List of political parties in India


List of political parties in India

India has a multi-party system with a predominance of small regional parties. National parties are those that are recognized in four or more states. They are accorded this status by the Election Commission of India, which periodically reviews the election results in various states. This recognition helps the political parties to claim unique ownership of certain identities, such as the party symbol, until the next review of their status. Below are national parties as per October 2004.

The Constitution of India stipulates that India be a federal polity with a central government in New Delhi, and state governments for the various states and Union territories. Consequently, political parties in India are classified as national and state (regional) parties based on their realms of influence. See list of recognised political parties in India.

National parties

* Bahujan Samaj Party- ("Majoritarian Society Party", BSP, led by Mayawati)
* Bharatiya Janata Party- ("Indian People's Party", BJP, led by Rajnath Singh)
* Communist Party of India- (CPI, led by Ardhendu Bhushan Bardhan)
* Indian National Congress- (INC, led by Sonia Gandhi)
* Nationalist Congress Party- (NCP, led by Sharad Pawar)
* Communist Party of India (Marxist) - (CPI(M), led by Prakash Karat)

tate parties

Parties that have received certain amount of votes or seats in a state might be recognized as a state party by the Election Commission. Recognition as a state party given the party the possibility to reserve a particular election symbol in the concerned state. A party might be recognized in more than one state. A party recognized in four states is automatically recognized as a national party. Below is the list of recognized state parties ahead of the Gujarat & Himachal Pradesh state assembly elections in December 2007. [http://search.eci.gov.in/eresults/parties/indexSPOS.htm] The states where the party has gained recognition is also stated, although the party may very well be active in more states and territories than that.

* All India Forward Bloc (West Bengal)
* All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK, "All India Anna Federation for Progress of Dravidians") (Tamil Nadu, Puducherry)
* All India Trinamool Congress (Meghalaya, West Bengal)
* Arunachal Congress (Arunachal Pradesh)
* Asom Gana Parishad ("Assam People's Federation") (Assam)
* Biju Janata Dal (Orissa)
* Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation (Bihar)
* Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK, "Federation for Progress of Dravidians") (Tamil Nadu, Puducherry)
* Federal Party of Manipur (Manipur)
* Indian Federal Democratic Party (Kerala)
* Indian National Lok Dal ("Indian National People's Party") (Haryana)
* Indian Union Muslim League (Kerala, registered as 'Muslim League Kerala State Committee')
* Indigenous Nationalist Party of Twipra (Tripura)
* Jammu and Kashmir National Conference (Jammu and Kashmir)
* Jammu and Kashmir National Panthers Party (Jammu and Kashmir)
* Jammu and Kashmir People's Democratic Party (Jammu and Kashmir)
* Janata Dal (Secular) ("People's Party (Secular)") (Karnataka, Kerala)
* Janata Dal (United) ("People's Party (United)") (Bihar, Jharkhand, Nagaland)
* Janathipathiya Samrakshana Samithy ("Association for Defence of Democracy") (Kerala)
* Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) ("Jharkhand Liberation Front") (Jharkhand, Orissa)
* Kerala Congress (Kerala)
* Kerala Congress (Mani) (Kerala)
* Lok Jan Shakti Party (Bihar)
* Lok Satta Party (Andhra pradesh)
* Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party (Goa)
* Manipur People's Party (Manipur)
* Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (Tamil Nadu)
* Meghalaya Democratic Party (Meghalaya)
* Mizo National Front (Mizoram)
* Mizoram People's Conference (Mizoram)
* Nagaland Peoples Front (Nagaland)
* Pattali Makkal Katchi (Tamil Nadu, Puducherry)
* Rashtriya Janata Dal ("National People's Party") (Bihar, Jharkhand)
* Rashtriya Lok Dal ("National People's Party") (Uttar Pradesh)
* Revolutionary Socialist Party (West Bengal)
* Samajwadi Party ("Socialist Party") (Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand)
* Shiromani Akali Dal (Party of Akal - Authority for the Political matters of Sikhs) (Punjab)
* Shiv Sena ("Army of Shivaji") (Maharashtra)
* Sikkim Democratic Front (Sikkim)
* Telangana Rashtra Samithi ("Telengana National Association") (Andhra Pradesh)
* Telugu Desam Party ("Telugu Nation Party") (Andhra Pradesh)
* United Democratic Party (Meghalaya)
* United Goans Democratic Party (Goa)
* Uttarakhand Kranti Dal ("Uttarakhand Revolution Party") (Uttarakhand)
* Zoram Nationalist Party (Mizoram)

Other parties represented in the Lok Sabha

*All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimen
*Bharatiya Navshakti Party
*Janata Dal (Secular) (Surendra Mohan faction)
*Loktantrik Jan Samta Party
*National Loktantrik Party
*Republican Party of India (Athvale)
*Sikkim Democratic Front

Other parties represented in the Rajya Sabha

*Swatantra Bharat Paksh

Registered Unrecognized Parties

The large number of political parties are registered at the Election Commission, without having gained any recognition as National or State parties. In many cases registrations remain, although the party in question might have disbanded or merged into another formation several years ago. Below is the list of 730 registered unrecognized parties as published by the Election Commission in ahead of October 2005 elections:

