nickname = Bingzhou(并州); Jinyang(晋阳); Dragon City(龙城)
imagesize = 220px
image_caption = Downtown Taiyuan
mapsize = 220px
map_caption = Taiyuan in China
dot_x = |dot_y =
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = China
subdivision_type1 = Province
timezone = China Standard
utc_offset = +8
latd=37 |latm=52 |lats=10 |latNS=N
longd=112 |longm=33 |longs=37 |longEW=E
blank_info =¥ 101.338 billion (2006)
blank1_name =GDP per capita
blank1_info =¥ 27,994 (2006)
blank2_name =Major Nationalities
blank3_name =County-level divisions
blank4_name =Township-level divisions
website = http://www.taiyuan.gov.cn
footnotes = Taiyuan (zh-cpw |c=太原 |p=Tàiyuán |w=T'ai-yüan; lit. "Great Plains") is a
prefecture-level cityand the capital of Shanxiprovince, China. [ [http://www.travelchinaguide.com/cityguides/shanxi/taiyuan/ Taiyuan Travel Guide: City Map, History ] ] The city has an elevation of aproximately 800 meters. In 2006, the city had a population of nearly 3 million. [ [http://chinalist.ru/facts/objyears.php?p_lang=1&p_param=1077&p_country=43&p_obj=1392 Taiyuan. Population ] ]
Taiyuan is one of the great industrial cities of China and lies on the
Fen Riverin the north of its fertile upper basin. It commands the north-south route through Shanxi, as well as important natural lines of communication through the mountains to Hebeiprovince in the east and (via Fenyang) to northern Shaanxiprovince in the west.
The city had been deliberately
flooded several times in 453 BC, 969AD, and was also destroyed by war in 1125 AD.
Taiyuan was an ancient capital, constructed by
Zhaojianzi(趙簡子/赵简子) in ca. 500 BC, named Jinyang(晉陽/晋阳). It was renamed Taiyuan in the Qin Dynasty. Several Emperors came from this city, the most famous emperor is Li Shimin during Tang Dynasty. Many ancient Chinese poets were also from Taiyuan. During the Tang Dynasty, Taiyuan was a secondary capital of China and a cultural center. The oldest existing building in the city is the Temple of Goddess (聖母殿/圣母殿) inside the Jin CiComplex; it was originally built in 1023 AD and reconstructed in 1102 AD.
The city was originally the site of Jinyang, a strategic center for the ancient state of Zhao. After the Qin conquest of Zhao in 221 BC, it became the seat of the commandery (district under the control of a commander) of Taiyuan, which continued during the
Han dynasty(206 BC–AD 220) and after. In the Later Han period, it became the capital of the province (zhou) of Bing.
For a time in the 6th century, the city was a secondary capital of
Eastern Weiand Northern Qistates, growing into a fairly large city and also becoming a center of Buddhism. A new city was built in 562AD, which was later linked to the old city during the Tang Dynasty in 733AD. From that time until the middle of the Tang dynasty (618–907), the construction of the cave temples at Tianlong Mountainjust southwest of the city, continued. The dynastic founder of the Tang began his conquest of the empire with Taiyuan as a base and using the support of its local aristocracy. It was periodically designated as the Tang's northern capital and grew into a heavily fortified military base.
The old city was at Taiyuanzhen, a few miles east of the modern city. After the Song conquest in 960, a new city was set up on the banks of the
Fen Riverin 982. The city became a superior prefecture in 1059 and administrative capital of Hedong(northern Shanxi) in 1107. It retained this function, with various changes in its name and status, down to the end of the Mongol period (1368). At the beginning of the Ming dynasty(1368–1644), it was renamed Taiyuan Fu (府, "fu", meaning "chief town") and retained this name until 1912. During Ming Dynasty, the city wall was reconstructed in 1568 AD. Under the Ming dynasty and in the Qing period (1644–1911), it was capital of Shanxi. Under the republic (established in 1911), its name was changed to "Yangqu", a name it retained until 1947.
In 1900, during the
Boxer Rebellion, seventy-seven unarmed Western missionaries were executed in front of the provincial governor. This incident became known as the Taiyuan Massacre.
In 1907 the importance of Taiyuan was increased by the construction of a rail link to
Shijiazhuang, in Hebei, on the Beijingto Wuhantrunk line. Soon thereafter Taiyuan suffered a serious economic crisis. In the 19th century the merchants and local banks of Shanxi had been of national importance, but the rise of modern banks led to the rapid decline of this system — with disastrous effects upon Shanxi and its capital.
After 1911 Shanxi remained under control by a warlord,
Yen Hsi-shan, who retained control from 1913 to 1948. Taiyuan consequently flourished as the center of his comparatively progressive province and experienced extensive industrial development. It was also linked by rail both to the far southwest of Shanxi and to Datongin the north.
After the Japanese invasion in 1937, Taiyuan's industries still developed further. In 1945 the Japanese army in Shanxi surrendered to
Yen Hsi-shanand continued to fight for him until 1948. Eventually, the Chinese Communist armies captured Taiyuan, but only after a battle.
