List of European folk music traditions


List of European folk music traditions

This is a list of folk music traditions, with styles, dances, instruments and other related topics. The term "folk music" can not be easily defined in a precise manner; it is used with widely-varying definitions depending on the author, intended audience and context within a work. Similarly, the term "traditions" in this context does not connote any strictly-defined criteria. Music scholars, journalists, audiences, record industry individuals, politicians, nationalists and demagogues may often have occasion to address which fields of folk music are distinct traditions based along racial, geographic, linguistic, religious, tribal or ethnic lines, and all such peoples will likely use different criteria to decide what constitutes a "folk music tradition". This list uses the same general categories used by mainstream, primarily English-language, scholarly sources, as determined by relevant statements of fact and the internal structure of works.

These traditions may coincide entirely, partially or not at all with geographic, political, linguistic or cultural boundaries. Very few, if any, music scholars would claim that there are any folk music traditions that can be considered specific to a distinct group of people and with characteristics undiluted by contact with the music of other peoples; thus, the folk music traditions described herein overlap in varying degrees with each other.

Europe

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Albanian [Burton, Kim, "The Eagle Has Landed", in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 1 - 6; [http://www.worldmusiccentral.org/staticpages/index.php/glossary World Music Central] ; cite book|accessdate=2005-08-28|location=Leeds-Tiranë|title=Albanian Music|url=http://www.leeds.ac.uk/music/staff/ek/albanian.htm|author=Koco, Eno|publisher=University of Leeds; cite web|accessdate=April 3|accessyear=2006|title=Bashkim Braho: Albanian folk dance|url=http://www.massculturalcouncil.org/programs/apprenticeshipsDetail.asp?App=0669&year=2006|work=Massachusetts Cultural Council]
Styles = aheng - ballad (lieder) - epic (këngë trimash, këngë kreshnikësh) - kaba - kantadha - Kefalonitika - këputje fjalësh - Korçare - lament - llazore - lullaby - maje krahi - Albanian iso-polyphony - prcjellsi - rapsodi - saze orchestra - serenata - wedding music - work song
Dance = ajsino oro - arnaöut - Osman Taka - pušteno - sherianqe - shota - valle
Instrumentation = bousouk - buzuk - cifteli - clarinet - dajreja - def - fyell - grrneta (clarinet) - lahuta (fiddle) - llautë (lute) - lodra - mandolin - sharki - violin - zumarë (clarinet)
Other = kurbet - pare

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Tradition = Andalusian
See = Spanish

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Tradition = Andorran
See = Catalan

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Tradition = Arbereshi
See = Albanian

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Tradition = Austrian [Bohlman, pg. 210; Wagner, Christoph, "Soul Music of Old Vienna", in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 13 - 15; *cite web|accessdate=April 5|accessyear=2006|title="Volksmusik", "Unterhaltungsmusik", "Kammermusik", "Blasmusik", "Schnadahüpfl" and "Jodler"|url =http://www.aeiou.at/aeiou.encyclop.v/v781362.htm;internal&action=_setlanguage.action?LANGUAGE=en|work=AEIOU]
Styles = Faschingsbriefe - Schnadahüpfl (Gstanzl, Gsetzl, Trutzgsangl) - schrammelmusik - string quartet - Wienalied - yodeling (Jodler, Wullaza, Hullaza, Almer) - Zettellandler
Dance = Volkstanz: Blasmusik - Boarischer - Eiswalzer - Hiatamadl - Jägermarsch - Kontratänze - Krebspolka - Kreuzpolka - Kuckuckspolka - landler - ländler - Lunzer Boarischer - mazurka - Neudeutscher - polka - Poschater Zwoaschritt - Rediwa (Sprachinseltänze - Schnitterhüpfer - schuhplattler (Plattler) - Rheinländer - Siebenschritt - Steirischer - Studentenpolka - Zwiefacher - waltz [The "landler" and the "ländler" are not the same dance, despite the similarity in name]
Instrumentation = accordion - alphorn - clarinet - double bass (contrabass) - dulcimer - fiddle - flute - grazer - guimbard (Jew's harp) - guitar - harp - Styrian harmonica (accordion) - tamburica - trumpet - violin - zither
Other = heurigan - tracht - Volkssänger

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Tradition = Auvergnat
See = French

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Tradition = Balearic Islander
See = Catalan