A

:* Antash Chetan:* Akhand Bharti:* Akhil Bharatiya Aman Committee:* Akhil Bharatiya Ashok Sena:* Akhil Bharatiya Bharat Mata – Putra Paksha:* Akhil Bharatiya Bhrastachar Nirmoolan Sena:* Akhil Bhartiya Berozgaar Party:* Akhil Bharatiya Congress Dal (Ambedkar):* Akhil Bharatiya Desh Bhakt Morcha:* Akhil Bharatiya Dastkar Morcha:* Akhil Bharatiya Dalit Utthan Party:* Akhand Bharat Ekta Andolan:* Akhil Bharatiya Gareeb Party:* Akhil Bharatiya Gorkha League:* Akhil Bharatiya General Labour Party:* Akhil Bharatiya Garib Mazdoor Kisan Party:* Akhil Bharat Hindu Mahasabha:* Akhil Bharatiya Sena:* Akhil Bharatiya Janata Congress:* Akhil Bharatiya Jan Sangh:* Akhil Bhartiya Janata Vikas Party:* Akhil Bharatiya Kisan Mazdoor Morcha:* Akhil Bharatiya Lokraj Party:* Akhil Bharatiya Lok Tantrik Alp-Sankhyak Jan Morcha:* Akhil Bhartiya Loktantrik Congress:* Akhil Bharatiya Loktantra Party:* Akhil Bharatiya Manav Adhikar Dal:* Akhil Bharatiya Muslim League (Secular):* Akhil Bharatiya Manav Seva Dal:* Akahand Bharat Maha Sangh Sarvahara Krantikari Party:* Akhand Bharat National Party:* Ambedkarbadi Party:* Akhil Bharatiya Rashtriya Azad Hind Party:* Akhil Bharatiya Rajivwadi Congress (Dubey):* Akhil Bharatiya Ram Rajya Parishad (Prem Ballabh Vyas):* Akhil Bharatiya Rajarya Sabha:* Akhil Bharatiya Revolutionary Shoshit Samaj Dal:* Akhil Bharatiya Sangharsh Dal:* Akhil Bharatiya Shivsena Rashtrawadi:* Akhil Bharatiya Sindhi Samaj Party:* Apna Bharat:* Apna Dal:* Anndata Party:* Agar Jan Party:* All Party Hill Leaders Conference(Armison Marak Group):* Apna Hindu Ram Bhakat Party:* All India Athithanar Makal Katchi:* All India Babu Jagjivan Ram Saheb National Congress:* Advait Ishwasyam Congress:* All India Christian Democratic and Backward People’s Party:* All India Dalit Welfare Congress:* All India Forward Bloc (Subhasist):* All India Gareeb Congress:* All India Homeless People Congress:* All India Indira Congress (Secular):* All India Krantikari Congress:* All India Lok Raj Party:* All India Minorities Front:* All India Majlis-E-Ittehadul Muslimeen:* All India Muslim Forum:* All India Moovendar Munnani Kazhagam:* All India Mahila Raj Party:* All India Progressive Janata Dal:* All India People's Party:* All India Rajiv Krantikari Congress:* All India Shiromani Baba Jiwan Singh Mazhabi Dal:* All India Sadguna Party:* All India Tribes and Minorities Front:* All India Tafsili United Party:* Ajeya Bharat Party:* All J & K Peoples Patriotic Front:* Akhand Jharkhand People's Front:* Alpjan Samaj Party:* All Jharkhand Students Union:* Akhil Jan Vikas Dal:* All Kerala M.G.R. Dravida Munnetra Party:* Adarsh Lok Dal:* Amra Bangalee:* Anaithindhia MGR Katchi:* Ambedkar National Congress:* Andhra Nadu Party:* Andaman Nicobar Vikas Congress:* Awami Party:* Ati Pichhra Jan Dal:* Ambedkar Peoples Movement:* Andhra Pradesh Navodaya Praja Party:* Adarsh Political Party:* Ambedkar Pragatisheel Republican Dal:* Ambedkarist Republican Party:* Arya Sabha:* Akhil Rashtrawadi Party:* Ali Sena:* Autonomous State Demand Committee:* Ambedkar Samaj Party:* Anna Telugu Desam Party:* Anaithinthiya Thamizhaga Munnetra Kazhagam:* Adarshwadi Dal

B

:* Bharatiya Ambedkar Party:* Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangha:* Bharatiya Berozgar Mazdoor Kisan Dal:* Bharatiya Backward Party:* B. C. United Front:* Bhrashtachar Virodhi Dal:* Bharat Dal:* Bharat Vikas Party:* Bhartiya Deshbhakt Party:* Bharatiya Democratic Dal:* Bharatiya Ekta Dal:* Bharatiya Eklavya Party:* Bahujan Ekta Party ( R ):* Bharatiya Grameen Dal:* Bhartiya Gorkha Janashakti:* Bharatiya Gaon Taj Dal:* Bharatiya Jan Congress:* Bharat Jan Party:* Bhomi Jotak Samooh:* Bharatiya Jan Vikas Party:* Bhartiya Harit Kranti Dal:* Bharatiya Rashtriya Parishad:* Bharatiya Hindu Sena:* Bharatiya Jan Berojgar Chhatra Dal:* Bhartiya Jana Congress (Rashtriya):* Bharatiya Jai Jawan Jai Kisan Party:* Bharatiya Jan Jagriti Party:* Bhartiya Jan Kalyan Party:* Bharatiya Jan Kisan Party:* Bajjikanchal Vikas Party:* Bharatiya Jankranti Party:* Bahujan Republican Party:* Bharatiya Jan Sabha:* Bharatiya Jantantrik Parishad:* Bharatiya Janvadi Party:* Bahujan Kisan Dal:* Bharatiya Kisan Kamgar Party:* Bharatiya Krantikari Kammand Party:* Bharat Ki Lok Jimmedar Party:* Bhartiya Kisan Mazdoor Party:* Bharatiya Kisan Parivartan Party:* Bharat Kranti Rakshak Party:* Bharatiya Kushal Samaj Party:* Bharti Krishak Seva Samaj:* Bundelkhand Vikas Dal:* Bharatiya Lok Kalyan Dal:* Bharti Lok Lehar Party:* Bharatiya Lok Nyay Party:* Bharatiya Labour Party:* Bahujan Loktantrik Party:* Bharatha Makkal Congress:* Bharatiya Momin Front:* Bundelkhand Mukti Morcha:* Bharat Mangalam Parishad:* Bharatiya Muhabbat Party (All India):* Bharatiya Muslim Party (Siddiqui):* Bharatiya Manav Raksha Dal:* Bhartiya Mahashakti Morcha:* Bharatiya Minorities Suraksha Mahasangh:* Bahujan Mahasangha Paksha:* Bharatiya Manavata Vikas Party:* Bhartiya Nojawan Dal:* Bharathiya Nethaji Party:* Bharat Nav Jyoti Sangh:* Bharatiya Navshakti Party:* Bharatiya Nagrik Party:* Bharti Nari Sangathan:* Bira Oriya Party:* Bhartiya Pragatisheel Congress:* Bharat Pensioner’s Front:* Bolshevik Party of India:* Bharatiya Praja Paksha:* Bharatiya Parivartan Morcha:* Brij Pradesh Nirman Sangh:* Bharatiya Peoples and National Security National Party:* Bharatiya Prajatantrik Shudh Gandhiwadi Krishak Dal:* Bihar People’s Party:* Bharatiya Prajatantra Party:* Bharatiya Rajiv Congress:* Bharatiya Rashtriya Janhit Party:* Bhartiya Rakshak Party:* Bharatiya Rashtriya Morcha:* Bharatiya Rashtriya Mazdoor Dal:* Bharatiya Rashtravadi Paksha:* Bharatiya Republican Paksha:* Bharatiya Rashtriya Swadeshi Congress Paksh:* Bhartiya Vikas Party:* Bharat Srijan:* Bharatiya Samaj Dal:* Bharti Sarvadarshi Parishad:* Bharatiya Shramik Dal:* Bharatiya Surajya Manch:* Bhartiya Santaji Party:* Bharatiya Sarvkalayan Kranti Dal:* Bharatiya Samaj Kalyan Party Bharat:* Bharteey Samajvadi Morcha:* Bharatiya Samata Party:* Bahujan Samaj Party (Ambedkar):* Bharatiya Subhash Sena:* Bharatiya Satyarth Sangathan:* Bharatiya Sadbhawna Samaj Party:* Bharatiya Seva Dal:* Bharatiya Samajwadi Vikas Party:* Bihar Vikas Party:* Bharat Vishal Party:* Bahujan Vikas Party:* Barak Valley Territory Demand Committee:* Buddhiviveki Vikas Party:* Bharatiya Yuva Shakti

