List of political parties in Italy


List of political parties in Italy

Several Political parties operate in Italy, and historically they have been even more than today. No one party has ever had the chance of gaining power alone and thus parties must work with each other to form coalition governments.

However, since the 2008 general election, only five major parties are represented in Parliament. On one side the centre-right People of Freedom and Lega Nord support Berlusconi IV Cabinet, on the other side there is the centre-left opposition composed of the Democratic Party, which includes in its parliamentary ranks the Italian Radicals, and Italy of Values. The Union of Christian and Centre Democrats is the only party outside the two big coalitions to be represented in Parliament, in a increasingly two-party system.

Other minor regional parties are represented in Parliament, notably the Movement for Autonomy, the South Tyrolean People's Party and the Valdotanian Union, while many other parties are active or represented at the regional level.

History

Between 1945 and 1994 Italian politics was dominated by two major parties: Christian Democracy, which was the party of government, and the Italian Communist Party, the main opposition party. The other opposition party was the post-fascist Italian Social Movement. During its almost fifty years in government, Christian Democracy chose its coalition partners among four parties: the Italian Socialist Party, the Italian Democratic Socialist Party, the Italian Republican Party and the Italian Liberal Party.

Christian Democrats led the government consecutively for 46 but five years. Between 1983 to 1991 they steadily shared government with Socialists, Republicans, Democratic Socialists and Liberal altogether. These were the years when several Northern regional parties demanding autonomy organized themselves at the regional level. In 1991 they federated themselves into Lega Nord, which surprisingly became the fourth largest party of the country in the 1992 general election.

In 1992-1994 the political system was shaken by a series of corruption scandals known collectively as "Tangentopoli" and the subsequent police investigation called "Mani pulite". These events led all the major parties of government to disappear. Consequently the Communists, who had gathered themselves in the Democratic Party of the Left in 1991, and the post-fascists, who launched National Alliance, gained strength. Following the 1994 general election media tycoon Silvio Berlusconi became Prime Minister at the head of a coalition composed mainly of three parties: its brand new party called Forza Italia (joined by many members of the five parties of government), National Alliance and Lega Nord.

Between 1996 and 2008, Italian political parties were organized into two big coalitions, the centre-right Pole of Freedoms (which was re-named House of Freedoms after the re-entry of Lega Nord in 2000) and The Olive Tree (re-named The Union in 2005) on the centre-left. The centre-left governed from 1996 to 2001 and again between 2006 and 2008, while the House of Freedoms was in government between 2001 and 2006.

In 2008, The Union ceased to exist, because the new-born Democratic Party decided to break the alliance with the Communist Refoundation Party and the other parties of the coalition, except Italy of Values and the Italian Radicals. In the centre-right, the foundation of Forza Italia and National Alliance merged to form The People of Freedom, which continued the alliance with Lega Nord.

Active parties

Major parties

More than 20% in the 2008 general election (or at least 200 MPs or 20 MEPs):
*People of Freedom ("Popolo della Libertà")
*Democratic Party ("Partito Democratico")

Medium parties

Beween 4% and 20% in the 2008 general election (or at least 30 MPs or 5 MEPs):
*Lega Nord (Northern League)
*Italy of Values ("Italia dei Valori")
*Union of Christian and Centre Democrats ("Unione dei Democratici Cristiani e di Centro")
*Communist Refoundation Party ("Partito della Rifondazione Comunista")

Minor parties

Between 0.5% and 4% in the 2008 general election (or less than 30 MPs or 5 MEPs):
*Movement for Autonomy ("Movimento per l'Autonomia")
*Italian Radicals ("Radicali Italiani")
*Italian Republican Party ("Partito Repubblicano Italiano")
*White Rose ("Rosa Bianca")
*The Right ("La Destra")
*Party of Italian Communists ("Partito dei Comunisti Italiani")
*Federation of the Greens ("Federazione dei Verdi")
*Democratic Left ("Sinistra Democratica")
*Socialist Party ("Partito Socialista")
*Tricolour Flame ("Fiamma Tricolore")
*Workers' Communist Party ("Partito Comunista dei Lavoratori")

Micro parties

Less than 0.5% in the 2008 general election (or notable parties who did not take part to the election):

*Critical Left ("Sinistra Critica")
*Citizens' Political Movement ("Movimento Politico dei Cittadini")
*New Force ("Forza Nuova")
*Italian Liberal Party ("Partito Liberale Italiano")
*Democratic Union for Consumers ("Unione Democratica")
*UDEUR Populars ("Popolari UDEUR")
*Federalist Alliance ("Alleanza Federalista")
*Italian Democratic Socialist Party ("Partito Socialista Democratico Italiano")