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Tradition = Basque [Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pgs. 109 - 112; Krümm, Philippe and Jean-Pierre Rasle, and Jan Fairley, "Music of the Regions" and "A Tale of Celts and Islanders" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 103 - 113 and pgs. 292 - 297; [http://www.worldmusiccentral.org/staticpages/index.php/glossary World Music Central] ; cite web|url=http://www.bizkaia.net/bizkaia_informazioa/bmaitea/bizkaia_informazioa/English/General_information/Culture/in_FOMUSI.asp|work=Bizkaia.net|accessdate=April 20|accessyear=2006|title=Folk music and poetry; [http://www.hobgoblin.com/info/glossary.htm Hobgoblin Info Source] ; cite web|url=http://calacademy.org/research/anthropology/tap/ARCHIVE/1999/1999-06--basque.htm|accessdate=April 20|accessyear=2006|title=TAP Program Notes|work=Traditional Arts Program; cite web|url=http://www.txistulari.com/teknika/whatis.htm|accessdate=April 20|accessyear=2006|title=What is the Txistu?|work=Txistulari.comcite web|url=http://www.ul.ie/~iwmc/research/txalaparta.html|accessdate=April 20|accessyear=2006|title=Txalaparta|work=Irish World Academy of Music and Dance; cite book|chapter=Folklore and Traditions|title=The Basque Country, Come and then pass the word|author=Murua, Angel|url=http://www.buber.net/Basque/Folklore/folk2.html|edition=2nd Edition|accessdate=2006-04-17|publisher=Gobierno Vasco, Departamento de Comercio, Consuma, y Turismo. Viceconsejeria de Turismo|year=1993]
Styles = bertsolaritza - bikoa - chant - choir - dawn song - errena - trikitixa
Dance = Abaltzisketa - arin arin - Aurresku - azeri - baso - basauri - Berastegi - Beti Alai Arku - brokel - dantzari - Donostia-San Sebastian - Euskaldunak - ezpata - eztai-soinu - garay - gizon - Ingurutxo - jorrai - Karrika-Soinu (biribilketa) - larrain - legazpi - makil - Markina-Xemein - Matelota - Miel Otxin - mutildantza - Muxico (Mutico) - paloteados - sagar - San Juan - soka - sorgin - troquel - txino - Uztai Txiki - Yantza-Luze - zagi - zortziko
Instrumentation = alboka (double clarinet) - atabal (bass drum) - chirula - gaïta - kirikoketa - makilak (sticks) - pandereta - silbote - tarogato - tenora (shawm) - tobera - trikitrixa (concertina) - ttunttun (drum) - txalaparta - txistu (three hole pipe) - xirula (flute)
Other = aintzara-yoku - alardes - Basque picnic - dantzaris - herren - kolaris - mascarada - Pastoral - religious procession - txakun

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Tradition = Bavarian
See = German

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Tradition = Belarusan
Styles =
Dance =
Instrumentation =
Other =

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Tradition = Bohemian
See = Czech

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Tradition = Bosnian [Burton, Kim, "Sad Songs of Sarajevo", in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pg. 31 - 35; Slobin, Mark, "Europe/Peasant Music-Cultures of Eastern Europe" in "Worlds of Music", pgs. 167 - 207; cite web|url=http://www.culturalorientation.net/bosnia/bart.html|accessdate=April 20|accessyear=2006|title=Art|work=Bosnians, Their History and Culture]
Styles = gange - gusle - ilahije - izvorna bosanska muzika - Ladino song - novokomponovana narodna muzika - ravne pjesme - sevdalinka (sevdah) [The "novokomponovana narodna muzika" style is clearly not folk music in a scholarly sense, but may be more loosely termed "traditional"]
Dance = line dance - kolo
Instrumentation = accordion - bagpipe - clarinet - daire - double bass - flute - guitar - sargija (lute) - saz - snare drum - violin
Peoples =
Geography =
Other = sijela

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Breton [Ritchie, pgs. 49, 60, 79; Krümm, Philippe and Jean-Pierre Rasle, "Music of the Regions" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 103 - 113; Sawyer, pgs. 5, 14 - 15, 58, 133; [http://www.worldmusiccentral.org/staticpages/index.php/glossary World Music Central] ; Winick, Steven D., "Brittany", in Mathieson, pgs. 110 - 139; [http://www.ceolas.org/Regions/Brittany/Breton.html Ceolas] ; cite journal|url=http://dolphin.upenn.edu/~teachnet/Bretonjaf/bretonjaftoc.html|accessdate=2006-04-17|title=Breton Folk Music, Breton Identity, And Alan Stivell's Again|author=Winick, Stephen D.|journal=Journal of American Folklore|volume=108|year=1995|issue=429|month=Summer|format=Dead link|date=May 2008]
Styles = bagad (bagadoù, pipe band) - chant de marin (sea shanty) - couples de sonneurs (sonner par couple) - gwerz (gwerzioù) - kan a boz - kan ha diskan - kantik (hymn) - kost ar c'hoat - quête - sôn (sonioù)
Dance = an dros (an dro) - bals - plinn - fisel - gavotte - jabadao - hanter dro - laridé (ridée) - pach-pi - rond
Instrumentation = accordion - binou (bagpipe, kozh, braz, bihan, pib veur) - binou braz - bombarde (oboe) - hurdy-gurdy - telenn (harp) - treujenn-gaol (clarinet, trognon d'chou) - veuze (bagpipe) - violon (violin, fiddle)
Other = chanteurs engagés (protest singer) - Dastum - diskaner - fest-noz (festou noz, bal breton) - kaner - roots revival - sonerion

