Taiyuan


Taiyuan

Infobox Settlement
name =Taiyuan
official_name =
other_name =
native_name =
nickname = Bingzhou(并州); Jinyang(晋阳); Dragon City(龙城)
settlement_type =Prefecture-level city
total_type =
motto =
translit_lang1=Chinese
translit_lang1_type=Chinese
translit_lang1_info=太原
translit_lang1_type1=Pinyin
translit_lang1_info1=Tàiyuán


imagesize = 220px
image_caption = Downtown Taiyuan


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map_caption = Taiyuan in China


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subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = China
subdivision_type1 = Province
subdivision_name1 = Shanxi
subdivision_type2 =
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seat_type =
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leader_title =Mayor
leader_name =Zhang Bingsheng (张兵生)
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area_total_km2 =6956
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population_as_of =2004
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population_total =3413800
population_density_km2 =auto
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timezone = China Standard
utc_offset = +8
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coor_type =
latd=37 |latm=52 |lats=10 |latNS=N
longd=112 |longm=33 |longs=37 |longEW=E
postal_code_type =
postal_code =
area_code =351
blank_name =GDP
blank_info =¥ 101.338 billion (2006)
blank1_name =GDP per capita
blank1_info =¥ 27,994 (2006)
blank2_name =Major Nationalities
blank2_info =Han
blank3_name =County-level divisions
blank3_info =10
blank4_name =Township-level divisions
blank4_info =83
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website = http://www.taiyuan.gov.cn
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Taiyuan (zh-cpw |c=太原 |p=Tàiyuán |w=T'ai-yüan; lit. "Great Plains") is a prefecture-level city and the capital of Shanxi province, China. [ [http://www.travelchinaguide.com/cityguides/shanxi/taiyuan/ Taiyuan Travel Guide: City Map, History ] ] The city has an elevation of aproximately 800 meters. In 2006, the city had a population of nearly 3 million. [ [http://chinalist.ru/facts/objyears.php?p_lang=1&p_param=1077&p_country=43&p_obj=1392 Taiyuan. Population ] ]

Geography

Taiyuan is one of the great industrial cities of China and lies on the Fen River in the north of its fertile upper basin. It commands the north-south route through Shanxi, as well as important natural lines of communication through the mountains to Hebei province in the east and (via Fenyang) to northern Shaanxi province in the west.

The city had been deliberately flooded several times in 453 BC, 969 AD, and was also destroyed by war in 1125 AD.

History

Pre-1911

Taiyuan was an ancient capital, constructed by Zhaojianzi (趙簡子/赵简子) in ca. 500 BC, named Jinyang (晉陽/晋阳). It was renamed Taiyuan in the Qin Dynasty. Several Emperors came from this city, the most famous emperor is Li Shimin during Tang Dynasty. Many ancient Chinese poets were also from Taiyuan. During the Tang Dynasty, Taiyuan was a secondary capital of China and a cultural center. The oldest existing building in the city is the Temple of Goddess (聖母殿/圣母殿) inside the Jin Ci Complex; it was originally built in 1023 AD and reconstructed in 1102 AD.

The city was originally the site of Jinyang, a strategic center for the ancient state of Zhao. After the Qin conquest of Zhao in 221 BC, it became the seat of the commandery (district under the control of a commander) of Taiyuan, which continued during the Han dynasty (206 BC–AD 220) and after. In the Later Han period, it became the capital of the province (zhou) of Bing.

For a time in the 6th century, the city was a secondary capital of Eastern Wei and Northern Qi states, growing into a fairly large city and also becoming a center of Buddhism. A new city was built in 562 AD, which was later linked to the old city during the Tang Dynasty in 733 AD. From that time until the middle of the Tang dynasty (618–907), the construction of the cave temples at Tianlong Mountain just southwest of the city, continued. The dynastic founder of the Tang began his conquest of the empire with Taiyuan as a base and using the support of its local aristocracy. It was periodically designated as the Tang's northern capital and grew into a heavily fortified military base.

The old city was at Taiyuanzhen, a few miles east of the modern city. After the Song conquest in 960, a new city was set up on the banks of the Fen River in 982. The city became a superior prefecture in 1059 and administrative capital of Hedong (northern Shanxi) in 1107. It retained this function, with various changes in its name and status, down to the end of the Mongol period (1368). At the beginning of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), it was renamed Taiyuan Fu (府, "fu", meaning "chief town") and retained this name until 1912. During Ming Dynasty, the city wall was reconstructed in 1568 AD. Under the Ming dynasty and in the Qing period (1644–1911), it was capital of Shanxi. Under the republic (established in 1911), its name was changed to "Yangqu", a name it retained until 1947.

