- Kokborok literature
Kokboroklanguage, the language of the Tripurastate has gone through considerable development/evolution during the 20th century. There have been many Royal TripuriPrinces and Government Officials and also common people who have contributed to the language's development in the last century. Tripura is a state in North East India.
A significant hint for the antiquity of the
Kokboroklanguage can be found in the following lines that the " Rajmala", the chronicle written now in Bengali of the Kings of Tripura, which mentions that " Rajmala" was first written in Kokborok:-
" Purbe Rajmala chhilo Tripur bhashate, Payar Gathilo sob sokole bhujhite, Su-bhashate Dharmaraje Rajmala Koilo, Rajmala boliya lockete hoilo." - "
Rajmala- 2nd part, Dharma Manikya Chapter, page 6".
The meaning of the quotation is - the
Rajmalahad been in Tripur language earlier. As ordered by the king Dharma Manikya, the chronicle was translated or written afresh in elegant language, i.e. in Bengali in the 14th century AD.
Rajmalawas written there has been little written material in Kokborokand only since the end of the 19th century there has been some effort of writing the language in the written form. And from the second half of the 20th century only there has been a vigorous development process and activities for creating literature in Kokborok.The Tripurastate Government had recognised Kokborokas a state language in 1979 only and since then important Govt. notifications are being published in Kokborokalong with Bengali.
The development of
Kokborok Literatureof the last century can be divided into the following periods:
"First effort for giving the language in printed book form and creation of literature of language"
Radhamohan Thakurwrote the grammar of Kokboroknamed " Kok-Borokma" published in 1900 AD. Beside he wrote two other books " Traipur Kothamala" and " Traipur Bhasabidhan". Traipur Kothamalawas the Kokborok-Bengali-English translation book published in 1906 AD. The " Traipur Bhasabidhan" was published in 1907. Daulot Ahmedwas a contemporary of Radhamohan Thakurand was a pioneer of writing Kokborok Grammarjointly with Mohammad Omar. The "Amar jantra, Comilla" published his Kokborokgrammar book " KOKBOKMA" in 1897 AD. The Education Gazette a renowned newspaper of that time made commendatory review on this book.
"Tripura Janasiksha Samiti and the Kwtal Kothoma"
After the works of
Radhamohan Thakurand Daulot Ahmed, Khushikrshnaa disciple of Ratnamania well known personality to the people of Tripuracontributed to a compilation of 33 spiritual songs in Kokborokunder title " Tripura Kha-Khachangma Khumber Boi" and published it in 1942 AD.
On 27th December 1945 AD the "
Tripura Janasiksha Samiti" came into being and it established amny schools in different areas of Tripura. The first Kokborokmagazine " Kwtal Kothoma" was first edited and published in 1954 by Sudhanya Deb Barma, who was a founder of the Samiti. Folk songs, Folk tales and articles were published in this magazine. Some mention-worthy writers and their topics published serially in the magazine were:
Chethuang", a novel by Sudhanya Deb Barma.
Phunukmung", collection of riddles in Kokborok.
Gandhiji Koklam" , a talk on Mahatma Gandhiby Dasrath Deb Barma.
During this period there were some other persons and activists who played a vital role for development of the
Kokboroklanguage and literature. Bangshi Thakur( Amarendra Deb Barma) became popular in Agartalatown and rural areas for his composition of Holi(color festival) songs in Kokborok. he wrote many Kokborokpoems, in 1948 AD, his " Koktang Kului" a brief Kokborok grammar and translation book was published. Sudhir Krishna Deb Barmawas a renowned writer, vocalist and linguist. He wrote two books " Koktang" and " Surungma Yakhili" published in 1954 and 1962 AD respectively. Ajit Bandhu Deb Barmawas a renowned man of literature and a journalist and is remembered for his innumerable writings and articles in newspapers. His book " Kok-Surungma" (Bagsa and Bagnui) was published in 1963 AD and " Kokrobam" a Kokborok dictionary was published in 1967 AD. Mahendra Deb Barmapublished his textbook for children " Cherai Surungma" in 1958 AD. Alindralal Tripurawas the founder of the " Kokborok Sahitya Sabha", he wrote a lot of books and plays, among those " Lamani Homchang" was performed in 1972. Sonacharan Debbarmacomposed songs in the 50's and published them under the title " Firogoi Faidi". Books such as Bharatni Panchali", " Ramayan Kocharjak" and " Yapri Kwtal" were also published by the State Education Department.
