICCC 1972, where PARRY and ELIZA were hooked up over ARPANET and "talked" to each other.[5]

See also

History of Natural language processing

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c Güzeldere 1995
  2. ^ Bowden 2006, p. 370.
  3. ^ Colby et al. 1972, p. 42.
  4. ^ Saygin, Cicekli & Akman 2000, p. 501.
  5. ^ a b c Computer History Museum
  6. ^ Alan J Sondheim – transcript of the 1972 document shows programs DOCTOR (an eliza-type program) at Bolt Beranek and Newman and PARRY at Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

External links


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Synonyms:

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  • Parry — ist der Nachname folgender Personen: Bill Parry (1934–2006), britischer Mathematiker Caleb Hillier Parry (1755–1822), englischer Arzt Charles Christopher Parry (1823–1890), amerikanischer Biologe David Parry (* 1949), britischer Dirigent Edward… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Parry — Par ry (p[a^]r r[y^]), v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Parried} (p[a^]r r[e^]d); p. pr. & vb. n. {Parrying}.] [F. par[ e], p. p. of parer. See {Pare}, v. t.] [1913 Webster] 1. To ward off; to stop, or to turn aside; as, to parry a thrust, a blow, or… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Parry [1] — Parry (spr. Pärri), William Eduard, geb. 19. Dec. 1790 in Bath, Sohn des als Schriftsteller bekannten Arztes Caleb Hillier P.; diente seit 1803 als Midshipman auf dem englischen Schiffe Stadt Paris, befehligte später im Belt ein Kanonenboot,… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Parry — Parry, 1) Sir William Edward, engl. Polarfahrer, geb. 19. Dez. 1790 in Bath, gest. 8. Juli 1855 in Ems, trat 1808 in die englische Flotte und führte 1818 bei der zur Aufsuchung einer nordwestlichen Durchfahrt unter Roß abgesandten Expedition das… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Parry — Parry, Sir William Edward, brit. Seemann, geb. 19. Dez. 1790 zu Bath, drang als Leutnant 1811 bis zu 76° n. B. vor, nahm 1818 an der Nordpolfahrt des Kapitäns John Roß teil, leitete 1819 27 vier wichtige Nordpolreisen, auf denen er den… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Parry — (Parry), Sir William Edward, geb. 1790 zu Bath, gest. 1855 als Admiral und Vicegouverneur des Marinehospitals zu Greenwich, berühmt durch 4 Reisen in die amerikan. Polargegenden, Entdecker der Barrowstraße. (»Vier Reisen gegen den Nordpol« Lond.… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • parry — [par′ē] vt. parried, parrying [prob. < Fr parez, imper. of parer < It parare, to ward off < L parare, to PREPARE] 1. to ward off or deflect (a blow, the thrust of a sword, etc.) 2. to counter or ward off (criticism, a prying question,… …   English World dictionary

  • parry — par ry, v. i. To ward off, evade, or turn aside something, as a blow, argument, etc. Locke. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • parry — par ry, n.; pl. {Parries}. A warding off of a thrust or blow, as in sword and bayonet exercises or in boxing; hence, figuratively, a defensive movement in debate or other intellectual encounter. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Parry [2] — Parry, Vorgebirg an der Westküste von Grönland, südlich der Insel Prudhoe …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon


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