Abseiling (German: "abseilen", "to rope down"), rappelling in American and British English, [ [http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Abseiling Abseiling] .
Merriam-Webster] is the controlled descent down a rope in rock climbing, mountaineering, caving, and canyoneering; the technique is used when a cliff or slope is too steep and/or dangerous to descend without protection. "Abseiling" is used chiefly in British English, while other Anglophone countries use different terms.
Slang terms for the technique include: rapping or rap jumping (American slang), abbing (
British slangfor "abseiling"), jumping (Australian slang), roping down, roping, seiling (Australian slang), snapling ( Israeli slang), rappling ( Hindislang).
The origin of the abseil is attributed [Roger Frison-Rocheand and Sylvain Jouty. "A History of Mountain Climbing". Paris, France: Flammarion, 1996. ISBN 2-08-013622-4. 302.] to
Jean Estéril Charlet, a Chamonixguide who lived from 1840-1925. Charlet originally devised the technique of the abseil (or rappel) method of roping down during a failed solo attempt of Petit Druin 1876. After many attempts, some of them solo, he managed to summit the Petit Dru in 1879 in the company of two other Chamonix guides, Prosper Payot and Frédéric Folliguet, whom he hired (a rather paradoxical move for a guide). During that ascent, Charlet perfected the abseil.
Helmets are worn to protect the head from bumps and falling rocks. A light source may be mounted on the helmet in order to keep the hands free in unlit areas.
Gloves protect hands from the rope and from hits with the wall. They are mainly used by recreational abseilers, industrial access practitioners, adventure racers and military as opposed to climbers or mountaineers. In fact, they can increase the risk of accident by becoming caught in the descender in certain situations.
Bootsor other sturdy footwear with good grips.
Knee-pads (and sometimes elbow-pads) are popular in some applications for the protection of joints during crawls or hits.
Ropes used for descending are typically of Kernmantle ropeconstruction, with a multi-strand core protected by an abrasion-resistant woven sheath. For most applications, low-stretch rope (typically ~2% stretch when under the load of a typical bodyweight) called static rope is used to reduce bouncing and to allow easier ascending of the rope.
* A harness is used around the waist to secure the descender. A comfortable harness is important for descents that may take many hours.
* A descender or rappel device is a friction device or friction hitch that allows for rope to be paid out in a controlled fashion, under load, with a minimal effort by the person controlling it. The speed at which the rappeller descends is controlled by applying greater or lesser force on the rope below the device or altering the angle at which the rope exits the device. Descenders can be task-designed or improvised from other equipment:
** Mechanical descenders include braking bars, the figure eight, the abseil rack, the "bobbin" (and its self-locking variant the "stop"), the gold tail, and the "sky genie" used by some window-washers and wildfire
** Some improvised descenders include the
Munter hitch, a carabiner wrap, the basic crossed-carabiner brake and the piton bar brake (sometimes called the carabiner and piton). There is an older, more uncomfortable, method of wrapping the rope around one's body for friction, as in the Dulfersitz or Geneva methods used by climbers in the 1960s.
Abseiling is used in a number of applications, including:
* Rock climbers returning to the base of a climb or to a point where they then try a new route.
* Recreational abseilers, who return to the top of the line by track, stairs or other methods and abseil again.
* Recreational canyoners, who travel down mountainous watercourses where waterfalls or cliffs may need to be descended and simply jumping is too dangerous or impossible.
caving, where underground pitches are accessed using this method ( Single Rope Technique).
* Adventure racers, whose events often including abseiling and other rope work.
* Industrial/Commercial workers, who use abseiling techniques to access parts of structures or buildings so as to perform maintenance, cleaning or construction. (eg window cleaners, railway scalers, quarry workers, etc.)
* Access to
wildfires or wilderness rescue/paramedic operations by rapelling from a hovering helicopter.
* Confined spaces access, such as investigating ballast tanks and other areas of ships.
Rescueapplications, such as accessing injured people or accident sites (vehicle or aircraft) and extracting the casualty using abseiling techniques.
Steeplejacking, as a replacement for bosun's chair.
Militaryand policeapplications, such as entering a building through a window or hard to reach spaces via aircraft. This is a technique used by special forcesand SWATteams.
Abseiling can be a dangerous sport, and presents risks, especially to unsupervised or inexperienced climbers. Abseiling is, in fact, viewed by climbers as being more dangerous than climbing itself, [ [http://www.thebmc.co.uk/Feature.aspx?id=1396 BMC - Equipment Advice ] ] as the rope system is taking the weight of the practitioner constantly rather than only in the event of a fall. Moreover, a high percentage of mishaps classified as "climbing accidents" actually occur when abseiling.
Abseiling is prohibited or discouraged in some areas, due to the potential for rock erosion and/or conflict with climbers heading upwards [http://www.bluedome.co.uk/Climbing/frogclim/frogclim.html] .
Single Rope Technique
List of climbing topics
References and footnotes
* [http://canyonwiki.com/wiki/index.php/Canyoneering_Techniques CanyonWiki]
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Look at other dictionaries:
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