- Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
name = Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
birth_date = birth date and age|1934|02|15
order = 4th President of the Islamic Republic of Iran
term_start = 3 August 1989
term_end = 2 August 1997
Combatant Clergy Association
Twelver Shi'a Islam AyatollahAkbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Persian:اکبر هاشمی رفسنجانی "Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī"), Hashemi Bahramani (هاشمی بهرمانی) born on February 15, 1934, is an influential Iranian politician, and in September 2007 was elected to the post of Chairman of the Assembly of Experts[ [http://www.indianexpress.com/story/214628.html In Rafsanjani’s election to key post, Iran moderates see victory] Indian Express, September 06, 2007] and of the Expediency Councilof Iran.
He served as
President of Iranfrom 1989 to 1997. He later ran again for a third term in office, losing on the second ballot to Mahmoud Ahmadinejadin the 2005 election. Rafsanjani is currently the Chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council, that resolves legislative issues between the Majlisand the Council of Guardians.
Rafsanjani is heavily associated with the Iranian business class and like his constituency he is hostile to Ahmandinejad and the more ideological tendency in the Islamic Republic. Rafsanjani is best described as a
pragmatic conservative, who supports a centrist position domestically and a moderate position internationally, seeking to avoid conflict with the United States.
He was born in the village of
Bahramannear the city of Rafsanjanin Kerman Provinceto a poor family of pistachio farmers. [http://www.rferl.org/specials/iranelections/bios/Hashemi-Rafsanjani.asp Ayatollah Ali-Akbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani] from Radio Free Europe]
In 1948, when Rafsanjani was fourteen years old, his parents sent him to the Shia "holy city" of
Qomto enter seminary life. It was there that he began attending classes taught by Ruhollah Khomeini, under whom Rafsanjani studied Islamic law, ethics, and science. From this time forward, Rafsanjani became dedicated to Khomeini's cause, whose aim was to establish a constitutional theocracy, and soon became a major figure in his circle. [http://www.iranian.com/Opinion/2004/April/Bloomberg/index.html "Iran's power brokers: The Rafsanjanis"] by Kambiz Foroohar]
Mohammad Javad Bahonar, Mohammad Beheshti, Morteza Motahhari, and Abdolkarim Mousavi Ardebili, he became a key member of Iran's Revolutionary Councilat the beginning of the new Islamic Republic, and became the first speaker of the Majlis of Iran, new Parliament, serving until 1989.
He was one of the main figures in the Iran contra scandal but Khomeini issued a command banning any investigation about him Fact|date=November 2007.
Rafsanjani was a founding member of the
Islamic Republic Party, established soon after the Iranian Revolutionin 1979. The party advocated the establishment of a theocratic Islamic state, in contrast to the secularism of the Provisional Revolutionary Government.
Rafsanjani served as
President of Iranfrom August 17, 1989 to 1997, and was the first President of Iranto step down officially, having completed his term in office. Of his predecessors, Abolhassan Banisadrwas successfully impeached, Mohammad Ali Rajaiwas assassinated. Until the election of Rafsanjani, Ali Khameneiwas both the President and Supreme Leader, and officially stepped down as President of Iran, about two month prior to completing of his presidential term.
