Tárogató


Tárogató

Infobox Instrument
name=Tárogató
names=Töröksíp, Taragot


230px
classification=
*Wind
*Woodwind
*Aerophone
range=Written Range: Bmusic|flat3 to C6 (scientific pitch notation)

Note: Romanian-made instruments may have difficulty reaching the upper range.
related=*Shawm
*Clarinet
*Saxophone

The tárogató (plural "tárogatók", "töröksíp", "Turkish pipe" or, anglicized, "tárogatós"; Romanian: "taragot") refers to two different Hungarian woodwind instruments: the ancient tárogató and the modern (or modified) tárogató. The modern tárogató was intended to be a recreation of the original tárogató, but the two instruments are thought to have little in common.cite web | last = Fox | first = Stephen | authorlink = Stephen Fox (clarinet maker) | title = The Tárogató | url = http://www.sfoxclarinets.com/Tarogatoart.html | accessdate = 2006-10-03]

History

Mention of the tárogató in Hungarian writings dates back at least as long ago as the 15th century. It is not clear whether it was first brought into Europe by the Magyars when they first immigrated from the east in the 9th century. It is certain, however, that instruments of this type, decended from the Middle Eastern zurna, were introduced into Eastern Europe by the Turks in the Middle Ages, as evidenced by the term töröksip - "Turkish pipe" - which was used as a synonym for tárogató.cite web | last = Fox | first = Stephen | authorlink = Stephen Fox (clarinet maker) | title = The Tárogató | url = http://www.sfoxclarinets.com/Tarogatoart.html | accessdate = 2006-10-03] It is possible that instruments from both traditions were combined into one entity. The tárogató has a Persian origin, and it appeared in Hungary during the turkish wars.Citation | title = A Brief history of the tarogato/taragot | url = http://www.11thmuse.com/history.html | accessdate = 04.06.2008] Up to about the 18th century, the tárogató was a type of shawm, with a double reed, conical bore, and no keys. This instrument is documented as far back as the 15th century.

Being a very loud and raucous instrument, the tárogató was used as a signalling instrument in battle (like the bugle or the bagpipe).cite web | last = Fox | first = Stephen | authorlink = Stephen Fox (clarinet maker) | title = The Tárogató | url = http://www.sfoxclarinets.com/Tarogatoart.html | accessdate = 2006-10-03]

The tárogató was used by Richard Wagner for the shepherd's solo in Tristan und Isolde, but the instrument was eventually abandoned being considered too loud for a concert hall.Citation | title = A Brief history of the tarogato/taragot | url = http://www.11thmuse.com/history.html | accessdate = 04.06.2008]

Because the tárogató was an iconic instrument of the Rákóczi's War for Independence (1703-1711). Its use was suppressed in the 18th century by the Habsburg monarchy.Citation | title = A Brief history of the tarogato/taragot | url = http://www.11thmuse.com/history.html | accessdate = 04.06.2008] cite web | last = Fox | first = Stephen | authorlink = Stephen Fox (clarinet maker) | title = The Tárogató | url = http://www.sfoxclarinets.com/Tarogatoart.html | accessdate = 2006-10-03]

In the 1890s a modern version was invented by Vencel József Schunda, a Budapest instrument maker.Citation | title = A Brief history of the tarogato/taragot | url = http://www.11thmuse.com/history.html | accessdate = 04.06.2008] It uses a single reed, like a clarinet or saxophone, and has a conical bore, similar to the saxophone. The instrument is made of wood, usually black grenadilla wood like a clarinet. The most common size, the soprano tárogató in B♭, is about 29 inches (74 cm) in length and has a mournful sound similar to a cross between an English horn and a soprano saxophone. Other sizes exist; one maker, János Stowasser, advertised a family of seven sizes of which the largest was a contrabass tárogató in E♭.cite web | last = Fox | first = Stephen | authorlink = Stephen Fox (clarinet maker) | title = The Tárogató | url = http://www.sfoxclarinets.com/Tarogatoart.html | accessdate = 2006-10-03] The new tárogató bears very little resemblance with the historical tárogató and the two instruments should not be confused.cite web | last = Fox | first = Stephen | authorlink = Stephen Fox (clarinet maker) | title = The Tárogató | url = http://www.sfoxclarinets.com/Tarogatoart.html | accessdate = 2006-10-03] [Citation | title = The Tárogató Page | url = http://hungaria.org/hal/folklor/tarogato/ | accessdate = 04.06.2008] It has been suggested that the name "schundaphone" would have been more accurate, but tárogató was used because of the nationalistic image that the original instrument had.Citation | title = The Tárogató and Central Eastern Europe | url = http://www.hangoskola.hu/tarogato1999.htm | accessdate = 04.06.2008]