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Bulgarian [Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pg. 84; Burton, Kim, "The Mystery Voice", in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 36 - 45; Slobin, Mark, "Europe/Peasant Music-Cultures of Eastern Europe" in "Worlds of Music", pgs. 167 - 207; cite book|author=Vollan, Ståle Tvete|language=Norwegian|title=Bulgarsk folkemusikk - musikktradisjon og feltarbeid|year=1999|location=Trondheim|url=http://home.chello.no/~staletv/|accessdate=March 2006; cite web|url=http://www.ce-review.org/99/17/music17_bagust.html|accessdate=April 19|accessyear=2006|title=May It Fill Your Soul|work=Central Europe Review; cite web|url=http://larkinthemorning.com/article.asp?AI=24&bhcd2=1145498977|accessdate=April 19|accessyear=2006|title=Bulgarian Folk Instruments|work=Lark in the Morning: A World of Music; cite web|url=http://www.eliznik.org.uk/Bulgaria/dance/|accessdate=April 19|accessyear=2006|title=Bulgarian dances|work=Eliznik Romania; cite web|url=http://www.dunav.org.il/dance_histories/bulgaria_kopanica.html|accessdate=April 19|accessyear=2006|title=Kopanica (Sopluk & Trakia, Bulgaria)|work=Dunav]
Styles = choir - Koleduvane - kopanica - Laduvane - Lazaruvane - na trapeza - wedding music
Dance = Horo: acano mlada nvesto (line dance) - buchimish (line dance) - chetvorno - chope - daichovo (line dance) - dunavsko - elenino (line dance) - eleno mome - iove male mome - kopanica - kopanitsa (line dance, gankino) - nestinari - paidushko - petrunino - povarnato (devetorka) - pravo horo (line dance) - rachenitsa (ruchenitsa, couple dance) - sandansko - sedenka - sedi donka - trite puti (line dance) - tropoli
Instrumentation = clarinet - kaba gaida - kaval (flute) - gadulka - gaida (bagpipe) - tambura (lute) - tarabuka (drum) - tǔpan (drum)
Other = Koprivshtitsa - nestinarstvo - sedyanki

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Tradition = Burgenland Croat
See = Croatian

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Tradition = Calabrian
See = Italian

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Tradition = Cantabrian
Styles = tonada montañesa - marzas - cantares de ronda - pasacalles - romances - coplas a lo pesau - coplas a lo ligeru - cantos de labor - trova - reyes - canto a bodas - villancico
Dance = jota montañesa - picayos - danza de arcos - baila de Ibio - paloteo - pericote lebaniego - trepeletré - cuevanuco - romance del conde de Lara - danza de cintas
Instrumentation = pitu montañés - gaita - rabel - bígaru - tamboril - chifla campurriana - caja redoblante - pandereta - pandero - tarrañuelas - vozaina - silbu - albogue - rutón sobano - chiflita pasiega - alcurdión - cuerno pasiego
Other = jisquíu o ijujú - gudos

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Tradition = Castilian
See = Spanish

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Tradition = Catalan [Catalan folk music can be taken to not include the music of the Balearic Islands; however, for the purposes of this list, the islands are included with Catalonia; Krümm, Philippe and Jean-Pierre Rasle, and Jan Fairley, "Music of the Regions" and "A Tale of Celts and Islanders" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 103 - 113 and pgs. 292 - 297; cite book|chapter=Spain|title=The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians|editor=Stanley Sadie (Ed)|volume=20|location=London|publisher=Macmillan Publishers|year=1980|id=ISBN 1-56159-174-2; [http://www.hobgoblin.com/info/glossary.htm Hobgoblin Info Source] ; cite web|url=http://www.research.umbc.edu/eol/MA/index/number9/cohen/coh_0.htm|accessdate=April 23|accessyear=2006|title=Report and Projects: Music in the Balearic and Pityusan Islands|work=Judith R.Cohen, Esperança Bonet Roig and Manel Frau; cite web|work=FEVA|title=For Culture Lovers|url=http://www.feva.ad/Andorra/Angles/Andorra03_culture.htm|accessdate=September 28|accessyear=2005]
Styles = ball de bastons - ball de gitanes - besones - caramelles - cercaviles - colla - colles diableres - cobla - galops - gloses (glosada, estribot) - gotxos - habanera - ida y vuelta - lullaby - passos - porfèdia - redoblada - regateix - redoblat - uc - work song
Dance = bolero - contrapàs - copeo - cossiers - habaneres - jota - marratxa - mateixa - sa filera - Saint Anne's dance - sardana (circle dance) - sardana curta - sardana llarga - sardana de lluïment - sardana revessa - ses dotze rodades - ses nou rodades
Instrumentation = bandurria - bimbau (Jew's harp) - castanet - fiscorn (horn) - flabiol (flute) - gralla (oboe) - guitarró (guitar) - sac de gemecs (bagpipe, coixinera, caterineta, borrega, manxa borrega, bot, noia verda, mossa verda, ploranera, sac de les aspres, buna, cornamusa) - tambori - tambourine - tarota (oboe) - tenora (shawm) - tible - xeremia (clarinet) - ximbomba
Other = cantada - correfoc - esbartades - sonador - vetlada - xacota

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Tradition = Cham
See = Albanian

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Tradition = Channel Islands [cite book|title=Maintaining and Creating Heritage|author=Johnson, Henry|format=pdf|publisher=Small Island Cultures Research Initiative|accessdate=2006-04-29|url=http://www.sicri.org/assets/downloads/SICRI05_PDF/SICRI2005_Johnson.pdf]
Styles = bachîn ringing
Dance = bérouisse - cotillion - danse des chapieaux (the hat dance) - ronde (round dance) - sonneur
Instrumentation = accordion - bachîn - chifournie (hurdy gurdy) - violin
Other =

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Tradition = Cornish [Ritchie, pg. 48; ; Sawyer, pgs. 16 - 17; cite web|url=http://telematics.ex.ac.uk/realcornwall/artsandmedia/music.asp|accessdate=May 1|accessyear=2006|title=Cornish Music|work=Real Cornwall]
Styles = Cornish carol
Dance = cushion dance - jig - hornpipe - reel - troyll
Instrumentation = bagpipe - bombarde - crowdy crawn (croder croghen) - fiddle (crowd) - hand drum - harp
Other = gorsedd