Rafsanjani advocated a free market economy. With the state's coffers full, Rafsanjani pursued an economic liberalisation policy. Rafsanjani's support for a deal with America over Iran's nuclear programme and his free-market economic policies contrasted with Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and his allies, who advocate showing the West no quarter while pursuing a course of budget-busting state handouts in the face of repeated warnings of future economic problems. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/elsewhere/journalist/story/0,,1804628,00.html Voice of ambition | World dispatch | Guardian Unlimited ] ]
He urged universities to cooperate with industries. Turning to the quick pace of developments in today's world, he said that with "the world constantly changing, we should adjust ourselves to the conditions of our lifetime and make decisions according to present circumstances." [ [http://www.irna.com/en/news/view/line-22/0612123513174634.htm Rafsanjani urges universities to cooperate with industries - Irna ] ]
Among the projects he initiated are Azad University. [ [http://www.roozonline.com/english/archives/2006/11/000464.php Rafsanjani to Ahmadinejad: We Will Not Back Down (ROOZ :: English) ] ]
During his administration
inflationhit a staggering record high of 49%. [ [http://www.rajanews.com/News/?7053 يادگارهاي مديريت 16 ساله :: RajaNews.Com :: ] ]
He attempted to forge good relations Fact|date=February 2007 with
Arabcountries and countries in Central Asiaincluding AzerbaijanFact|date=February 2007, TurkmenistanFact|date=February 2007 and KazakhstanFact|date=February 2007. However relations with European countries and the USremained poor. Though, Rafsanjani has a track record of handling difficult situations and defusing crises. [http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2005/748/re1.htm Al-Ahram Weekly | Region | Showdown in Tehran ] ]
He condemned both the
United Statesand Iraqduring the Persian Gulf War in 1991. After the war he strove to renew close ties with the West, although he refused to lift Khomeini's fatwa against the British author Salman Rushdie. [ [http://www.biography.com/search/article.do?id=9450584 Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Biography - Biography.com ] ]
Former Iranian president Rafsanjani has said that Iran is ready to assist Iraq "expecting nothing in return". On the other hand, he has said that "peace and stability" is a function of the "evacuation of the occupiers." [ [http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-24/0612281096010001.htm Iran ready for comprehensive assistance to Iraqi nation - Rafsanjani - Irna ] ]
Rafsanjani voiced support to Prince Abdullah's peace initiative and to "everything the Palestinians agree to". He was also clear that Iran's international interests must take precedence over those of Iranian allies in
During 1990-5, Rafsanjani's administration faced the brunt of the second-generation US
economic sanctions. He failed to arrest the Iranian Rial plunging 80 per cent in value from 415 to 2,046 to the US Dollar triggering the rise of the modern underground and barter economic networks.
In 2000, in the first election after the end of his presidency, Rafsanjani ran again for Parliament but was not among the 30 representatives of
Tehranelected, as announced by the Iranian Ministry of the Interior. The Council of Guardiansthen ruled numerous ballots void and were able to get him elected as the 30th representative. Rafsanjani thus became a Member of Parliamentonce more, but resigned before being sworn in as an MP. He explained that he felt he was "able to serve the people better in other posts".
Rafsanjani is currently the Chairman of the
Expediency Discernment Council, that resolves legislative issues between the Majlisand the Council of Guardians.
In December 2006, Rafsanjani was elected to the
Assembly of Expertsrepresenting Tehranwith more than 1.5 million votes, which was more than any other candidate. Ahmadinejad opponents won majority of local election seats.
On September 4, 2007 he was elected chairman of the
Assembly of Experts, the body that selects Iran's supreme leader, in what is considered a blow to the partisans of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.
Although he has been a member of the pragmatic-conservative
Combatant Clergy Association, he has a close bond to the reformist Kargozaranparty. He has been seen as flip-flopping between conservative and reformist camps since the election of Mohammad Khatami, supporting reformers in that election, but going back to the conservative camp in the 2000 parliamentary elections as a result of the reformist party severely criticizing and refusing to accept him as their candidate. Reformists including Akbar Ganjiaccused him of involvement in murdering dissidents and writers during his presidency. In the end the major differences between the Kargozaranand the reformists party weakened both and eventually resulted in their loss at the presidential elections in 2005. However Rafsanjani has regained close ties with the reformers since he lost the 2005 presidential elections to Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. [http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/story/2006/10/061003_mv-az-rafsanjani-ahmadinejad.shtml Rafsanjani's political life reviewed] — in Persian.]
After his loss at the presidential elections in 2005, a growing tension between him and President Ahmadinejad arose. Rafsanjani has criticized President Ahmadinejad's administration several times for conducting a purge of government officials [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4443856.stm BBC NEWS | World | Middle East | Rafsanjani slams Iran president ] ] , slow move towards
privatization[ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/6290101.stm BBC NEWS | World | Middle East | Criticism of Ahmadinejad mounts ] ] and recently hostile foreign policy in particular the atomic energy policy [ [http://www.roozonline.com/english/archives/2007/11/rafsanjani_ahmadinejad_engage.html Rafsanjani, Ahmadinejad Engage in New War of Words (ROOZ :: English) ] ] [ http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20071101/wl_mideast_afp/iranuspoliticsmilitary] . In return Ahmadinejad has fought back that Rafsanjani failed to differentiate privatization with the corrupt takeover of government-owned companies and of foreign policies which led to sanctions against Iranin 1995 and 1996. [ [http://www.rajanews.com/News/?6881 حمله به دولت در اولين كنفرانس خبري پس از 9 سال :: RajaNews.Com :: ] ] [ [http://www.rajanews.com/News/?5081 نمیپذیریم عده ای حرف خود را به نام سند چشم انداز مطرح کنند :: RajaNews.Com :: ] ] . He also implicitly denounced Rafsanjani and his followers by calling those who criticize his nuclear program as "traitors" [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/7090901.stm BBC NEWS | World | Middle East | Iran president attacks 'traitors' ] ] .