C

:* Congress (Secular):* Christian Democratic Front:* Christhava Makkal Katchi:* Congress Jananayaka Peravai:* Chhattisgarh Kisan Mazdoor Party:* Christian Mannetra Kazhagam:* Chhattisgarh Mukti Morcha:* Communist Marxist Party Kerala State Committee:* Congunadu Makkal Katchi:* Congress of People:* Chhattisgarhi Samaj Party:* Chandigarh Vikas Party:* Champaran Vikas Party

D

:* Desh Bachao Jan Morcha:* Desh Bhakt Party:* Desiya Murpokku Dravida Kazhagam:* Democratic Bahujan Samaj Morcha:* Democratic Bharatiya Samaj Party:* Democratic Congress Party:* Democratic Dal of Haryana:* Democratic Forward Bloc:* Democratic Insaf Party:* Democratic Janta Dal (J & K):* Democratic Jharkhand Mukti Morcha:* Democratic Movement:* Dravida Makkal Congress:* Dalit Mazdoor Kishan Party:* Dalit Muslim Vikas Party:* Dravida Peravai:* Democratic Party of India:* Desia Pathukappu Kazhagam:* Delhi Parivartan Party:* Deseeya Praja Socialist Party:* Democratic Revolutionary Peoples Party:* Dev Sena Party:* Dalit Samaj Party:* Democratic Socialist Party (Prabodh Chandra):* Dhiravida Thelugar Munnetra Kalagam:* Dravida Vizhipunarchi Kazhagam:* Delhi Vikas Party:* Divya Shakti Party:* Desiya Murpokku Dravidar Kazhagam

E

:* Ekta Kranti Dal U.P.:* Ekta Shakti:* Ekta Samaj Party:* Ephraim Union

F

:* Forward Bloc (Socialist):* Federal Congress of India:* Farmers Developments Party:* Federation of Sabhas

G

:* Gujarat Adijati Vikash Paksh:* Garib Ekta Party:* Gondvana Gantantra Party:* Golden India Party:* Garib Janata Party:* Grama Munnetra Kazhagam:* Gommant Lok Pokx:* Garo National Council:* Gorkha Janmukti Morcha :* Gorakha National Liberation Front:* Goa Pokx:* Goa People's Congress:* Gandhiwadi Rashtriya Congress:* Goa Rajiv Congress Party:* Gujarat State Janta Congress:* Gareebjan Samaj Party:* Goa Su-raj Party:* Goa Vikas Party:* Gujarat Swarajya Sangh:* Gujarat Yuva Vikas Party

H

:* Hind Vikas Party:* Hindu Ekta Andolan Party:* Hindustani Gareebwadi Party:* Haryana Gareeb Pichhra Yuva Sangathan:* Haryana Janrakshak Dal:* Hindustan Janta Party:* Hind Kisan Mazdoor Party:* Himachal Kranti Party:* Haryana Lok Dal:* Hind Morcha:* Hmar Peoples Convention:* Hill State People's Democratic Party:* Himachal Pradesh State Akali Dal:* Haryana Republican Party:* Hind Swarajya Ganatantra Party:* Hindusthan Suraksha Party:* Hindu Samaj Party:* Hindustan Party:* Himachal Vikas Congress:* Haryana Vikas Party:* Haryana Raksha Party:* Haryana Svatantra party

I

:* Indian Bahujan Samajwadi Party:* Indian Christian Front:* Indian Christian Secular Party:* Indian Ekta Party:* Indian Justice Party:* Indian Liberation Front:* Ikkiya Makkal Munnetra Kazhagam:* Indian National Green Party:* Indian National League:* Indian National Labour Party:* Indian People's Congress:* Islam Party Hind:* Indian Peace Party:* Indian Republican Front:* Indian Secular Congress:* Indian Union Muslim League:* Indian Victory Party

