- Belcourt Castle
Infobox Historic building
caption= Belcourt's east façade, originally the back entrance, faces Bellevue Avenue
name= Belcourt Castle
Newport, Rhode Island
Richard Morris Hunt
client= Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont
engineer= George A. Fuller Construction Company
cost= $3.2 million ($65 million in 2005)
structural_system= Load-bearing masonry walls, steel I-beams and heavy timbers
size= 50,000 ft² (4,600 m²)|
Belcourt Castle is the former summer cottage of Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont, located on Bellevue Avenue in
Newport, Rhode Island. Begun in 1891 and completed in 1894, it was only intended to be used for six to eight weeks of the year. Designed in a multitude of European styles and periods, Belcourt was designed with heavy emphasis on French Renaissance and Gothic decor, with further borrowings from German, English and Italian design. In the Gilded Age, the castle was well noted for its extensive stables and carriage areas, which were incorporated into the main structure.
Construction and the Belmont years
3.2 million in 1894, a figure of approximately $65 million in 2005. Belmont employed some thirty servants at Belcourt, with aggregate wages of approximately $100 per week. [cite web |url=http://www.belcourtcastle.com/history/history_of_belcourt.html |title=History of Belcourt Castle |accessdate=2007-04-01 |format= |work= ]
When construction finished in 1894, the entire first floor was composed of carriage space and a multitude of stables for Belmont's prized horses. [cite web |url=http://www.belcourtcastle.com/architecture/exterior.html |title=Exterior of Belcourt Castle |accessdate=2007-04-01 |format= |work=Architecture ] Scheduled to open for
July 4of that year, Belcourt would remain closed for the summer season. Belmont was hospitalized in New York City, the victim of a mugging. It would be a full year until Belmont saw his completed mansion.
The summer of 1895 witnessed the thirty servants of Belcourt preparing the vast estate for the arrival of its owner. Immediately, Belmont set out to inspect his extensive stables, which constitute the entire southern façade. The building was formed of a large quadrangle, with two story wings connecting to a three-story main block (the north wing). The effect can be viewed today in the form of a large, 80 by 40 foot (24 by 12 m) central courtyard with half timbers in the Norman style. The immense
mansardroof is pierced by oval copper dormers and chimneys finished in the same manner as the walls. The symmetrical north façade is where the carriage entrances were located. A narrow wrought iron balcony stretches 70 feet (20 m) on the second floor.
Belmont had disdain for the nouveau riche who, in splashy displays of wealth, built ostentatious mansions between Bellevue Avenue and the Atlantic coast. As a result, guests entered Belcourt through an entrance on Ledge Road, a short road which runs parallel to Bellevue Avenue. This entrance is a few feet from the curb and the effect was that the back of Belcourt was turned to the nouveau riche on Bellevue Avenue.
Inside the castle was just as magnificent and somewhat eccentric. Belmont housed his vast collection of horses and carriages on the ground floor, accessed by two huge carriage entrances on either side of the north façade. To the west of this vast area was Belmont's Francis I
Renaissance-style Grand Hall and foyer which exited onto Ledge Road. [cite web |url=http://www.belcourtcastle.com/architecture/exterior.html |title=Foyer|accessdate=2007-04-01 |format= |work=Architecture ] The monumental Gothic rooms with their huge stained-glass windows were emblazoned with the Belmont coat of arms. The room's original damask, blood red in colour, has long since been replaced with the same fabric in gold.
The Grand Staircase, now a replica of the stairs in the
Cluny Museumin France, connects the Lower Grand Hall to Belmont's Upper Grand Hall on the second floor. The details are mostly the same as those of its partner room below. A myriad of formal rooms open onto one another in varying periods of French style and decoration. The galleries and halls of the second floor employ the architect's trademark of vistas framing the views into various rooms.
Belmont married Alva Vanderbilt, the former wife of
William Kissam Vanderbilt, on January 11, 1896. Eager to reshape and redesign Belcourt, Alva made changes that morphed the already eccentric character of Belcourt into a yet more eccentric hybrid mixture of styles.
Changes in ownership
Mrs. Belmont died in France on
January 26, 1933. [cite web |url=http://www.belcourtcastle.com/history/alva_smith.html |title=Alva Eskine Smith|accessdate=2007-04-01 |format= |work=Belmont Family History ] Belcourt passed to ninety-year-old Perry Belmont, the eldest Belmont child and Alva's brother-in-law. At the onset of World War II, Perry Belmont had most of the contents of Belcourt moved to his other estates as Newport was a naval base and potentially at risk of attack. Select pieces of Alva's were auctioned off, as Perry allegedly had no great love for her.
In 1940, Belmont decided to rid himself of Belcourt. Negotiations commenced with George Waterman, an entrepreneur. Waterman envisioned Belcourt as an antique auto museum.cite book |last= Maconi |first= Carole |title= Belcourt Castle |publisher= Yankee Colour Corporation |year= 1978 ] The only conditions of the sale were that Waterman had to restore the castle as close as possible to Hunt's original plans. Waterman was responsible for the restoration of the third floor roof and removal of an addition overlooking the courtyard. After paying one penny on every dollar that it took to build Belcourt, a price of $32,000, Waterman was informed that zoning wouldn't allow his antique auto museum.
In 1943, Waterman sold Belcourt to Edward Dunn. Dunn never lived at Belcourt during the eleven years that he owned it (up until 1954). During the war years when many of the grand mansions were being razed or converted into various institutions, Dunn rented the stables of the rundown castle to the military to use for repairing equipment.