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Tradition = Corsican
See = French

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Tradition = Croatian [Burton, Kim, "Sad Songs of Sarajevo" and "Toe Tapping Tamburicas", in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pg. 31 - 35 and pgs. 46 - 48; cite web|title=Present|work=Folk Ensemble Filip Devic|accessdate=May 5|accessyear=2006|url=http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/7300/FilipDevic/present.html; cite web|url=http://www.korcula.net/naselja/korcula/moreska.htm|title=The Moreska Dance|work=Korcula.net|accessdate=May 6|accessyear=2006; cite journal|year=2000|title=Croatia: A Diverse Culture|url=http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/4677/fda59.html|month=October|journal=Footnotes|accessdate=2006-05-06|issue=59|format=Dead link|date=May 2008]
Styles = bećarac - deseterac - epic poetry - klapa - tamburica band - tamburitza
Dance = drme - kolo (round dance) - lindjo - moreska (Korcula sword dance) - zvecke
Instrumentation = accordion - berda - bisernice - brac - bugarija - clarinet - curla - diple - fiddle - gange - gusle - lijerica (lirica, fiddle) - roznica - samica - sargija (dulcimer) - sopila - tambura (mandolin) - tamburica - violin - zither
Other = Istrian scale - kukeri

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Tradition = Cypriot
See = Greek or Turkish

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Tradition = Czech [Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pg. 91; Plocek, Jiri, "East Meets West", in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 49 - 57; cite web|work=MSN Encarta|title=Folk Music|url=http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761554209/Folk_Music.html|accessdate=June 13|accessyear=2006]
Styles = Národní písni: cimbalom band - gajdošská (bagpipe band) - hudecká (fiddle band) - lidovka (lidovky) - skřipácká - old Prague song (staropražské písničky) - tramp music (trampská hudba)
Dance = polka - sedlácká - táhlá - verbunk (Slovácko verbuňk)
Instrumentation = accordion - bagpipe - cimbalom - clarinet - double bass - fiddle - viola - violin
Other =

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Tradition = Dalmatian
See = Croatian

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Tradition = Danish [Cronshaw, Andrew, "A New Pulse for the Pols", in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 58 - 63]
Styles =
Dance = fanik - firtur - hopsa - polka - pols - rheinlænder - schottische - sønderhoning - trekanter - tretur - vals
Instrumentation = accordion - fiddle - piano -
Other =

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Dutch [Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pgs. 53 - 75; Bloemendaal, Wim, "Tilting at Windmills" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 207 - 210; Kinney, pgs. 156 - 163]
Styles =
Dance = mâtelot - mazurka - polka - Seven Sault - waltz
Instrumentation = accordion - doedelzak - guitar - hurdy-gurdy - pijpzak - violin
Other =

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Tradition = Emilian
See = Italian

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Tradition = English [Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pgs. 53 - 75; Ritchie, pg. 73; Irwin, Colin, "England's Changing Roots", in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 64 - 82; Kinney, pgs. 156 - 163; Sawyer, pgs. 5, 99 - 100; [http://www.worldmusiccentral.org/staticpages/index.php/glossary World Music Central] ]
Styles = broadside ballad - Child ballad - wassailing [Nettl notes that broadside ballads were primarily a form of popular music, but that many such ballads entered the folk repertoire.]
Dance = clogging - country dance - horn dance - hornpipe - long sword - Maypole dance - morris dance - rapper dance
Instrumentation = accordion - concertina - fiddle - mouth organ - Northumbrian smallpipe
Other = ballad meter - obby oss

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Tradition = Estonian [Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pgs. 53 - 75; Cronshaw, "Singing Revolutions", in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 16 - 24]
Styles = runo-song - swing-song
Dance = polka
Instrumentation = accordion - bagpipe - concertina - fiddle - hiiu-kannel - kannel - talharpa - trumpet - whistle - zither
Other = Kalevipoeg

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Tradition = Faroese [Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pgs. 53 - 75; Cronshaw, Andrew, "A New Pulse for the Pols", in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 58 - 63]
Styles = kingosalmar - kvæði - skjaldur - tættir - visur
Dance = circle dance - Faroe two-step
Instrumentation =
Other =

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Finnish [Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pgs. 53 - 75, 87; Cronshaw, Andrew, "New Runes", in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 91 - 102]
Styles = itku - rekilaulu - runolaulu
Dance = humppa - jenkka - mazurka - minuet - pelimanni - polka - purpuri - schottische - waltz
Instrumentation = accordion - clarinet - fiddle - harmonium - horn - jouhikko - kantele - talharpa - whistle
Other = Kalevala

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Tradition = Flemish [Rans, Paul, "Flemish, Walloon and Global Fusion", in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 25 - 30]
Styles =
Dance =
Instrumentation =
Other =

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Tradition = Florentine
See = Italian

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Tradition = Formentera
See = Catalan

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Tradition = Frisian [Bloemendaal, Wim, "Tilting at Windmills" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 207 - 210]
Styles =
Dance = galop - polka - skoetsploech - skots - wals
Instrumentation = accordion - fiddle - melodeon - rommelpot
Other =