J

:* jago party:* Jai Bharat Party:* Jan Chetna Party:* Janata Congress Party of Bharat Varsha:* Jharkhand Disom Party:* Jana Hitkari Party:* Janhit Morcha:* Jai Hind Party:* Janhit Samaj Party:* Jebamani Janata:* Jai Jawan Jai Kisan Mazdoor Congress:* Jammu And Kashmir Awami League:* Jammu & Kashmir Awami National Conference:* Jharkhand Ki Krantikari Party:* Jawan Kisan Morcha:* Jharkhand Party:* Jharkhand Party (Naren):* Jammu And Kashmir Peoples Front:* Jharkhand People’s Party:* Jan Lok Kalyan Party:* Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (Ulgulan):* Janmangal Paksh:* Jananishta:* Jan Kranti Morcha:* Janata Party:* Jammu & Kashmir People Conference:* Jai Prakash Janata Dal:* Jana Priya:* Jan Sewa Party:* Jan Samarthan Dal:* Jan Samanta Party:* Jansatta Party:* Jan Surajya Shakti:* Jansevak Samaj Party:* Jaghat Telugu Munnetra Kazhggam:* Jai Telangana Party:* Jana Unnayan Mancha:* Janata Uday Party:* Jai Vijaya Bharathi Party:* Jharkhand Vananchal Congress:* Jharkhand Vikas Dal:* Janata Vikas Party

K

:* KASANI GYANESHWAR MUDIRAJ ZINDABAD,NAYAKTTVAM VARDALALI:* Kamarajar Adithanar Kazhakam:* Krantikari Berozgar Party:* Kannada Chalavali Vatal Paksha:* Kamarajar Deseeya Congress:* Kerala Congress(B):* Kerala Congress (Jacob):* Khasi Farmers Democratic Party:* Khun Hynniewtrep National Awakening Movement:* Karnataka Kranthi Dal:* Kranti Kari Jai Hind Sena:* Kisan Mazdoor Bahujan Party:* Kaivinayger Munnetra Kazhagam:* Krantikari Manuwadi Morcha:* Kuki National Assembly:* Kannada Nadu Party:* Kongu Nadu Munnetra Kazhagam:* Kisan Naujawan Party:* Kannada Paksha:* Kranti Dal:* Kranti Parishad:* Karnataka Rajya Ryota Sangha:* Kamgar Samaj Dal:* Kosal Party:* Krantikari Samajwadi Party Lohia:* Krantikari Samyavadi Party:* Kisan Kranti Dal:* Karnataka Thamizhar Munnetra Kazhagam:* Kudi Makkal Katchi:* Kisan Vyawasayee Mazdoor Party:* Kisan Vikas Party:* Kamjor Varg Sangh,Bihar:* Kosi Vikas Party

L

:* Lok Bhalai Party:* Lok Paritran Party:* Lattin Congress:* Loktantrik Chetna Party:* Lok Dal:* Life Peaceful Party:* Lok Hit Party:* Loktantrik Jan Samta Party:* Labour And Job Seeker's Party Of India:* Loktantrik Morcha Himachal Pradesh:* Labour Party (Secular):* Labour Party Of India (V.V. Prasad):* Lairam People Party:* Lokpriya Samaj Party:* Lok Rajya Party:* Lok Satta Party:* Lok Shakti:* Lok Sewa Dal:* Loktantrik Samajwadi Party:* Loktrantrik Janata Front:* Loktantrik Samata Dal:* Lok Vikas Party:* Labour Vikas Party

M

:* Makkal Manadu Katchi:* Mahila Adhikar Party:* Mukt Bharat:* Mool Bharati (S) Party:* Maatra Bhoomi Raksha Dal:* Majlis Bachao Tahreek:* Matra Bhoomi Vikas Party:* Momin Conference:* Marxist Co-Ordination:* Marxist Communist Party of India (S.S. Srivastava):* Maraland Democratic Front:* M.G.R. Kazhagam:* Mahashakti Inqualab Party:* Manav Jagriti Manch:* Manav Kalyan Sangh Dal:* Mahakaushal Vikas Party:* M.G.R. Mannetra Kazhagam:* Mahabharath Mahajan Sabha:* Muslim Majlis Uttar Pradesh:* Manipur National Conference:* Makkal Nalaurimaik Kazhagam (People’s Liberal Party):* Manuvadi Party:* Manava Party:* Madhya Pradesh Kisan Mazdoor Adivasi Kranti Dal:* Maharashtra Pradesh Krantikari Party:* Madhya Pradesh Loktantrik Party:* Manipur People's Party (Democratic):* Maharashtra Rajiv Congress:* Maratha Rashtra Parishad:* Mudiraj Rashtriya Samithi:* Ministerial System Abolition Party:* Manipur State Congress Party:* Maharashtra Secular Front:* Manav Samaj Party:* Manav Sewa Party:* Marumalarchi Thamizhakam:* Makkal Tamil Desam:* Maharashtra Vikas Congress:* Makkal Vilipunarvu Eyakkam:* Moovendar Munnetra Kazhagam:* Maharashtra Navnirman Sena

N

:* Naga National Party:* Nava Nirmana Nagarika Samithi:* Nissabada Bhooripaksham:* Navbharat Nirman Party:* Nationalist Charity Congress:* Netaji congress Sena:* National Congress of Youth:* National Citizens Party:* National Democratic Party:* National Democratic Peoples Front:* National Loktantrik Party:* National Organisation Congress:* National Party:* Nationalist Party of India:* National People's Party:* New India National Movement:* New India Party:* Netaji Subhash Party:* Nagrik Ekta Dal:* Nagaland Democratic Party:* Namadhu Makkal Katchi:* Nidaya Malik (N) Party:* National Minorities Party:* Nav Maharashtra Vikas Party:* Nyaynishth Prajatantra:* National Republican Party:* National Students Party:* Niswarth Sewa Party:* Naari Shakti Party:* NTR Telugu Desam Party (Lakshmi Parvathi):* Nag Vidarbha Andolan Samiti:* Nesavaalar Munnetra Kattchi:* Native People's Party

O

:* Orissa Congress:* Orissa Communist Party:* Orissa Gana Parishad:* Orissa Socialist Party