Dunn sold Belcourt to Elaine and Louis Lorillard in 1954. The Lorillards, of tobacco fame, envisioned Belcourt as a seat for the
Newport Jazz Festival. The lawns on Bellevue Avenue could accommodate over 10,000 and the masonry and stucco façade provided an acoustic background. The large central courtyard was the scene for concerts with the open loggiaproviding further room for spectators. Inside, the massive rooms were used for workshops and lodging. However, the future for Belcourt as a permanent venue for the festival was dim.
Belcourt had deteriorated, largely uninhabited for over two decades. In November 1956, the Lorillards sold the rundown, mostly abandoned castle to the Tinney Family.
The Tinney Family, of
Cumberland, Rhode Island, bought Belcourt in 1956 for $25,000. In addition to changing the name from Belcourt to Belcourt Castle, the Tinneys filled the castle with their own collection of antiques and reproductions. Included are a coronation coach, which the Tinneys made, and a 1701 copy of a Hyacinthe Rigaudportrait of Louis XIV, which hung in the Green Room in the Palace of the Tuileries. The centerpiece of the Tinney additions is an enormous Imperial Russian-style chandelier, which holds 13,000 rock crystal prisms and 105 lights, with 125 reflecting mirrors on the interior. The chandelier hangs a few feet above the rose marble mosaic floor of the banquet hall.
At the time that Belcourt was purchased in 1956, the Tinney family comprised Harold Tinney, his wife Ruth Tinney, their son Donald Tinney, and Ruth's aunt Nellie Fuller (a descendant of
Mayflowerpassenger Edward Fuller). In 1960, Donald Tinney married Harle Hanson, who had been at Belcourt to work as a tour guide. Presently, Harle Tinney is the only surviving member of the family.
Changes at Belcourt have been numerous in the years following 1956 when the Tinney Family moved in. They raised the ceiling of the Organ Loft 11 feet (3.4 m) to accommodate a 26-rank tracker organ. Between 1966 and 1970, when the coronation coach was being built, an old kitchen area became a coach hall. In 1969, the open
loggiabecame a French salon. In 1975, they transformed the north-west reception room into a chapel with the addition of German renaissance stained glass. In the early 1980s, the Tinneys built gate piers on Bellevue Avenue and installed gates that they had acquired from the Taylor estate in Portsmouth. The overthrow was altered to make the gates the tallest of any estate entrance in Newport.
The lawns contain many sculptural pieces in
bronze, terra cotta, marbleand stone. Depicting scenes from mythology, nymphs and cherubs, the collection is an informal contrast to the strong and robust lines of the French-style château. The driveways and pathways are lined with lush arborvitae, planted by the Tinneys a few years after they moved into Belcourt.
Belcourt Castle is the third largest mansion in Newport, after
The Breakersand Ochre Court. The castle has been the subject of an ongoing restoration project spanning from the beginning of the Tinney family's occupation of the castle up to and including the present day.
Belcourt Castle, as run by the Royal Arts Foundation, is open to the public as a museum of antiquities and architectural and social history. Of the 60 rooms at Belcourt, over a dozen may be viewed on tour. A visit to the castle includes viewings of an English library (added in 1910 by
John Russell Pope; the ceiling is a replica of the one in Haddon Hall's Long Gallery), a banquet hall, a chapel, two of three grand halls, a music room, an Empire-style dining room, a French gothic-style ballroom, two principal bedrooms, a loggia and a gallery. All of the rooms are furnished with pieces from the Tinney Family collections. The first tours of Belcourt were given in 1957 and ever since then the castle has been a fixture on Bellevue Avenue. The collections include furnishings, art and artifacts from 33 European and Oriental countries and 37 other Newport mansions. The Tinney Family's enormous collection has earned Belcourt a notable status within Newport's thriving tourism industry. The castle also offers ghost tours and tours by candlelight on a regular basis. There have been numerous reports of paranormal activity in the castle, particularly in the ballroom on the second floor.
Belcourt Castle is also the only mansion in Newport which is both open to the public and has a private owner in residence. Harle Tinney, the sole owner of the castle, frequently guides tours through her home and is often present to greet visitors when she is in residence.
Belcourt Castle's distinctive exterior appearance was achieved through the use of brick and stone to frame the windows, doors and fields of stucco.
*Exterior wall finishes:
brick, rough cast, Westerly granite, stuccoand half timbers
slateand copper (oval dormers, flashing and flat areas)
*Interior decorative finishes: "The interior finishes at Belcourt were completed by 300 imported artisans"
chestnutbeams, gilding, sculpted plaster
oak, marble mosaic, Belgian brick
**Wall finishes: painted
canvas, oak, mahogany, silk damaskand brocade, gilding, imported panelling, plaster
stained glass, bronze(light fixtures)
wrought iron(gates, grilles and railings), stone (pilasters, pathways and estate walls)
Steel I-beams, brick (firewalls, structural partitions), concrete, heavy timber (beams, rafters and floor joists), iron (support rods for staircase, ceilings, etc)
concreteand cut stone
* [http://www.belcourtcastle.org/ Belcourt Castle (official site)]
* [http://www.quahog.org/attractions/index.php?id=1031 Belcourt Castle - The History of a Newport Mansion]
* [http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2000/01/06/48hours/main146771.shtml The Battle of Belcourt (legal battle over ownership)]
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