- Integral nationalism
Integral Nationalism is one of five types of
nationalismdefined by Carlton Hayesin his 1928 book "The Historical Evolution of Modern Nationalism."
Peter Alterdiscussed Integral Nationalism in his book "Nationalism", along with its opposite, Risorgimento nationalism. Whereas Risorgimento nationalism applies to a nation seeking to establish a state (for example, Greece, Italy, Germany, Polandand Serbiain the 17th century), integral nationalism results after a nation has achieved independenceand has established a state. Nazi Germanyand fascist Italy, according to Alter, were examples of integral nationalism. Some of the qualities that characterise integral nationalism is radical extremism, right-wing ideology, and aggressive-expansionist militarism.
Integral states are
totalitarianand the government or state dominates all aspects of society. Integral nationalism is derived from the "nationalisme integrale" of the French nationalist author Charles Maurras, who stated: "A true nationalist places his country above everything". Integralismas such is a belief that societyis an organic unit, with a social hierarchyand co-operation between the different social classes. It often overlaps with fascism, although many natural points of disagreement exist.
Integral nationalism arises in countries where a strong
militaryethos has become entrenched through the independence struggle, when, once independence is achieved, it is believed that a strong military is required to ensure the security and viability of the new state. Also, the success of such a liberation struggle results in feelings of national superiority that may lead to extreme nationalism.
* [http://www.pogledi.co.yu/english/nacionalizam.php/ Nationalism and War]
* [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0340600616/ Peter Alter's "Nationalism" at Amazon.com]
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