P

:* Patriot:* Puratchi Bharatham:* Paschimbanga Ganatantrik Mancha:* Phule Bharti Lok Party:* Paschim Banga Rajya Muslim League:* Prithak Bastar Rajya Party:* People's Democratic Front:* Peoples Democratic League of India:* People's Democratic Movement:* Peoples Democratic Party:* Party for Democratic Socialism:* Pavitra Hindustan Kaazhagam:* Pichhra Samaj Party:* Punjabi Dal:* Punjab Janata Morcha:* People's Justice Party:* Punjab People's Party:* Party Kisan Mazdoor Vyapari:* Panchal Morcha:* Pondicherry Mannila Makkal Munnani:* Parmarth Party:* Pragatisheel Manav Samaj Party:* Puthiya Needhi Katchi:* Praja Party:* People's Party of Arunachal:* Parcham Party of India:* Political Party of National Management Service:* Pyramid Party of India:* Parvatiya Punrutthaan Parishad:* Punjab Pradesh Vikas Party:* Peoples Republican Party:* Prabuddha Republican Party:* PRISM:* Panchayat Raj Party:* Parivartan Samaj Party:* Pragatisheel Party:* Puthiya Tamilagam:* Plains Tribals Council of Assam:* Proutist Sarva Samaj Party:* Paschimi Uttar Pradesh Swaraja Party:* Punjab Vikas Congress Party:* Purvanchal Vikas Party:* Peasants and Workers Party of India

Q

:* Quami Janta Dal:* Quami Party

R

:* Rajyadhikara Party:* Rashtriya Aikta Manch:* Rashtriya Bahujan Congress Party:* Rashtriya Bahujan Ekta Party:* Rashtriya Bhrasthachar Virodhi Morcha:* Rashtravadi Communist Party:* Revolutionary Communist Party of India (Rasik Bhatt):* Rashtriya Dehat Morcha Party:* Rashtriya Dharmanirpeksha Nava Bharat Party:* Rashtriya Deshbhakt Party:* Rajasthan Dev Sena Dal:* Rashtriya Garib Dal:* Rashtriya Gurujan Party:* Rashtriya Gramin Party:* Rajdal Haryana:* Rashtriya Hith Congress:* Rashtriya Hamara Dal:* Rashtriya Hindu Sangathan:* Rashtriya Indira Party:* Rashtriya Janadhikar Party:* Rashtriya Janta Congress:* Rashtriya Janandholan Paksha:* Rashtriya Janata Janardan Party:* Rashtriya Jan Kalyan Party:* Republican Janata Party:* Rashtriya Jan Sangam:* Rashtriya Jansevak Parishad:* Rashtriya Jantantrik Dal:* Rajasthan Vikas Party:* Rashtriya Krantikari Dal:* Rashtriya Komi Ekta Party:* Rashtriya Kisan Party:* Rashtriya Krantikari Samajwadi Party:* Rashtriya Kamjor Varg Party:* Rashtriya Lok Seva Morcha:* Rashtriya Manav Adhikar Party:* Rashtriya Mazdoor Ekta Party:* Rashtriya Manav Kalyan Sangh:* Rashtriya Matrabhoomi Party:* Rashtriya Mahasangh:* Rajiv Makkal Congress:* Rashtriya Nayay Party:* Rashtrotthan Party:* Rashtriya Praja Congress (Secular):* Rashtriya Parivartan Dal:* Republican Movement:* Republican Party of India:* Republican Party of India (Athvale):* Republican Party Of India (Democratic ):* Republican Party Of India(Khobragade):* Republican Party of India (Kamble):* Republican Party of India (Sivaraj):* Republican Presidium Party of India:* Rashtriya Rajdhani Congress Delhi:* Rashtriya Raksha Dal:* Ramrajya Marg:* Rashtra Shakti:* Rashtriya Swabhimaan Party:* Rashtriya Samajwadi Congress:* Rashtriya Sawarn Dal:* Rashtriya Garima Party:* Rashtriya Swajan Party:* Rashtriya Sakar Party:* Rashtriya Samanta Dal:* Rashtriya Samadhaan Party:* Rajasthan Samajik Nyaya Manch:* Rashtriya Samajik Nayak Paksha:* Rashtriya Samajwadi Party (United):* Revolutionary Socialist Party of Kerala (Bolshevik):* Rashtriya Samajwadi Party 'Pragatisheel':* Rashtriya Samaj Paksha:* Ram Sena Rashtravadi:* Rashtriya Surajya Parishad:* Rashtriya Samaj Sevak Dal:* Rashtriya Samaj Sudhar Party:* Rashtriya Kranti Party:* Rashtriya Party:* Rashtra Suraksha Parishad:* Rashtriya Unnatisheel Dal:* Rashtravadi Vikas Dal:* Rashtravadi Janata Party:* Rashtriya Vikas Party:* Rajasthan Veer Sena:* Rashtrawadi Samaj Party:* Rashtriya Yuva Loktantrik Party

:* Sabjan Party:* Shiromani Akali Dal (Simranjit Singh Mann):* Samata Party:* Sakhthi Baratha Desam:* Sachet Bharat Party:* Sadbhavana Party:* Shikshit Berozgar Sena:* Suheldev Bhartiya Samaj Party:* Shree Bharat Vikas Paksh:* Shakti Dal:* Sabka Dal Bharatiya Samajwadi Congress:* Sanyukt Dastkar Party:* Socialistic Democratic Party:* Sarvadharam Party (Madhya Pradesh):* Samajik Ekta Party:* Sarvhara Dal:* Sikkim Himali Rajya Parishad:* Sarb Hind Shiromani Akali Dal:* Shoshit Samaj Party:* Samajwadi Janata Dal Democratic:* Social Justice Party:* Samajwadi Janata Party (Maharashtra):* Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya):* Sinh Jan Seva Party:* Samajik Jantantrik Party:* Shubha Karnatak:* Swatntra Kranti Dal:* Sikkim Janashakti Party:* Social Action Party:* Socialist Party (Lohia):* Samudaya Munnetra Kazhagam:* Swarn Mahasabha:* Samata Samaj Party:* Satya Mave Party:* Secular National Dravida Party:* Sikkim National Liberation Front:* Samajik Nyaya Party:* Samajwadi Party (SP):* Sardar Patel Congress Party:* Secular Party of India:* Sirpanch Samaj Party:* Sampurna Vikas Dal:* Socialist Republican Party:* Sarva Seva Party:* Sarvahara Samaj Party:* Shoshit Samaj Dal:* Sehajdhari Sikh Federation:* Samata Sangharsh Party:* Sanatan Samaj Party:* Sikkim Sangram Parishad:* Swatantra Bharat Paksha:* Samajtantric Party of India:* Shetkari Vichar Dal:* Sadan Vikas Party:* Sarvodaya Party:* Shivrajya Party:* Savarn Samaj Party:* Swaraj Dal:* Samajwadi Jan Parishad:* Shiromani Youth Akali Dal (Kahlon):* Samajvadi Youva Dal:* Satyayug Party