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = French [Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pgs. 102 - 106; Krümm, Philippe and Jean-Pierre Rasle, and Alessio Surian, "Music of the Regions" and "Tenores and Tarantellas" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 103 - 113 and pgs. 189 - 201; Kinney, pgs. 156 - 163]
Styles = bal-musette - Corsican polyphonic song - paghjella - regret
Dance = bourrée - branle - contredanse - farandole - quadrille - rigaudon
Instrumentation = aboè - accordion - bodega - boha - cabrette - chabrette - cornemuse - fifre - galoubet - graille - grand cornemuse - hurdy-gurdy - pifre - tambourin - violin
Other =

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Galician [Ritchie, pgs. 51, 76; Jan Fairley, "A Tale of Celts and Islanders" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 292 - 297; Sawyer, pgs. 5, 19; [http://www.worldmusiccentral.org/staticpages/index.php/glossary World Music Central] ]
Styles = coplas verdes - alalá - alborada - pasacalles - carballesa - ribeirana
Dance = danza de damas e galáns - jota - muiñeira - pasodobre - rumba
Instrumentation = accordion - cadro - clarinet - gaita - pandeireta - pandeiro - tamboril - tarrañolas
Other =

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Tradition = Gascon
See = French

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Tradition = Genoese
See = Italian

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Tradition = German [Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pgs. 53 - 75, 80; Hunt, Ken, "Kraut Kaunterblast" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 114 - 125; Kinney, pgs. 156 - 163]
Styles = anacrusis - German ballad - volksmusik - yodeling
Dance = bacchu-ber - perchtentanz - schuhplatteltanz - waltz
Instrumentation = alphorn - zupfgeige
Other = Kriegspiele - Stadtfeste

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Tradition = Gheg
See = Albanian

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Tradition = Greek [Manuel, "Popular Musics", pgs. 127 - 132; Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pg. 92; Dubin, Marc and George Pissalidhes, "Songs of the Near East" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 126 - 142]
Styles = amané - dhimotika tragoudhia - kalanda - kantadhes - kleftiko - Klephtic song - miroloyia - nisiotika - rebetiko - skaros - taxim - tis tavlas
Dance = çifte telli - hasaposerviko - kalamatiano - karsilama - khasapiko - syrto - tsamiko - zebekiko
Instrumentation = askomandra - baglamas - bouzouki - daouli - defi - gaïdla - kavali - kithara - klarino - laouto - lautokithara - lyra - outi - santouri - toumberleki - tsambouna - violi - zournas
Other = demotiki - dromoi - manges - paniriyia - rebetes - tekes

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Tradition = Gypsy
See = Romani (Gypsy)

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Hungarian [Bohlman, pg. 199; Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pgs. 53 - 75; Broughton, Simon, "A Musical Mother Tongue" and "Taraf Traditions"in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 159 - 167 and pgs. 237 - 247; Slobin, Mark, "Europe/Peasant Music-Cultures of Eastern Europe" in "Worlds of Music", pgs. 167 - 207; Kinney, pgs. 190 - 192; [http://www.worldmusiccentral.org/staticpages/index.php/glossary World Music Central] ]
Styles = hajnali - parlando-rubato - tempo-giusto - verbunkos
Dance = csardas - legenyes - szolo - verbunkos
Instrumentation = bagpipe - cimbalom - cowbell - fiddle - gardon - hurdy-gurdy - violin - zither
Other = tanchaz

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Ibiza
See = Catalan

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Icelandic [Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pgs. 53 - 75; Cronshaw, Andrew, "Waiting for the Thaw" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 168 - 169]
Styles = organum - rimur
Dance = ballad dancing
Instrumentation = fidla - langspil
Peoples =
Geography =
Other = saga

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Irish [Ritchie, pgs. 15 - 17, 32 - 33, 60, 67, 72, 74 - 75, 77, 80 - 81; Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pgs. 53 - 75; O'Connor, Nuala, "Dancing at the Virtual Crossroads" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 170 - 188; Kinney, pgs. 156 - 163; Sawyer, pgs. 5, 7 - 10, 36 - 37, 55 - 56, 101 - 105, 111 - 112, 117 - 121, 172 - 176, 232 - 233]
Styles = aisling - amhrain - ballad - bard - caoineadh - diddling - drinking song - Fonn Mall - harp music - keening (lament, caoning) - macaronic song - Ossian ballad (Fenian ballad) - rebel song - reverdie - sean nós
Dance = carol - céilidh - clogging - highland - hornpipe - jig - polka - quadrille - reel - slide - slip jig - step dance - strathspey
Instrumentation = accordion - banjo - bodhrán - bouzouki - concertina - fiddle - flute - guitar - harp - uilleann pipes - whistle [The "bouzouki" is a relatively recent import that is often considered to not be a traditional instrument. O'Connor, however, acknowledges that though "it might seem odd", the "bouzouki" has "taken firm root" in traditional music.]
Other = American wake conyach - crack - feis - fleadh - session

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Istrian
See = Croatian

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Italian [Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pgs. 106 - 109; Krümm, Philippe and Jean-Pierre Rasle, and Alessio Surian, "Music of the Regions" and "Tenores and Tarantellas" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 103 - 113 and pgs. 189 - 201; Kinney, pgs. 156 - 163; [http://www.worldmusiccentral.org/staticpages/index.php/glossary World Music Central] ]
Styles = baride - endecasillabo - gozo - maggio - Sardinian polyphony - tammorriata - trallalero - villanella
Dance = ciociora - forlana - ruggera - saltarello - siciliana - su ballu - tarantella - trescona
Instrumentation = accordion - clapper - clarinet - flute - guitar - Jew's harp - launedda - lira - mandolin - melodeon - ocarina - panpipe - piffero - rattle - tamburello - tamorra - tamura - violin - zampogna
Other = tarantolati