In 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion, seventy-seven unarmed Western missionaries were executed in front of the provincial governor. This incident became known as the Taiyuan Massacre.

In 1907 the importance of Taiyuan was increased by the construction of a rail link to Shijiazhuang, in Hebei, on the Beijing to Wuhan trunk line. Soon thereafter Taiyuan suffered a serious economic crisis. In the 19th century the merchants and local banks of Shanxi had been of national importance, but the rise of modern banks led to the rapid decline of this system — with disastrous effects upon Shanxi and its capital.

1911-1949

After 1911 Shanxi remained under control by a warlord, Yen Hsi-shan, who retained control from 1913 to 1948. Taiyuan consequently flourished as the center of his comparatively progressive province and experienced extensive industrial development. It was also linked by rail both to the far southwest of Shanxi and to Datong in the north.

After the Japanese invasion in 1937, Taiyuan's industries still developed further. In 1945 the Japanese army in Shanxi surrendered to Yen Hsi-shan and continued to fight for him until 1948. Eventually, the Chinese Communist armies captured Taiyuan, but only after a battle.

1949-present

Since 1949 Taiyuan has developed a large industrial base with heavy industry (notably iron and steel) of prime importance; local coal production is considerable. Taiyuan is also an engineering center, as it produces cement, and has a large chemical-industrial complex. It is also a center of education and research, particularly in technology and applied science.

Economy

The GDP was 51.559 billion yuan in 2003. [ [http://www.taiyuan.gov.cn/tygovwww/english/tsty2.htm TaiyuanEnglish ] ] In 2006, Taiyuan's nominal GDP was 101.338 billion yuan, a growth of 14.7% from the previous year. Taiyuan's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 2 billion yuan, 43.07 billion yuan, and 44.48 billion yuan respectively. Taiyuan is the largest coal mining center in China. It also houses several large corporations in Taiyuan, such as the Taiyuan Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) which is the largest stainless steel producing plant in Asia. Also, the Shanxi Heavy Machinery Factory and Fenxi Machinery Factory are major manufacturers for the People's Liberation Army and Navy, producing submarine missiles for them. The largest local bank of Taiyuan is ICBC( Industrial and Commercial Bank of China).

Residential Area

The most populated area in Taiyuan is Yinze District which is the downtown of Taiyuan City. Wanbailing and Xinhualing Districts are the other major residential districts. Apartments in high rises are the most common residence for the civics. Rare houses occupied by the government officials can be found along part of the Fen River and the suburbia except the northern area of the city for the high density of heavy industry in the north. The city's most expensive housing area currently is the part of Beida Avenue between Fen River and Wuyi Road for the CBD (Central Business District) of the metropolis is being built along the street. Taiyuan Metropolitan Area's most luxurious hotels and restaurants have been built along the avenue with some shopping malls and huge supermarkets surrounding. The City Revenue Agency, the City Procurator Fiscal, City Hall, and several telecommunication companies, such as China Telecome and China Mobile are located along the avenue. The housing price has reached 20000 RMB/m, roughly equal to $300/ft.

Transportation

The Fen River flows across the city from north to south, dividing the city into two parts: Qiaoxi (West of the Bridge) and Qiaodong (East of the Bridge). As of 2007, there are five bridges across the Fen River within the city limit: the Shengli Bridge (1970), the Yifen Bridge (1990), the Yingze Bridge (1954), the Nanneihuan Bridge (1988), and the Changfeng Bridge(2001). About ten kilometers to the north of the Shengli Bridge, there is the Chaicun Bridge. Two more bridges are being planned: Beizhonghuan Bridge and Nanzhonghuan Bridge. The primary airport of the city is Taiyuan Wusu Airport.

ports

The city was once the home of the Chinese Football Association Jia League's Shanxi Aosen Luhu club for the 2006 season. It is also the home of the Shanxi Zhongyu (Chinese Basketball Association) since 2006.

In May 2008, the UCI World BMXRACING Championships were held in Taiyuan.