T

:* Telangan Rastra Samithi:* Thamilar Bhoomi:* Thondar Congress:* Telangana Congress Party:* The Consumer Party of India:* Tamil Desiyak Katchi:* The Great India Revolutioners:* Telangana Praja Party:* Tharasu Makkal Mandram:* The Humanist Party of India:* Thesia Jananayaka Makkal Katchi:* Tarai Kranti Dal:* Tamilar Kazhagam:* Tamil Maanila Congress (Moopanar):* Tamil Maanila Kamraj Congress:* Tamilaga Makkal Munnetra Kazhagam:* Tamil Nadu Deseeya Grameeya Thozhilalar Congress:* Trinamool Gana Parishad:* Tamil Nadu Makkal Congress:* Tamil Nadu People's Party:* Tamil Nadu Peasants & Workers Party:* Tribal People Party:* Tamizhaga Rajiv Congress:* The Religion of Man Revolving Political Party of India:* Trilok Shakti Congress Bharat:* Thaayaga Makkal Katchi:* Tamizhaga Munnetra Munnani:* Tamizhar Party:* Telugu Desam Party

U

:* United Bodo Nationalist Liberation Front:* United Citizen Party:* United Communist Party of India:* United Indian Democratic Council:* United India Peoples Party:* Uttarkhand Janwadi Party:* United Minorities Front, Assam:* Uttar Pradesh Jan Manas Party:* Uzhaippalar Katchi:* Uzhaippalar Podhu Nalakatchi:* United People's Party of Assam:* Uttar Pradesh Republican Party:* United Reservation Movement Council of Assam:* Uttarakhand Sanskriti Parishad:* Urs Samyuktha Paksha:* United Tribal Nationalists Liberation Front

V

:* Vivasayi Anbhu Katchi:* Vikaswadi Communism Party:* :* Vidharbha Janata Congress:* Vijeta Party:* Vidhayak Dal:* Viswa Maya Political Party:* Vikas Party:* Vidharabha Rajya Mukti Morcha:* Vidharbha Rajya Party:* Vidarbha Vikas Party

W

:* West Bengal Socialist Party:* Womanist Party of India

Y

:* Youth Brigade:* Yuva Gantantra Party:* Yuva Jan Jagriti Party:* Youth and Students Party

Other parties

Many political parties in India are never registered at the Election Commission.
* Biplobi Bangla Congress
* BTR-EMS-AKG Janakeeya Vedi
* Communist Party of India (Maoist)
* Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Central Team
* Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Janashakti
* Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) (Kanu Sanyal)
* Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) (Mahadev Mukherjee)
* Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Naxalbari
* Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) New Democracy
* Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Red Flag
* Communist Party of Revolutionary Marxists
* Communist Party of United States of India
* Communist Revolutionary League of India
* Communist Workers Party
* Dalit Panthers of India (also called "Viduthalai Siruthaigal") (Tamil Nadu)
* Gana Abhiyan Orissa
* Gorkha National Liberation Front (C.K. Pradhan)
* International Democratic Party
* Kerala Dalit Federation
* Kunabi Sena
* Lal Nishan Party
* Lal Nishan Party (Leninvadi)
* Marxist-Leninist Committee
* Provisional Central Committee, Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist)
* Savitri Era Party
* Shahar Vikas Aghadi
* Socialist Unity Centre of India
* Telangana Communist Party
* Telangana Janata Party
* Telangana Praja Samithi
* Telangana Rashtra Party
* Telangana Sadhana Samithi
* Unity Centre of Communist Revolutionaries of India (Marxist-Leninist)
* Workers Party of India

Parties from the past

* All India Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries
* All India Jharkhand Party
* All India Trinamool Congress
* Andhra Pradesh Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries
* Anna Telugu Desam Party
* Arunachal Congress (Mithi)
* Bharatiya Jan Congress
* Bharatiya Jana Sangh
* Bihar People's Party (Bihar)
* Birsa Seva Dal
* Bolshevik-Leninist Party of India, Ceylon and Burma
* Bolshevik Party of India
* Central Reorganization Committee, Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist)
* Chhotanagpur Front
* Chhotanagpur Plateau Praja Parishad
* Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist)
* Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Second Central Committee
* Communist Party of Indian Union (Marxist-Leninist)
* Communist Revolutionary Party
* Congress (Dolo)
* Democratic Revolutionary Peoples Party
* Desh Sevak Party
* Doordarshi Party
* Forward Communist Party
* Himachal Vikas Congress ("Himachal Welfare Congress")(Himachal Pradesh)
* Hul Jharkhand Party
* Hyderabad State Praja Party
* Indian Congress (Socialist)
* Indian National Congress (Organization)
* Indian National Congress (Sheik Hassan)
* Indian National Congress (Urs)
* Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (B)
* Janata Dal (Ajit)
* Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party
* Krantikari Mukti Morcha
* Krishikar Lok Party
* Lal Jhanda Dal
* Lok Raj Party Himachal Pradesh
* Lok Shakti
* Madhya Pradesh Vikas Congress
* Maharashtra Vikas Party
* National Forward Bloc
* Natun Asom Gana Parishad
* Nikhil Manipuri Mahasabha
* Nikhil Utkal Adivasi Congress
* Organizing Committee, Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist)
* Orissa Jana Congress
* Pasumpon Forward Bloc
* Peoples Party of Arunachal
* Pragati Legislature Party
* Puducherry Makkal Congress
* Punjab Communist Revolutionary Committee
* Radical Democratic Party
* Rashtriya Janata Dal (Democratic)
* Real Communist Party of India
* Revolutionary Communist Party
* Revolutionary Communist Unity Centre (Marxist-Leninist)
* Revolutionary Forward Bloc
* Scheduled Caste Federation
* Subhasist Forward Bloc
* Telangana Praja Samithi
* United Jharkhand Party
* United People's Party of Assam
* Utkal Congress
* Veer Birsa Dal
* Vishal Haryana Party