Regional parties

More than 1% in the last regional election (or at least 2 regional deputies):;Aosta Valley
*Valdotanian Union ("Union Valdôtaine")
*Edelweiss Aosta Valley ("Stella Alpina Val d'Aosta")
*Autonomist Federation ("Fédération Autonomiste")
*Valdotanian Renewal ("Renouveau Valdôtain")
*Lively Aosta Valley ("Vallèe d'Aoste Vive");Piedmont
*Moderates for Piedmont ("Moderati per il Piemonte");Bolzano
*South Tyrolean People's Party ("Südtiroler Volkspartei")
*Greens (Bolzano-Bozen) ("Verdi–Grüne–Vërc")
*Union for South Tyrol ("Union für Südtirol")
*The Libertarians ("Die Freiheitlichen")
*Unitalia (One Italy)
*Democratic Union of Alto Adige ("Unione Democratica del Alto Adige")
*Ladins Political Movement ("Moviment Politich Ladins")
*Democratic Party of South Tyrol ("Demokratische Partei Südtirols");Trento
*Union for Trentino ("Unione per il Trentino")
*Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party ("Partito Autonomista Trentino Tirolese")
*Faithful to Trentino ("Leali al Trentino")
*Autonomist Trentino ("Trentino Autonomista")
*Taverna List ("Lista Taverna");Veneto
*North-East Project ("Progetto Nord-Est")
*Liga Veneta Repubblica (Venetian Republic League)
*Veneto for the EPP ("Veneto per il PPE");Campania
*Democratic Populars ("Popolari Democratici");Basilicata
*United Populars ("Popolari Uniti");Sicily
*New Sicily ("Nuova Sicilia");Sardinia
*Sardinian Reformers ("Riformatori Sardi")
*Sardinian People's Party ("Partito del Popolo Sardo")
*Sardinian Democratic Union ("Unione Democratica Sarda")
*Sardinian Action Party ("Partito Sardo d'Azione")

Parties of the Italians abroad

More than 15% in one constituency in the 2008 general election (or at least 1 MP):
*Associative Movement Italians Abroad ("Movimento Associativo Italiani all'Estero")
*Italian Associations in South America ("Associazioni Italiane in Sud America")

Former parties

Coalitions

Having scored at least 15% in a general election (or at least 30 MPs):
*Pact for Italy ("Patto per l'Italia")
*Pole of Good Government ("Polo del Buon Governo")
*Alliance of Progressives ("Alleanza dei Progressisti")
*Pole of Freedoms ("Polo delle Libertà")
*The Olive Tree ("L'Ulivo")
*The Union ("L'Unione")
*House of Freedoms ("Casa delle Libertà")