Since 1949 Taiyuan has developed a large industrial base with heavy industry (notably iron and steel) of prime importance; local coal production is considerable. Taiyuan is also an
engineeringcenter, as it produces cement, and has a large chemical-industrial complex. It is also a center of education and research, particularly in technologyand applied science.
The GDP was 51.559 billion yuan in 2003. [ [http://www.taiyuan.gov.cn/tygovwww/english/tsty2.htm TaiyuanEnglish ] ] In 2006, Taiyuan's nominal GDP was 101.338 billion yuan, a growth of 14.7% from the previous year. Taiyuan's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 2 billion yuan, 43.07 billion yuan, and 44.48 billion yuan respectively. Taiyuan is the largest coal mining center in China. It also houses several large corporations in Taiyuan, such as the Taiyuan Iron and Steel Company (TISCO) which is the largest stainless steel producing plant in Asia. Also, the Shanxi Heavy Machinery Factory and Fenxi Machinery Factory are major manufacturers for the
People's Liberation Armyand Navy, producing submarine missiles for them. The largest local bank of Taiyuan is ICBC( Industrial and Commercial Bank of China).
The most populated area in Taiyuan is Yinze District which is the downtown of Taiyuan City. Wanbailing and Xinhualing Districts are the other major residential districts. Apartments in high rises are the most common residence for the civics. Rare houses occupied by the government officials can be found along part of the Fen River and the suburbia except the northern area of the city for the high density of heavy industry in the north. The city's most expensive housing area currently is the part of Beida Avenue between Fen River and Wuyi Road for the CBD (Central Business District) of the metropolis is being built along the street. Taiyuan Metropolitan Area's most luxurious hotels and restaurants have been built along the avenue with some shopping malls and huge supermarkets surrounding. The City Revenue Agency, the City Procurator Fiscal, City Hall, and several telecommunication companies, such as China Telecome and China Mobile are located along the avenue. The housing price has reached 20000 RMB/m, roughly equal to $300/ft.
Fen Riverflows across the city from north to south, dividing the city into two parts: Qiaoxi (West of the Bridge) and Qiaodong (East of the Bridge). As of 2007, there are five bridges across the Fen River within the city limit: the Shengli Bridge (1970), the Yifen Bridge (1990), the Yingze Bridge (1954), the Nanneihuan Bridge (1988), and the Changfeng Bridge(2001). About ten kilometers to the north of the Shengli Bridge, there is the Chaicun Bridge. Two more bridges are being planned: Beizhonghuan Bridge and Nanzhonghuan Bridge. The primary airport of the city is Taiyuan Wusu Airport.
The city was once the home of the
Chinese Football Association Jia League's Shanxi Aosen Luhuclub for the 2006 season. It is also the home of the Shanxi Zhongyu ( Chinese Basketball Association) since 2006.
In May 2008, the UCI World BMXRACING Championships were held in Taiyuan.
Taiyuan's local specialties include:
*Wheat-made Food: Liang Fen (see
Grass jelly), Mian Pi (面皮)
*Noodles: Dalu Mian, Dao Xiao Mian (刀削面, Knife-Cut Noodles),
Lamian, Mao Er Duo(猫耳朵, Cat Ear Noodle), Xi Hong Shi Chao Ji Dan Mian(西红柿炒鸡蛋面, Noodles with Tomato and Scrambled Eggs), Ti Mian (剔面, Scraped Noodles)
*Soup: Tou Nao (头脑, "Brain" Soup), Yang Za Ge, Wan Zi Tang (丸子汤, meat ball soup)
*Vinegar: Taiyuan is known for its vinegar, Lao Chen Cu (老陈醋, "Long-preserved Vinegar"). It has a very strong taste and is known worldwide.
Several tourist attractions in and around Taiyuan include the
Liu Xiang Lane, which contains ancient Chinese houses of important heritage, and several temples, such as the Chongshan Monastery, the Jinci Temple, the Twin Pagoda Temple, and the Shaunglin Monastery Longtan Parkand Yinze Parkare also popular tourist destinations. [ [http://www.travelchinaguide.com/attraction/shanxi/taiyuan/ Taiyuan Attractions] ]
Taiyuan is also known for its Liuxiang shopping district and the construction of parks and recreational areas that are praised by the UN Environmental Programme for their role in the improvement of the environmental condition of Taiyuan. Taiyuan's environmental improvement project is being copied in many other Chinese cities and urban areas around the world.
Shanxi Experimental Secondary School（山西省实验中学）
Jiefanglu Elementary School
Colleges and universities
Shanxi Agricultural University(山西农业大学)
Shanxi College of Traditional Chinese Medicine(山西中医学院)
Shanxi Medical University(山西医科大学)
Shanxi Teachers Universityalso called Shanxi Normal University (山西师范大学)
Shanxi University of Finance and Economics(山西财经大学)
Taiyuan Normal University(太原师范学院)
Taiyuan University of Science and Technology(太原科技大学)
Taiyuan University of Technology(太原理工大学)
Taiyuan Satellite Launch Centeris one of China's few stations for rocket launch.
* [http://www.taiyuan.gov.cn/tygovwww/english/index-eng.htm Taiyuan Government website]
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