Coalitions

Since 1990, the Indian electorate has consistently thrown fragmented verdicts both at the state and national levels. This has led parties with small (and sometimes fundamental) ideological differences to come together as a loose federation of parties to stake claim for power. The following are coalitions of political parties in India.
* Bangla Bachao Front - an opposition front in the 2001 West Bengal state elections. Was headed by All India Trinamool Congress.
* Democratic Front - the governing coalition in Maharashtra.
* Him Loktantrik Morcha - a now defunct 'third front' in Himachal Pradesh.
* National Democratic Alliance - headed by the BJP.
* National Front - headed by Janata Dal, governed India 1989-1991. Now defunct.
* Left Democratic Front - Opposition front in Kerala, headed by CPI(M).
* Left Front - headed by CPI(M).
* Sikkim United Democratic Alliance - political front in Sikkim, including regional parties, BJP, INC.
* Telangana Rashtra Sadhana Front - a front of pro-Telangana statehood fringe parties.
* Third Front / United National Progressive Alliance
* United Front - the 'third front' that governed India 1996-1998. Now defunct.
* United Progressive Alliance - the current government coalition, headed by the INC.

Political parties listed by relationship

Short Indian Political Dictionary (language is Hindi unless mentioned otherwise):
Abhiyan Campaign
Akhil All
Bahujan Majority*
Bharatiya Indian
Biplob Revolution (Bengali)
Dal Party
Dalit Scheluded Caste group
Gana People (Assamese, Bengali, Oriya)
Ganatantra Democracy (Bengali, m.m.)
Gorkha Nepali-speaking ethnic group
Ekta United
Jan People
Janata Popular
Jantantrik Democratic
Katchi Party (Tamil)
Kazhagam Federation (Tamil)
Kisan Peasant
Kranti Revolution
Lehar Stream
Lok People
Loktantrik Democratic
Maha- Great
Manch Platform
Makkal People (Tamil)
Morcha Front
Mukti Liberation
Munnetra Progressive (Tamil)
Paksha Party (Marathi, Kannada)
Parishad Association
Peravai Front (Tamil)
Pokx Party (Konkani)
Praja People
Prajatantrik Democratic
Rajya State
Rashtriya National
Samaj Society
Samajwadi Socialist
Sammelan Conference
Samiti Association
Samyavadi Communist
Samyukt United
Sangh Union
Shakti Power
Suraksha Defence
Swatantra Independence
Trinamool Grassroot
Vikas Development
*Used in the meaning that 85% of the population of India belongs to lower castes.