"Movement for development of Kokborok language and creation of Kokborok literature in later parts of 60's and 70's"
This part of the century witnessed a nationalistic movement led by the
Twipra Students Federation, two organisations came into being in this period which extended mentionable help in the progress of development of Kokborok literature and culture, " Tripura Kokborok Unnayan Parishad" was established under Bir Chandra Deb Barmain 1967 AD. This organisation brought published a book " Tripura Kokborok Bhashar Likhito Rupe Uttaran" in 1972 AD. The other organisation was " Tripura Kokborok Sahitya Sabhafounded by Sailendralal Tripuraand Alindralal Tripurawith this organisation published a book on Tripuriphilosophy " Tripura Somhitain 1967 AD and " Srungsama" in 1973 AD, the latter was published by the Tripura Baptist Literature Society.
Khani Ruchapmung" a collection of seventeen Kokborok songs by Budurai, " Kok-Borok Swrung" written in Roman script by Dasaratha Deb Barmain 1977 and " Bubar" by Monoranjan Deb Barmain 1978 were some of the notable publication of the 70's. But the biggest and greatest Kokborok literary work of this century was the " Smai Kwtal", the New Testament of the Biblein Kokborok language, published in 1976 AD by the Bible Society of India. The " Smai Kwtal" benchmarked all other works in the coming years and was the first popular literature to have seen the day-to-day use among the Tripuricommunity. It has gone through many reprints and revisions and is still always in demand due to which there is always a shortage in prints of the book.
"80's focus of movement for Kokborok literature"
In consequence of the education thrust by the "
Tripura Janasiksha Samiti" and the literary organisations many educated Tripuri's became aware of their social obligation, and there has been a speedy flow in Kokborok literary movement and Kokborok was on way to be recognised as having a developed language and literature. The publication of Kokborok literature of different branches in this decade were:
Hachuk Khurio" (In the lap of Hills) by Sudhanya Deb Barmais the first modern Kokborok novel. It was published ny the Kokborok Sahitya Sabhaand Snskriti Samsad in 1987 AD. Also " Tongthai Naitungnani" (In search of above) by Shyamlal Deb Barmawas published serially in "Lama" a literary magazine.
Dundurkmaa compilation of 12 short stories by Shyamlal Deb Barmain 1984 and also Adongin 1987 edited by him. Nakhwraia compilation of four stories by Benoy Deb Barmain 1987. Elemni Bibia compilation of eight stories by Haripada Deb Barmain 1989.
Kok-Borok Koklob Bwchab(A collection of poems) in 1983 edited by Naresh Chandra Dev Varmaand Shyamlal Deb Barma; Chhimalwng Chhakao Molongni Khum(Flower of stone on a crematorium) in 1984 by Nanda Kumar Deb Barma; Kogtang-Koklob Bwtang(collection of poems and rhymes) in 1983 and Muktwiby Santimoy Chakraborty. Luku Sochama Rwchabmung(Songs of the masses) by Mahendra Deb Barmain 1984. Ha Kwchak(Red Soil) 1983 and Nwng Hamjakma Rwya1988 and also Ang bai Kwkharang twini khorangin 1986 and Rwchapmungby Sudhanya Tripura. Haping Garingo Chibuksa Ringo1986 and Kolomtwi Kishi Mwkhang1986 also Bolong Kwkhrang1987 by Chandra Kanta Murasing. Sonnet Koktangrogby Benoy Deb Barma1988. Kokila Nwng twmani aswk pungby Narendra Deb Barma1988. Horni boro or Sangh tram panchaliby Alindralal Tripura. Bolongni Bwsajwksong Nwsaoby Nanada Kumar Deb Barma1988 and Kok-Borok Gono Sangitby Shyamlal Deb Barma1988.