Parties

Having scored at least 1% in a general election (or at least 5 MPs):
*Italian Reform Socialist Party ("Partito Socialista Riformista Italiano")
*Italian People's Party (old) ("Partito Popolare Italiano")
*United Socialist Party (old) ("Partito Socialista Unitario")
*Fascist National Party ("Partito Nazionale Fascista")
*Labour Democratic Party ("Partito Democratico del Lavoro")
*Action Party ("Partito d'Azione")
*Uomo Qualunque Front ("Fronte dell'Uomo Qualunque")
*Italian Socialist Workers' Party ("Partito Socialista dei Lavoratori Italiani")
*United Socialist Party ("Partito Socialista Unitario")
*Socialist Autonomy ("Autonomia Socialista")
*National Democratic Alliance ("Alleanza Democratica Nazionale")
*People's Unity ("Unità Popolare")
*Monarchist National Party ("Partito Nazionale Monarchico")
*People's Monarchist Party ("Partito Monarchico Popolare")
*Unified Socialist Party ("Partito Socialista Unificato")
*Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity ("Partito Socialista di Unità Proletaria")
*Italian Democratic Party of Monarchist Unity ("Partito Democratico Italiano di Unità Monarchica")
*National Right ("Destra Nazionale")
*Proletarian Unity Party ("Partito di Unità Proletaria")
*Radical Party ("Partito Radicale")
*Rainbow Greens ("Verdi Arcobaleno")
*Green Lists ("Liste Verdi")
*Italian Communist Party ("Partito Comunista Italiano")
*Proletarian Democracy ("Democrazia Proletaria")
*Christian Democracy (old) ("Democrazia Cristiana")
*Italian Liberal Party (old) ("Partito Liberale Italiano")
*Italian Socialist Party ("Partito Socialista Italiano")
*Italian Social Movement ("Movimento Sociale Italiano")
*Democratic Alliance ("Alleanza Democratica")
*Liberal Democratic Foundation ("Fondazione Liberaldemocratica")
*Federalists and Liberal Democrats ("Federalisti e Liberaldemocratici")
*Federalist Italian League ("Lega Italiana Federalista")
*Italian Socialists ("Socialisti Italiani")
*Union of the Centre ("Unione di Centro")
*Democratic Party of the Left ("Partito Democratico della Sinistra")
*Movement of Unitarian Communists ("Movimento dei Comunisti Unitari")
*Labour Federation ("Federazione Laburista")
*Social Christians ("Cristiano Sociali")
*Republican Left ("Sinistra Repubblicana")
*Union of the Centre ("Unione di Centro")
*Christian Democrats for the Republic ("Cristiani Democratici per la Repubblica")
*Democratic Union for the Republic ("Unione Democratica per la Repubblica")
*Movement for Democracy – The Net ("Movimento per la Democrazia – La Rete")
*Democratic Union ("Unione Democratica")
*Union for the Republic ("Unione per la Repubblica")
*Pannella List ("Lista Pannella")
*Federalist Party ("Partito Federalista")
*Italian People's Party ("Partito Popolare Italiano")
*Italian Renewal ("Rinnovamento Italiano")
*The Democrats ("I Democratici")
*Christian Democratic Centre ("Centro Cristiano Democratico")
*United Christian Democrats ("Cristiani Democratici Uniti")
*European Democracy ("Democrazia Europea")
*Patto Segni (Segni Pact)
*Bonino List ("Lista Bonino")
*Autonomists for Europe ("Autonomisti per l'Europa")
*Democrats of the Left ("Democratici di Sinistra")
*Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy ("Democrazia è Libertà – La Margherita")
*Italian Democratic Socialists ("Socialisti Democratici Italiani")

Regional parties

Having scored at least 1% in a regional election (or at least 2 regional deputies):;Aosta Valley
*Valdotanian Rally ("Rassemblement Valdôtain")
*Progressive Valdotanian Union ("Union Valdôtaine Progressiste")
*Popular Democrats ("Democratici Popolari")
*Autonomist Union ("Union Autonomiste")
*Autonomists Democrats Progressives ("Autonomistes Démocrates Progressistes")
*Independent Autonomists ("Autonomisti Indipendenti")
*For Aosta Valley ("Pour la Vallée d'Aoste")
*Autonomist People's Alliance ("Alleanza Popolare Autonomista")
*Autonomists ("Autonomistes")
*Forward Valley ("Alé Vallée");Piedmont
*Piedmontese Union ("Union Piemontèisa");Bolzano
*Tyrol Homeland Federation Party ("Tirol Heimatbund Party")
*Social Progressive Party of South Tyrol ("Soziale Fortschrittspartei Südtirols")
*Social Democratic Party of South Tyrol ("Sozialdemokratische Partei Südtirols")
*Party of Independents ("Partei der Unabhängigen")
*South Tyrolean Homeland Federation ("Südtiroler Heimatbund")
*Freedom Party of South Tyrol ("Freiheitliche Partei Südtirols");Trento
*Trentino Tyrolean People's Party ("Partito Popolare Trentino Tirolese")
*Integral Autonomy ("Autonomia Integrale")
*Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Union ("Unione Autonomista Trentino Tirolese")
*Trentino Tomorrow ("Trentino Domani")
*Daisy Civic List ("Civica Margherita")
*Autonomist People's Union ("Unione Popolare Autonomista");Veneto
*Union of the Venetian People ("Union del Popolo Veneto")
*Lega Autonomia Veneta (Venetian Autonomy League)
*Fronte Marco Polo (Marco Polo Front);Friuli-Venezia Giulia
*List for Trieste ("Lista per Trieste")
*Friuli Movement ("Movimento Friûl")
*Freedom and Autonomy ("Libertà e Autonomia");Calabria
*Southern Democratic Party ("Partito Democratico Meridionale");Sicily
*Sicilian Independentist Movement ("Movimento Indipendentista Siciliano")
*Social Christian Sicilian Union ("Unione Siciliana Cristiano Sociale");Sardinia
*Sardinian Socialist Action Party ("Partito Sardo d'Azione Socialista")
*Sardinia Project ("Progetto Sardegna")
*Sardinian Autonomist Populars ("Popolari Autonomisti Sardi")

ee also

*List of political parties
*List of political parties by ideology

External links

* [http://www.cartacanta.it/manifesti/index_manifesti.htm Archive of posters of Italian political parties]


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