Seckel syndrome


Seckel syndrome
Seckel syndrome
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 Q87.1
OMIM 210600
DiseasesDB 31625

The Seckel syndrome or microcephalic primordial dwarfism (also known as bird-headed dwarfism, Harper's syndrome, Virchow-Seckel dwarfism, and Bird-headed dwarf of Seckel[1]) is a congenital nanosomic disorder.

Inheritance is autosomal recessive.[2]

It is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal dwarfism with a small head, narrow bird-like face with a beak-like nose, large eyes with an antimongoloid slant, receding mandible and mental retardation.

A mouse model has been developed.[3]

Contents

Genetics

It is supposed to be caused by defects of genes on chromosome 3 and 18. One form of Seckel syndrome can be caused by mutation in the gene encoding the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related protein (ATR) which maps to chromosome 3q22.1-q24. This gene is central in the cell's DNA damage response and repair mechanism.

Types include:

Type OMIM Gene Locus
SCKL1 210600 ATR 3q22-q24
SCKL2 606744  ? 18p11-q11
SCKL3 608664  ? 14q
SCKL4 613676 CENPJ 13q12

History

The syndrome was named after Helmut Paul George Seckel[4] (American physician, 1900–1960). Harper's syndrome is named after Rita G. Harper.[5][6]

Symptoms

Symptoms include:

  • mental retardation (more than half of the patients have an IQ below 50)
  • microcephaly
  • sometimes pancytopenia
  • cryptorchidism
  • low birth weight
  • dislocations of pelvis and elbow
  • unusually large eyes
  • low ears
  • small chin

External links

See also

References

  1. ^ Harsha Vardhan BG, Muthu MS, Saraswathi K, Koteeswaran D (2007). "Bird-headed dwarf of Seckel". J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 25 Suppl: S8–9. PMID 17921644. http://www.jisppd.com/article.asp?issn=0970-4388;year=2007;volume=25;issue=5;spage=8;epage=9;aulast=Harsha. 
  2. ^ James Wynbrandt; Mark D. Ludman (February 2008). The encyclopedia of genetic disorders and birth defects. Infobase Publishing. pp. 344–. ISBN 9780816063963. http://books.google.com/books?id=kXaMjwItP0oC&pg=PA344. Retrieved 7 January 2011. 
  3. ^ Murga M, Bunting S, Montaña MF, et al. (August 2009). "A mouse model of ATR-Seckel shows embryonic replicative stress and accelerated aging". Nat. Genet. 41 (8): 891–8. doi:10.1038/ng.420. PMC 2902278. PMID 19620979. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2902278. 
  4. ^ Seckel, H. P. G. Bird-headed Dwarfs: Studies in Developmental Anthropology Including Human Proportions. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas (pub.) 1960.
  5. ^ http://www.whonamedit.com/synd.cfm/869.html
  6. ^ Harper RG, Orti E, Baker RK (May 1967). "Bird-beaded dwarfs (Seckel's syndrome). A familial pattern of developmental, dental, skeletal, genital, and central nervous system anomalies". J. Pediatr. 70 (5): 799–804. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(67)80334-2. PMID 6022184. 



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