This instrument was a symbol of Hungarian aristocracy, and the favorite woodwind instrument of Governor Miklós Horthy.Citation | title = The Tárogató and Central Eastern Europe | url = http://www.hangoskola.hu/tarogato1999.htm | accessdate = 04.06.2008]

Manufacturing in Hungary ceased after World War II, though tárogatós continued to be made in Romania and other countries. In the 1990s several Hungarian makers started producing the instrument again.

In the 1920s, Luţă Ioviţă, who played the instrument in the army during World War I, brought it to Banat (Romania), where it became very popular under the name "taragot".Citation | title = The taragot in Romanian folk music | url = http://www.eliznik.org.uk/RomaniaMusic/taragot.htm | accessdate = 04.06.2008]

Dumitru Fărcaş, who was born in Maramureş, made the instrument known all over the world and is considered to be the most famous tárogató player.Citation | title = A Brief history of the tarogato/taragot | url = http://www.11thmuse.com/history.html | accessdate = 04.06.2008] Citation | title = The taragot in Romanian folk music | url = http://www.eliznik.org.uk/RomaniaMusic/taragot.htm | accessdate = 04.06.2008]

References

ee also

* Music of Hungary
* Music of Romania

Tárogató makers

*Stephen Fox [http://www.sfoxclarinets.com/Tarogato.html]
*Bruno Salenson [http://www.brunosalenson.com/taragots.php]

External links

* [http://www.tvr.ro/articol.php?id=17556 Video of Dumitru Fărcaş playing the Tárogató]
* [http://www.eliznik.org.uk/RomaniaMusic/taragot&saxophone-map.htm Tárogató/Taragot regional map]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tárogató — Das Tárogató (auch Taragot) ist ein Holzblasinstrument mit einfachem Rohrblatt und ähnelt äußerlich der Klarinette. Instrumentenkundlich handelt es sich um ein hölzernes Saxophon, da es ein konisch gebohrtes Schallrohr hat und in die Oktave… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tarogato — Tárogató Das Tárogató (auch Taragot) ist ein Holzblasinstrument mit einfachem Rohrblatt und ähnelt äußerlich der Klarinette. Instrumentenkundlich handelt es sich um ein hölzernes Saxophon, da es ein konisch gebohrtes Schallrohr hat und in die… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tarogato — Tárogató Le tárogató, taragot ou torogoata (en français: taragote) est un instrument de musique à vent d origine hongroise répandu en Ukraine et en Roumanie aussi. Le terme désigne deux instruments différents, tous deux d origine hongroise: du… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Tarogato — El tarogato (plural tárogatók, töröksíp, flauta turca; en rumano, taragot, en ucraniano тapaґoт) se puede referir a dos tipos de instrumentos de viento diferentes: el tarogato antiguo y el tarogato moderno (o modificado). El moderno tarogato… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Tárogató — Le tárogató, taragot ou torogoata (en français: taragote) est un instrument de musique à vent d origine hongroise répandu en Ukraine et en Roumanie aussi. Le terme désigne deux instruments différents, tous deux d origine hongroise: du… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • tárogató — ▪ musical instrument       single reed wind instrument, widely played in the folk music of Romania and, especially, Hungary. It resembles a wooden soprano saxophone, but its conical bore is narrower.       The tárogató was originally a shawm (a… …   Universalium

  • Tárogató — Tá|ro|ga|tó [ ta:rogɔto:], das; s, s [ung. tárogató]: ungarisches Holzblasinstrument …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Tárogató — Tá|ro|ga|tó [ ta:rogɔto:] das; s, s <aus gleichbed. ung. tárogató> ein ung. Holzblasinstrument …   Das große Fremdwörterbuch

  • tarogato — ˈtärōgəˌtō noun ( s) Etymology: Hungarian tárogató : a Hungarian musical instrument consisting of a wooden pipe with a clarinet reed at the mouthpiece and a globular bell similar to that of an English horn …   Useful english dictionary

  • tarogato — noun a reed instrument originating from Hungary …   Wiktionary