. Other styles are called , used only "utakotoba" (standard poetic diction), used sound unit counts of 5-7-5 and 7-7, and finished with two lines of 7 sound units each. At this time, poets considered the use of "utakotoba" as the essence of creating a perfect waka and considered the use of any other words to be a deviation.

Many rules or , and as "refraining from stepping back". The fun is in the change, the new, the different, and the interesting verses of others.

In Japan a renga starts with a "hokku" of 5-7-5 sound units by one of the guests - usually the most honored or experienced. This is followed by the second verse of 7-7 sound units, called the for a small "ichiza" so that everyone participates equally. For larger "ichiza", the . The kigo usually references the season the renga was created in. Hokku, removed from the context of renga, eventually became the haiku poetry form.

*: The second stanza of a renga with a 7-7 sound unit count. The one who helped to organize the gathering is honored with creating it.

*: The third stanza of a renga with a 5-7-5 mora count. It must end with the "-te" form of a verb to allow the next poet greater freedom in creating the stanza.

*: Refers to all verses other than the "hokku", "waki", "daisan", and "ageku".

*: The last stanza of a renga. Care should be taken to wrap up the renga.

*: A note made after the "ageku" to indicate how many "ku" each poet read.

*: To hold a renga gathering. May also be called nihongo|"chōgyō"|張行.

*: To start with the "hokku" of a famous poet such as Bashō and make a new "waki" verse to follow on from there.

*: May also be called nihongo|"tsukekata"|付け方 or nihongo|"tsukeaji"|付け味. Refers to the mixing and matching of unlikely word combinations to spur imagination or evoke an image. One of the interesting features of renga.

*: The verse in which "tsukeai" happens.

*: The verse before the "maeku".

*: A set of rules to lay out the stylistic requirements for change throughout the poem and to prevent a renga from falling apart.

*: Modern renga in the style of Matsuo Bashō.

*: Literally, "the number of verses". When the theme of a section is a popular topic such as "Love", "Spring", or "Fall", the renga must continue on that theme for at least two verses but not more than five verses. This theme may then be dropped with one verse on any other topic.

*: A rule to prevent loops repeating the same image or a similar verse.

*: The name for a loop where the same theme, image, or word is repeated. Term taken from Buddhism.

*: A type of loop where the "uchikoshi" and "tsukeku" have an identical image or theme.

*: A stanza prepared beforehand. Should be avoided as stanzas should be created on the spot.

* : To make two stanzas in a row. Happens frequently when the "dashigachi" rule is used. Should be avoided to let others join.

*: A rule to use the stanza of the first poet to create one.

*: A rule whereby each poet takes a turn to make a stanza.

*: The members of a renga gathering.

*: Literally, "one seating". Describes the group when the "renju" are seated and the renga has begun.

*: May also be called nihongo|"sabaki"|捌き. The coordinator of an "ichiza", he or she is responsible for the completion of a renga. Has the authority to dismiss an improper verse. The most experienced of the "renju" should be the "sōshō" to keep the renga interesting.

*: The main guest of the "ichiza" and responsible for creating the "hokku".

*: The patron of a renga gathering, who provides the place.

*: The "secretary" of the renga, as it were, who is responsible for writing down renga verses and for the proceedings of the renga.

*: Using letters (i.e. the post), telegraph, telephone, or even fax machines for making a renga. Using the internet is also considered a form of "bunnin".


*Earl Miner, "Japanese Linked Poetry", Princeton University Press © 1979 ISBN 0-691-06372-9 cloth ISBN 0-691-01368-3 pbk [376 pp. 6 renga] A discussion of the features, history and aesthetics of renga, plus two renga sequences with Sōgi and others, three haikai sequences with Matsuo Bashō and others, and one haikai sequence with Yosa Buson and a friend.The first magazine devoted completely to renga in English was started by Jim Wilson of Monte Rio, California, in 1986. It was called APA-RENGA because it was a continuation of the Amateur Press Association model magazines in which all members could post whatever they wanted. This meant that the members would read the renga being offered and then could write a connecting link. These links were tabulated by Jim and then all the possible links were sent back to the participants. This meant that instead of having linear links, the renga could blossom outward so there were many versions of the same poem. When Jim passed APA-RENGA on to Terri Lee Grell in 1989, she renamed the magazine "Lynx" and added short stories and other poetry and published quarterly. In 1992 Terri passed "Lynx" on to Jane and Werner Reichhold. They added haiku and tanka to the renga written by subscribers and carried on the project of participation renga. In 2000 "Lynx" went online where it remains today at [AHApoetry.]"Narrow Road to Renga" by Twenty Pilgrims and Jane Reichhold, AHA Books, 1992 contains not only examples of many varieties of renga, but also has the forms for kasen renga as well as the very unusual "net renga."

ee also

*Hokku, the opening verse of renga and renku, as well as a standalone three-line poem, later to develop into the independent haiku
*Renku, the popular derivative of renga, which reached its artistic peak in the 17th century
*Renri Hishō, an influential text on renga poetics


External links

* [ renga platform's renga guide]
* [ William J Higginson's Renku_Home]
* [ John Carley's Renku Reckoner]
* [ "How to Renga" by Jane Reichhold]
* [ Translations of haikai no renga by Sean Price]
* [ Camellia House 24 Hour Hyakuin Renga Yorkshire Sculpture Park]
* [ Simply Haiku, quarterly online journal with substantial section of English-language renku (renga)]

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