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Karelian
See = Finnish

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Kvarnerian
See = Croatian

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Lab
See = Albanian

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Latvian [Cronshaw, "Singing Revolutions", in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 16 - 24]
Styles = balss - daina - dziesma - ligotne - runo-song - sadzives - zinge
Dance =
Instrumentation = citara - dulcimer - kokle
Other =

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Lithuanian [Cronshaw, "Singing Revolutions", in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 16 - 24]
Styles = daino - dvejines - keturines - sutartines - trejines
Dance = polka - quadrille - rateliai - waltz
Instrumentation = accordion - balalaika - bandoneon - basetle - birbynes - clarinet - concertina - daudytes - fiddle - guitar - harmonica - kankle - lamzdeliai - mandolin - pusline - ragai - sekminiu ragelis - skuduciai - svilpas - tabala
Other =

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Lombard
See = Italian

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Majorca
See = Catalan

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Manx [Ritchie, pg. 43; Sawyer, pgs. 5, 17 - 18]
Styles = Carvalyn Gailckagh - lament - Manx carol
Dance =
Instrumentation =
Other =

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Macedonian [Manuel, "Popular Musics", pgs. 137 - 139; Burton, Kim, "Tricky Rhythms" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 202 - 206]
Styles = calgia - narodni orkestri
Dance =
Instrumentation = accordion - cemane - clarinet - def - dzumbus - gajda - kanun - kaval - supelka - tambura - tarabuka - tupan - ut - zurla
Other = narodna muzika - nove narodne pesme novokomponirana

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Minorca
See = Catalan

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Moldovan
See = Romanian

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Montenegrin [Burton, Kim, "Balkan Beats" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 273 - 276]
Styles = Montenegrin epic poetry
Dance =
Instrumentation = gusle
Other =

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Moravian
See = Czech

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Neapolitan
See = Italian

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Norwegian [Bohlman, pg. 210; Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pgs. 53 - 75; Cronshaw, Andrew, "Fjords and Fiddles" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 211 - 218; Sawyers, pgs. 79 - 81; [http://www.worldmusiccentral.org/staticpages/index.php/glossary World Music Central] ]
Styles = bansuller - kveding - halling - laling - lokking - Norwegian ballad - slattar - stev - tralling
Dance = brumarsj - bygdedan - gammeldans - gangnar - halling - pols - rull - springar - springdans - springleik
Instrumentation = bukkehorn - fiddle - Hardanger fiddle - harp - langeleik - lur - Meraker - seljefløyte - trekspel - tungehorn
Other = kappleikar

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Occitan
See = French

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Piedmontese
See = Italian

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Pityusan Islander
See = Catalan

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Polish [Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pgs. 91 - 92; Broughton, Simon, "Hanging on in the Highlands" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 219 - 224; Kinney, pgs. 190 - 191; [http://www.worldmusiccentral.org/staticpages/index.php/glossary World Music Central] ]
Styles = lidyzowanie
Dance = chodzony - cimbaŀy - krakowiak - krzesany - mazurka - obertas - ozwodna - polka - polonaise - zbojnicki
Instrumentation = cello - diable skrzypce - fiddle - gensle - koziol - maryna - mazanka - suka - violin
Other = dozynki

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Portugal [Manuel, "Popular Musics", pg. 115; Cronshaw, Andrew and Paul Vernon, "Traditional Riches, Fate and Revolution" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 225 - 236]
Styles = castiço - fado - modinha - Romanceiro - tamborileiro - zés-pereiras
Dance = dança dos homens - fofa - lundum
Instrumentation = adufe - bandolim - bexigoncelo - bombo - briquinho - caixa - cântaro com abanho - castanholas - cavaquinho - concertina - concha - ferrinhos - flauta pastoril - gaita-de-foles - genebres - guitarra - pandeireta - pandeiro - pifaro - reco-reco - sanfona - sarronça - tamboril - transcanholas - viola - zaclitracs
Other = fadista - ranchos folclóricos - saudade

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Provenç
See = French

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Puglian
See = Italian

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Romani (Gypsy) [Manuel, "Popular Musics", pg. 121, 165; Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pgs. 115 - 116; Plocek, Jiri, "East Meets West", in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 49 - 57; Broughton, Simon, "Kings and Queens of the Road" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 146 - 158; Kinney, pgs. 121 - 155; [http://www.worldmusiccentral.org/staticpages/index.php/glossary World Music Central] ]
Styles = bulerías - calgia - cantes - cimbalom - fandango - fasil - flamenco - jaleo - koumpaneia - loki djili - oral-bassing - siguiriyas - soleares - taksim - tientos - tangos
Dance = alegrias - belly dance - bulerías - farruca - garrotin - marianas - moritas - khelimaske djili
Instrumentation = accordion - buzuq - cimbalom - clarinet - cümbüş - darbuka - davul - djumbus - dombak - kaman - kanun - ney - rebab - tabla - ud - violin - zurna
Other = braceos - cuadro - juerga - Karagöz shadow theatre - taraf