Accusations of involvement in assassinations and bombings
In 1997, a German court convicted two men of murder in the 1992
Mykonos restaurant assassinationsof Sadiq Sharafkindi, an Iranian- Kurdish leader, as well as three of his associates, and convicted two others of being accessories to the crimes. Presiding Judge Frithjof Kubschsaid the men had no personal motive but were following orders. Without naming names, Kubsch said the gangland-style murders had been ordered by Iran's Committee for Special Operations, to which Iran's President and spiritual leader belonged. Prosecutors had contended that Iran's powerful spiritual leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, and Iranian President Hashemi Rafsanjani had personally ordered the killings. [ [http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/9704/10/germany.iran/ CNN - German court implicates Iran leaders in '92 killings - Apr. 10, 1997 ] ]
On 25 October 2006, a team of Argentine prosecutors formally charged Iran and Shi'a militia
Hezbollahwith the 1994 AMIA Bombingin Buenos Aires, accusing the Iranian authorities of directing Hezbollah to carry out that attack and calling for the arrest of Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and seven others. [ [http://www.news.com.au/couriermail/story/0,23739,21094377-27197,00.html Terrorism Tehran-style | The Courier-Mail ] ] [ [http://www.siteinstitute.org/bin/articles.cgi?ID=news241007&Category=news&Subcategory=0&Current=1 Terrorism Tehran-style] Dead link|date=May 2008] [cite news | title = Iran, Hezbollah charged in 1994 Argentine bombing | publisher = Daily Jang| date = 2006-10-25 | url = http://www.thenews.com.pk/update_detail.asp?id=11864 | accessdate = 2006-10-25] [cite news | title = Iran charged over Argentina bomb | publisher = BBC news| date = 25 October 2006, | url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/6085768.stm |accessdate = 2006-10-25] This incident has put Ahmadinejad's government in the awkward position of defending Rafsanjani, whom they oppose for corruption and being pro-Western. [http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/story/2006/11/061110_a_az_hashemi_arge.shtml BBCPersian.com ] ] Therefore, this event was seen as a positive development for Rafsanjani during his successful campaign for election as a member of the Assembly of Expertsin December 2006.
He was born in the village of
Bahramannear the city of Rafsanjanin Kerman Provinceto a poor family of pistachio farmers. He has eight other siblings. [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/1d400dda-9d4c-11d9-a227-00000e2511c8.html "Rafsanjani's possible return creates a buzz in Tehran"] by Gareth Smyth of the Financial Times] .
From a marriage to Effat Mar'ashi in 1958, Rafsanjani has three sons: Mohsen, Mehdi, and Yasser, as well as two daughters, Fatemeh and Faezeh. Only Faezeh Hashemi chose a political life, which led to her becoming a Majlis representative and then the publisher of the newspaper "Zan".
Many believe the Rafsanjani family to be the richest man in Iran due to his deep involvement in various Iranian industries, including the oil industry, as well as his ownership of many properties throughout the country. There have also been allegations that some of his wealth has also come from arms deals made after the Revolution.
Rafsanjani has authored a few books, one of the most important being a book on
Amir Kabirtitled "Amir Kabir; the Hero of Fighting against Imperialism". He is also gradually publishing his multi-volume memoir titled "Towards Destiny". The seventh volume of his memoirs, in which he writes that Ayatollah Khomeinihad approved the proposal to omit the rallying cry "Death to America," was banned and collected from bookstores a few days after its publication [ [http://www.roozonline.com/english/archives/2007/09/post_10.html Ministry of Culture Bans Rafsanjani’s Memoir? (ROOZ :: English) ] ] .