Food

Taiyuan's local specialties include:

*Wheat-made Food: Liang Fen (see Grass jelly), Mian Pi (面皮)
*Noodles: Dalu Mian, Dao Xiao Mian (刀削面, Knife-Cut Noodles), Lamian, Mao Er Duo(猫耳朵, Cat Ear Noodle), Xi Hong Shi Chao Ji Dan Mian(西红柿炒鸡蛋面, Noodles with Tomato and Scrambled Eggs), Ti Mian (剔面, Scraped Noodles)
*Soup: Tou Nao (头脑, "Brain" Soup), Yang Za Ge, Wan Zi Tang (丸子汤, meat ball soup)
*Vinegar: Taiyuan is known for its vinegar, Lao Chen Cu (老陈醋, "Long-preserved Vinegar"). It has a very strong taste and is known worldwide.

Tourism

Several tourist attractions in and around Taiyuan include the Liu Xiang Lane, which contains ancient Chinese houses of important heritage, and several temples, such as the Chongshan Monastery, the Jinci Temple, the Twin Pagoda Temple, and the Shaunglin Monastery Longtan Park and Yinze Park are also popular tourist destinations. [ [http://www.travelchinaguide.com/attraction/shanxi/taiyuan/ Taiyuan Attractions] ]

Taiyuan is also known for its Liuxiang shopping district and the construction of parks and recreational areas that are praised by the UN Environmental Programme for their role in the improvement of the environmental condition of Taiyuan. Taiyuan's environmental improvement project is being copied in many other Chinese cities and urban areas around the world.

Education

Major schools

* Shanxi Experimental Secondary School(山西省实验中学)
* Jiefanglu Elementary School

Colleges and universities

* Shanxi Agricultural University (山西农业大学)
* Shanxi College of Traditional Chinese Medicine (山西中医学院)
* Shanxi Medical University (山西医科大学)
* Shanxi Teachers University also called Shanxi Normal University (山西师范大学)
* Shanxi University (山西大学)
* Shanxi University of Finance and Economics (山西财经大学)
* Taiyuan Normal University (太原师范学院)
* Taiyuan University of Science and Technology (太原科技大学)
* Taiyuan University of Technology (太原理工大学)

ister cities

Taiyuan is twinned with:
* - Chemnitz (Germany)
* - Himeji (Hyōgo, Japan)
* - Launceston, Tasmania, Australia
* - Nashville (Tennessee, United States)
* - Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

ee also

*Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center is one of China's few stations for rocket launch.

References

External links

* [http://www.taiyuan.gov.cn/tygovwww/english/index-eng.htm Taiyuan Government website]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • TAIYUAN — [T’AI YUAN] Capitale de la province chinoise du Sh nxi, Taiyuan est située au cœur d’un riche bassin que draine le Fenhe, principal cours d’eau de la province. C’est un des centres urbains les plus anciens du pays, né au IIIe siècle avant Jésus… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Taiyuan —   [tai̯yɛn], Taiyüan, 1912 47 Yangqu [jaȖtɕy], Yangchü, Hauptstadt der Provinz Shanxi, China, am Fen He, 2,10 Mio. Einwohner; mehrere Hoch und Fachschulen, Provinz Museum; wichtiges Industriezentrum mit Eisen und Stahlwerk, Schwermaschinen und… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Taiyuan — (chino: 太原, pinyin: Tàiyuán) es la capital de la provincia de Shanxi en la República Popular China. Taiyuan es una capital antigua, construida en el año 500 adC Su nombre original era Jinyang, mientras que el nombre actual procede del periodo de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Taiyuan — [tī΄yo͞o än′] city in N China; capital of Shanxi province: pop. 1,746,000 …   English World dictionary

  • Taiyuan — Lage von Taiyuan (gelb) in der Provinz Shanxi …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Taiyuan — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Jinyang. Tàiyuán · 太原 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Taiyuan — /tuy yyuuahn /, n. Pinyin, Wade Giles. a city in and the capital of Shanxi province, in N China; a walled city. 1,350,000. Also, Wade Giles, Taiyüan, T aiyüan. Formerly, Yangqu. * * * or T ai yüan City (pop., 1999 est.: 1,768,530), capital of… …   Universalium

  • Taiyuan — 1 Original name in latin Taiyuan Name in other language Taiyuan, Taiyuan Xiang, tai yuan, tai yuan xiang State code CN Continent/City Asia/Shanghai longitude 30.71093 latitude 118.40048 altitude 45 Population 0 Date 2012 01 16 2 Original name in… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

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  • Taiyuan — or formerly Yangku geographical name city N China capital of Shanxi population 1,533,884 …   New Collegiate Dictionary


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