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Romanian [Broughton, Simon, "Taraf Traditions" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 237 - 247; Slobin, Mark, "Europe/Peasant Music-Cultures of Eastern Europe" in "Worlds of Music", pgs. 167 - 207]
Styles = ballad - colinde - doina - lament - taraf - Transylvanian wedding music
Dance = briu - fluier - geamparale - hora - sirba
Instrumentation = cetera - cimbalom - cobza - doba - double bass - fiddle - nai - taragot - viola - violin - zongora
Other = capra

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Rousillon
See = Catalan

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Russian [Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pg. 87; Broughton, Simon and Tatiana Didenko, "Music of the People" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 248 - 254; Slobin, Mark, "Europe/Peasant Music-Cultures of Eastern Europe" in "Worlds of Music", pgs. 167 - 207]
Styles = byliny - chastushka - plachi - protiazhnaia pesnia - wedding music - zmires
Dance = broyges tants - kaketke - kozatske - krakovyak - khorovodi - mitsve tants - sher - shrayer
Instrumentation = accordion - balalaika - domra - tsimbl
Other = badkhn - fakelore

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Sami [Cronshaw, Andrew, "Joiks of the Tundra" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 255 - 260]
Styles = joik - lavlu
Dance =
Instrumentation = gievri - kobdas
Other = noaite

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Sardinian
See = Italian

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Scottish [Ritchie, pgs. 15 - 16, 18, 38 - 39, 40 - 41, 62, 66, 71 - 73, 80; Heywood, Pete and Colin Irwin, "From Strathspeys to Acid Croft" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 261 - 272; Kinney, pgs. 156 - 163; Sawyer, pgs. 5, 10 - 13, 36 - 37, 39, 80 - 82, 88 - 101, 113 - 116, 121 - 126, 131 - 133, 146, 162 - 164, 202]
Styles = ballad - Border ballad - bothy ballad - brosnachadh - cauld wind pipe - ceol beg - ceol mor - flyting - lilt - muckle sang - pibroch - piobaireachd - psalm - puirt-a-beul (mouth music) - Scottish work song - Shetland fiddling - trowie - urlar - waulking song
Dance = battement - Highland fling - hornpipe - jig - minuet - quickstep - reel - shean treuse - strathspey - sword dance
Instrumentation = accordion - Border pipe - clarsach - concertina - fiddle - flute - gue - harp - Highland pipes - Lowland pipe - pastoral pipe - pibroch - smallpipe - tin whistle
Other = Cape Breton fiddling - Scottish Baroque music - conyach - Feisean - mod - tryst

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Serbian [Burton, Kim, "Sad Songs of Sarajevo", in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pg. 31 - 35; Burton, Kim, "Balkan Beats" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 273 - 276; Kinney, pgs. 189 - 190]
Styles = izvorna - narodna muzika - novokomponovana narodna muzika - sevdalinka ["narodna muzika" and "novokomponovana narodna muzika" translate respectively as "folk music" and "newly-composed folk music"; Burton describes both terms as perhaps vague, referring sometimes to traditionally-styled music or outright modern, popular music, which would not qualify as true "folk music" under any common scholarly definition; Burton also notes that many "novokomponovana narodna muzika" songs reflect a more Bosnian character than Serbian or Montenegrin.]
Dance = cocek - kolo - sa-sa
Instrumentation = frula - gaida - gusle - sargija - tamburitza - tupan - violin
Other =

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Sicilian
See = Italian

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Slavonian
See = Croatian

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Slovak [Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pg. 91; Plocek, Jiri, "East Meets West", in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 49 - 57]
Styles =
Dance = čardáš - čuchom - dupak - karicka - do kolesa - odzemok - polka- verbunk - waltz
Instrumentation = accordion - cello - cimbal - dvojačka (double whistle) - fujara - gajdy - koncovka (overtone flute) - píšťalka (6 hole whistle) - violin
Other =

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Slovenian [Burton, Kim, "The Sound of Austro-Slavs" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 277 - 278]
Styles = velike goslarije - Slovenian harmony singing
Dance =
Instrumentation = meh - panpipe - sopile - zither
Other =

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Spanish [Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pgs. 113 - 117; Cronshaw, Andrew and Paul Vernon, and Jan Fairley, "Traditional Riches, Fate and Revolution" and "A Tale of Celts and Islanders" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 225 - 236 and pgs. 292 - 297; Kinney, pgs. 121 - 155; McKinney and Anderson, pgs. 614 - 616; [http://www.worldmusiccentral.org/staticpages/index.php/glossary World Music Central] ]
Styles = copla - jaleo - jota - Romanceiro
Dance = aragonesas - bolero - bolerio viejo o parado - cachuca - chaconne - danza Antigua de Hermigua - Danza del Paloteo y el Cordón a La Virgen de La Piedad - Danza del Cordón, de la Carrera y del Paloteo al Cristo de la Viga - Danza de las ánimas - Danza de los Diablos - danzantes y pecados - S'a llarga y S'a curta - S'escandalari - fandango - gallega - gitana - jota - jota de vendimia - malagueñas - manchegas - meloneras - milonga - mollaras - murciano - panaderos - quipuzcoanas - seguidilla - sevillana - soleares - torrás - valldemosa - vallenciana - verdiales - zambra - zarabanda
Instrumentation = castanet - chacara (large castanet) - dulzaina - guitarra - mandolin - tambourine
Other = caf&eacute cantates - duende - juerga