In 1997, his son
Mehdi Hashemi Rafsanjani, the head of state-owned Gaz IranCompany, has reportedly received a €60,000,000 ($80,000,000) bribefrom Total oilcompany, in order for Total to get a favorable contract in PSEEZgas fields [ [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article1550791.ece Oil chief held in second corruption investigation - Times Online ] ] . [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article1550791.ece]
The bribery which has recently come to public attention, has been denied by
Mehdi Hashemi Rafsanjani, and he has threatened the newspapers that he will legally prosecute those which publish this incident. The CEO of Total, Christophe de Margerie, is currently under investigation in Francewith regards to this incident but Mehdi Hashemi Rafsanjaniis living in Iran due his father's power in this country. [ [http://www.rajanews.com/News/?7618 تكذيب هرگونه ارتباط با توتال :: RajaNews.Com :: ] ] Forbesmagazine at one time listed Rafsanjani in their list of richest people in the world and has written that as the real power behind the Iranian government, he "has more or less run the Islamic Republic for the past 24 years." [ [http://www.forbes.com/free_forbes/2003/0721/056.html "Millionaire Mullahs"] from Forbes] His wealth has earned him the infamous nickname of "Akbar Shah" in Iran. [ [http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,360535-2,00.html Future of the Middle East: The Last Chance for Reformers in Iran - 2 - International - SPIEGEL ONLINE - News ] ]
Although Ayatollahs are not permitted to shave their beards, Rafsanjani's condition of
Androgenic alopeciahas not permitted Rafsanjani to grow much facial hair. This has become the butt of many jokes, satire and comedy around Iran along with his background of pistachio farming. Although Khamenei issued a decree banning jokes around this and his background, he still continues to be joked about throughout Iran.
*"If one day, the
Islamic worldis also equipped with weapons like those that Israelpossesses now, then the imperialists' strategy will reach a standstill because the use of even one nuclear bombinside Israel will destroy everything. However, it will only harm the Islamic world. It is not irrational to contemplate such an eventuality." (December 2001) [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/iran/2001/011214-text.html "Rafsanjani's Qods Day speech (Jerusalem Day)"] , "Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran", Tehran, in Persian, translated by "BBC Worldwide Monitoring", original broadcast December 14, 2001] ]
*"If the Americans attack Iran, the world will change. …They will not dare to make such a mistake" (2004) [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A9630-2004Oct5.html Iran's Missiles Can Now Hit Europe, Ex-Official Says] ]
*"We are not bothering anyone, but we have acquired nuclear expertise and we want to benefit from it to improve our life."
*"You need diplomacy and not slogans. This is the place for wisdom, the place for seeking windows that will take you to the objective." (2005) [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/10/07/AR2005100701865.html Iran Moves to Curb Hard-Liners: Power Given to Relatively Moderate Body Led by Rafsanjani] ]
*"We want all the Palestinians back in their homeland, and then there can be a fair referendum for people to choose the form of state they want. Whoever gets the majority can rule." (2005) [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/10/28/AR2005102801959.html Iran's Leader Joins Large Anti-Israel March] ]
*"There is no doubt that America is a superpower of the world and we cannot ignore them. I think that Americans should gradually begin to adopt positive behavior rather than doing evil. They should not expect an immediate reaction in return for their positive measures. It will take time." [ [http://regimechangeiran.blogspot.com/2005/05/rafsanjani-urges-us-to-begin-thaw-in.html New York Times] ]
*"I believe the main solution [referring to the nuclear issue] is to gain the trust of Europe and America and to remove their concerns over the peaceful nature of our nuclear industry and to assure them that there will never be a diversion to military use." [ [http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-05/19/content_444110.htm Rafsanjani urges U.S. to begin thaw in ties] ]
*"Europe resolved a great problem – the problem of the Zionist danger. The Zionists, who constituted a strong political party in Europe, caused much disorder there. Since they had a lot of property and controlled an empire of propaganda, they made the European governments helpless. What Hitler and the German Nazis did to the Jews of Europe at that time was partly due to these circumstances with the Jews. They wanted to expel the Zionists from Europe because they always were a pain in the neck for the governments there. This is how this calamity fell upon the Muslims, especially the Palestinians, and you all know this history, more or less. [...] The first goal was to save Europe from the evil of Zionism, and in this, they have been relatively successful. [ [http://www.memritv.org/clip_transcript/en/1575.htm Clip Transcript ] ]
Mehdi Hashemi Rafsanjani
* [http://www.hashemirafsanjani.ir/ Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani's Official Website]
* [http://www.rafsanjani.ir/ All News About Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani]
* [http://www.irvl.net/six_snapshots.htm Iranian Economy in Six Snapshots]
* [http://isna.ir/Main/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-763171&Lang=P Rafsanjani's response to some allegations] (ISNA, in Persian)
* [http://www.isna.ir/Main/NewsView.aspx?ID=News-541466 ISNA interview with Mohsen Hashemi Rafsanjani about the Rafsanjani family] (in Persian)
* [http://switch5.castup.net/frames/20041020_MemriTV_Popup/video_480x360.asp?ai=214&ar=399wmv&ak=null Friday Sermon at Tehran University: We Will Soon Join The Nuclear Club — For Peaceful Purposes] (video clip from 3 Dec. 2004)
* [http://irannegah.com/video_browse.aspx?keyword=rafsanjani Video Archive of Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani]
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