Tripurani Kereng Kotoma1980 by Santimoy Chakrabortyand some of the translated books were Kok-Borok Geetaby nanda Kumar Deb Barma1988, Nok Arini Kothomaand Kok-Borok bai Rabindranathin 1987 by Shyamlal Deb Barmaalso Takhumsa Bodolby Narendra Chandra Deb Barma. Also many literary magazines were popular in this decade such as "Lama" of the Tripura Upajati Ganamukti Parishad, "Chati" of Kokborok Sahitya-O-Sanskriti Samsadand "Dangdu" of Tripura Rajya Kokborok Sahitya Sabha.
"Last decade of the century - Adolescence of Kokborok literature"
Kokborokliterature of different branches published in this decade deserved appreciation and compliment for their literary quality and standard. The publications are:
Hachuk Khurio(In the lap of Hills), 2nd part,1994 by Sudhanya Deb Barma. Khongin 1996 by Shyamlal Deb Barma.
Belonia, 1994 by
Nagendra Jamatia, Mokol Bwskango1994 and Biyal1997 and Chethuang Tolao2000 by Snehamoy Roy Choudhury, Bolongni Khum1996 and Busu2000 by Sunil Deb Barma, Swkal jwkma1998 by Bijoy Deb Barma, Naphurai Jamatiaand Rabindra Kishore Deb Barma. Osthirog2000 by Biswa Kumar Deb Barma, Jalai Tokpuku200 by Haripada Deb Barmaand Naithok1998 by Naphurai Jamatiaand Ashok Deb Barma.
Ani Ganao Angand Ani Rwchabmung2000 by Nanda Kumar Deb Barma, Himalayni Bedek Buprao1991 and Love-ism1995 by Chandramani Deb Barma, Dormo Lam boy Kok-Borok Baul1992 by khajual Jamatia, Khumpui Barrwrwk1995 by Kokborok tei Hukumu Mission, Vakharai1996 by Kumud Ranjan Deb Barma, Nono Rikha Khumpui1997 and Jaduni Khorang200 by Sudhanya Tripura, Bolong Muphunjak Yakbai1998 by Bikashroy Deb barma, Longtrainin Eklobyo1998 by Bijoy Deb Barma, Lok Chethuang Lok1999 and Pindi Uatwi Pin1999 by Chandra Kanta Murasing, Sinijak Kwrwi Bumui2000 by Kunja Bihari Deb Barmaand Kokthiarog Swngo bonbonia2000 by Shyamlal Deb Barma.
Some of the translation books were
Komola Kantoni Doptar1992 by Nagendra Deb Barma, Mangni Uansokthani Geeta1997 by Annaprasad Jamatiaand Lobmung Bwchab(Psalms) by Tripura Baptist Christian Union. Other prominent books are Kwrak Kothoma1995 by Krishnadhan Jamatia, Anglo-Kokborok Dictionary1996 by Binoy Deb Barma, Phukmung1994 by Kokborok tei Hukumu Mission, Kokboroni Rangchak-richak1994 by Binoy Deb Barma, Gandhiji1995 by Sukanta Deb Barma, Kokborokni Kokrok Kisa1996 by Nitai Acharjee, Sachlang Jorani Imangni Kumpui1997 by Bimal Deb Barma, Kokborok Sikhum1997 by Rabindra Kishore Deb Barmaand Bemar Tai Bini Hamrimung1999 by Nilmani Deb Barma.
The present trend of development of the
Kokborokliterary works show that the Kokborok literature is moving forward slowly but steadily with its vivacity and distinctive originality to touch the rich literature of the rich languages.
* "Kokborok Literature - A century's development", by N.C. Deb Barma, "Tui" Magazine, Tribal research Institute, Agartala.
* "Tripura-e Kokborok Chorcha", by Ramprasad Dutta.
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