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Swedish [Bohlman, pg. 210; Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pgs. 53 - 75; Cronshaw, Andrew, "Fjords and Fiddles" and "A Devil of a Polska" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 211 - 218 and pgs. 298 - 307; Kinney, pgs. 156 - 163; [http://www.worldmusiccentral.org/staticpages/index.php/glossary World Music Central] ]
Styles = ballad - halling - kulning - laling - lockrop - lokking
Dance = cobbler's dance - daldans - gammaldans - gangar - kadriljs - pols - polska (polskor) - rudl - runddans - skralat - springar - springdans - springleik - vafva vadna - vingakersdans
Instrumentation = ackordcittra - dragspel - fiddle - hackbräde - hummel - mungiga - nyckelharpa - säckpipa - sälgpipa - skalmeja - spelpipa - stråkharpa - vevlira
Other = spelmanslag - Zorn Badge

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Swiss [Hunt, Ken, "Kraut Kaunterblast" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 114 - 125; Kinney, pgs. 156 - 163]
Styles = yodeling
Dance =
Instrumentation = alphorn
Other =

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Tosk
See = Albanian

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Transylvanian
See = Hungarian and Romanian

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Turkish [Manuel, "Popular Musics", pgs. 163 - 165]
Styles = türkü - uzun hava
Dance =
Instrumentation = duduk - klemence - ney - saz - zurna
Other = Huseni

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Ukrainian [Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pg. 87; Kochan, Alexs and Julian Kytasty, "The Bandura Played On" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 308 - 312]
Styles = dumy - troista muzyka
Dance = kolomyjka
Instrumentation = bandura - fiddle - floyara - frilka - kobza - lira - sopilka - trembita - tsymbaly - tylynka
Other = kobzari - lirnyky - pryspiv - zaspiv

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Valencian
See = Catalan

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountrysee
Tradition = Venetian
See = Italian

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Vlach [Burton, Kim, "Balkan Beats" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 273 - 276]
Styles =
Dance =
Instrumentation = bagpipe - fiddle
Other = Pomana

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Walloon [Rans, Paul, "Flemish, Walloon and Global Fusion", in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 25 - 30]
Styles =
Dance =
Instrumentation = fiddle
Other =

User:TUF-KAT/folkcountry
Tradition = Wales [Ritchie, pgs. 4, 44 - 46, 71; Nettl, "Folk and Traditional Music", pgs. 53 - 75; Price, William, "Harps, Bards and the Gwerin" in the "Rough Guide to World Music", pgs. 313 - 319; ; Sawyer, pgs. 5, 13 - 14, 38 - 39]
Styles = penillion - Welsh choral music
Dance = clogging (Welsh step dance) - hornpipe - twmpath
Instrumentation = crwth - pibacwd - pibcorn - Welsh harp (triple harp)
Other = dategeiniad - eisteddfod - gwerin - gwyl werin

References

*cite book
author = Bohlman, Philip V.
coauthors = Bruno Nettl, Charles Capwell, Thomas Turino and Isabel K. F. Wong
edition = Second edition
id = ISBN 0-13-230632-8
publisher = Prentice Hall
title = Excursions in World Music
year = 1997

*cite book
author = Broughton, Simon and Mark Ellingham (eds.)
edition = First edition
id = ISBN 1-85828-636-0
location = London
publisher = Rough Guides
title = Rough Guide to World Music
year = 2000

*cite web
accessdate= April 20
accessyear= 2006
title = Glossary of Folk Musical Instruments & Styles from Around the World
url = http://www.hobgoblin.com/info/glossary.htm
work = Hobgoblin Info Source

*cite book
author = Kinney, Troy and Margaret West
publisher = Tudor Publishing
title = The Dance: Its Place in Art and Life
year = 1935

*cite book
author = Manuel, Peter
id = 0195053427
location = New York
publisher = Oxford University Press
title = Popular Musics of the Non-Western World
year = 1988

*cite book
year = 2001
editor = Mathieson, Kenny (Ed.)
title = Celtic Music
publisher = Backbeat Books
id = ISBN 0-87930-623-8

*cite book
author = McKinney, Howard D. and W. R. Anderson
location = New York
publisher = American Book Company
title = Music in History: The Evolution of an Art
year = 1966

*cite book
author = Ritchie, Fiona
id = ISBN 0399530711
location = New York
publisher = Berkley Publishing Group
title = The NPR Curious Listener's Guide to Celtic Music
year = 2004

*cite book
author = Nettl, Bruno
location = Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey
publisher = Prentice Hall
title = Folk and Traditional Music of the Western Continents
year = 1965

*cite book
author = Sawyers, June Skinner
edition = First Edition
id = ISBN 0-306-81007-7
publisher = Da Capo Press
title = Celtic Music: A Complete Guide
year = 2000

*cite web
accessdate= April 3
accessyear= 2006
title = War Type Dances
url = http://www.streetswing.com/histmain/z3war1.htm
work = Dance History Archives at StreetSwing.com

*cite book
author = Fujie, Linda, James T. Koetting, David P. McAllester, David B. Reck, John M. Schechter, Mark Slobin and R. Anderson Sutton
edition = Second Edition
editor = Jeff Todd Titan (Ed.)
id = ISBN 0-02-872602-2
location = New York
publisher = Schirmer Books
title = Worlds of Music: An Introduction to the Music of the World's Peoples
year = 1992

*cite web
accessdate= April 3
accessyear= 2006
title = International Dance Glossary
url = http://www.worldmusiccentral.org/staticpages/index.php/glossary
work = World Music Central

Notes


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