*Akhil Bharatiya Gorkha League
*All India Forward Bloc
**Break-away:
**Democratic Forward Bloc
**Forward Bloc (Socialist)
**Marxist Forward Bloc
**Unified with:
**All India Netaji Revolutionary Party
**Forward Bloc (Socialist)
*All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimen
**Break-away:
**Majlis Bachao Tehreek
*Asom Gana Parishad
**Break-away:
**Trinamool Gana Parishad
*Backward Castes United Front
*Bahujan Kisan Dal
*Bahujan Samaj Party
**Break-away:
**Ambedkar Samaj Party
**Bahujan Samaj Party (Ambedkar)
**Bharti Lok Lehar Party
**Democratic Bahujan Samaj Morcha
**Jantantrik Bahujan Samaj Party
***Break-away:
***Kisan Mazdoor Bahujan Party
**Loktantrik Bahujan Samaj Party
**Unified with:
**Bahujan Samaj Party (Ambedkar)
**Democratic Bahujan Samaj Morcha
*Bharatiya Janata Party
**Break-away:
**Asom Bharatiya Janata Party
**Bihar Vikas Party
**Janhit Morcha
**Jharkhand Disom Party
**Unified with:
**Dhiravida Thelugar Munnetra Kazhagam
**MGR Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
**Rashtriya Janata Dal (Democratic)
*Bharatiya Kisan Kamgar Party
**Developed into:
**Rashtriya Lok Dal
*Communist Party of India
**Break-away:
**Communist Party of India (Marxist)
***Break-away:
***All India Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries
****Developed into:
****Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist)
*****Break-away:
*****Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Janashakti
*****Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) (Kanu Sanyal)
*****Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation
*****Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) (Mahadev Mukherjee)
*****Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Naxalbari
*****Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) New Democracy
*****Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) People's War
*****Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Red Flag
*****Communist Party of United States of India
*****Communist Revolutionary League of India
*****Marxist-Leninist Committee
*****Provisional Central Committee, Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist)
***Andhra Pradesh Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries
****Developed into:
****Unity Centre of Communist Revolutionaries of India (Marxist-Leninist)
***BTR-EMS-AKG Janakeeya Vedi
***Communist Party of Revolutionary Marxists
***Communist Marxist Party
***Janathipathiya Samrakshana Samithy
***Marxist Communist Party of India
***Marxist Coordination Committee
***Orissa Communist Party
***Party of Democratic Socialism
**Krantikari Samyavadi Party
**Rashtravadi Communist Party
**Revolutionary Communist Party of India
***Break-away:
***Real Communist Party of India
*Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
**Break-away:
**All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
***Break-away:
***M.G.R. Anna D.M. Kazhagam
**Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
**Dravida Peravai
*Dravida Vizhipunarchi Kazhagam
*Democratic Bharatiya Samaj Party
*Democratic Socialist Party
*Denzong Peoples Chogpi
*Ekta Shakti
*Ephraim Israel National Convention
*Ephraim Union
*Garo National Council
*Goa Su-Raj Party
*Golden India Party
*Gondvana Ganatantra Party
*Gorkha National Liberation Front
**Break-away:
**Gorkha National Liberation Front (C.K. Pradhan)
*Indian Christian Front
*Indian Federal Democratic Party
*Indian Justice Party
*Indian National Congress
**Break-away:
**Akhil Bharatiya Congress Dal
**Akhil Bharatiya Lok Tantrik Congress
**All India Indira Congress (Tiwari)
***Break-away:
***All India Indira Congress (Secular)
**All India Trinamool Congress
***Developed into:
***Nationalist Trinamool Congress
**Arunachal Congress
***Break-away:
***Arunachal Congress (Mithi)
**Bangla Congress
***Break-away:
***Biplobi Bangla Congress
**Bharatiya Jan Congress
**Congress (Dolo)
**Goa People's Congress
**Goa Rajiv Congress Party
**Himachal Vikas Congress
**Indian National Congress (Sheik Hassan)
**Kerala Congress
***Break-away:
***Kerala Congress (Jacob)
***Kerala Congress (Balakrishna Pillai)
***Kerala Congress (Mani)
**Madhya Pradesh Vikas Congress
**Nationalist Congress Party
***Break-away:
***Democratic Congress Party
***Unified with:
***Bharatiya Jan Congress
***Goa Rajiv Congress Party
**Praja Party
**Sikkim Congress (Revolutionary)
**Sikkim Ekta Manch
***Break-away:
***Sikkim Janashakti Party
**Tamil Maanila Congress
***Break-away:
***Congress Jananayaka Peravai
***Puducherry Makkal Congress
**Tamizhaga Rajiv Congress
**Thondar Party
**Unified with:
**Arunachal Congress (Mithi)
**Goa People's Congress
**Democratic Congress Party
**Democratic Revolutionary Peoples Party
**Haryana Republican Party
**Himachal Vikas Congress
**Jai Telangana Party
**Kisan Mazdoor Bahujan Party
**Madhya Pradesh Vikas Congress
**Sikkim Ekta Manch
**Sikkim Janashakti Party
**Sikkim Janata Parishad
**Sikkim National Congress
***Unified with:
***Rajya Praja Sammelan
***Sikkim Swantantra Party
***Sikkim Janata Congress
****Unified with:
****Sikkim Janata Party
****Sikkim State Congress
*Indian National Green Party
*Indian National Lok Dal
*Indian Union Muslim League
**Break-away:
**Indian National League
*Jammu & Kashmir National Conference
*Janata Dal
**Break-away:
**Biju Janata Dal
**Janata Dal (Secular)
**Janata Dal (United)
***Unified with:
***Jharkhand Vikas Dal
**Rashtriya Janata Dal
***Break-away:
***Rashtriya Janata Dal (Democratic)
**Samajwadi Party
***Unified with:
***Indian Congress (Socialist)
***Indian Ekta Party
***Loktantrik Bahujan Samaj Party
***United People's Party of Assam
*Jharkhand Mukthi Morcha
*Kisan Mazdoor Mandal
*Lok Bhalai Party
**Break-away:
**Dalit Kisan Dal
*Lok Jan Samta Party
*Lok Jan Shakti Party
*Manipur State Congress Party
*Maraland Democratic Front
*Mizo National Front
*Nagaland Peoples Front
*Peasants and Workers Party of India
*Jammu & Kashmir People's Democratic Party
*Organization of Sikkimese Unity
*Pattali Makkal Katchi
*Rashtriya Lok Dal
*Republican Party of India
**Break-away:
**Bharipa Bahujan Mahasangha
**Haryana Republican Party
*Revolutionary Socialist Party
**Break-away:
**Revolutionary Socialist Party (Bolshevik)
**Revolutionary Socialist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist)
**Break-away:
***Gana Abhiyan Orissa
*Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya)
*Shiromani Akali Dal
**Break-away:
**Shiromani Akali Dal (Simranjit Singh Mann)
*Shiv Sena
*Sikkim Sangram Parishad
**Break-away:
**Sikkim Democratic Front
***Break-away:
***Nepali Bhutia Lepcha
*Sikkim Gorkha Party
*Sikkim Himali Rajya Parishad
*Sikkim National Party
*Sikkim Prajatantra Congress
*Tamizhaga Makkal Munnetra Kazhagam
*Telugu Desam Party
**Break-away:
**Anna Telugu Desam Party
**NTR Telugu Desam Party (Lakshmi Parvathi)
***Break-away:
***Jai Telangana Party
**Telangana Rashtra Samithi
*United Goans Democratic Party
**Break-away:
**Gomant Lok Pokx
*Urs Samyuktha Paksha
*Vidarbha Rajya Party
*Vidarbha Vikas Party
*West Bengal Socialist Party

Distribution of seats in the Fourteenth Lok Sabha

* Indian National Congress – 145
* Bharatiya Janata Party – 138
* Communist Party of India (Marxist) – 43
* Samajwadi Party – 36
* Rashtriya Janata Dal – 24
* Bahujan Samaj Party – 19
* Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam – 16
* Shiv Sena – 12
* Biju Janata Dal – 11
* Communist Party of India – 10
* Nationalist Congress Party – 9
* Janata Dal (United) – 8
* Shiromani Akali Dal – 8
* Pattali Makkal Katchi – 6
* Telugu Desam Party – 5
* Telangana Rashtra Samithi – 5
* Jharkhand Mukti Morcha – 5
* Lok Janashakti Party – 4
* Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam – 4
* Independents – 5
* Others – 30

ee also

*List of recognised political parties in India
* Index of political parties to browse parties by name
* List of political parties to browse parties by country
* List of political parties by ideology to browse parties by name
* Membership of internationals to browse parties by membership of internationals
*Liberalism in India
*Indian Trade Unions
*List of Indian student organizations

External links

Official party sites

* [http://www.bjp.org Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)]
* [http://www.congress.org.in/ Indian National Congress (INC)]
* [http://www.cpim.org/ Communist Party of India (Marxist)]
* [http://www.cpindia.org/ Communist Party of India]
* [http://www.dmk.in// Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK)]
* [http://www.liberalpartyofindia.org Swatantra Bharat Party]
* [http://www.ncp.org.in/ Nationalist Congress Party (NCP)]
* [http://www.telugudesam.com/ Telugudesam Party (TDP)]
* [http://www.suci.in/ Socialist Unity Centre of India (SUCI)]

Other sites

* [http://www.eci.gov.in/ Election Commission of India]
* [http://www.electionnext.com/ Election Analysis]
* [http://www.netajionline.com/ Indian Politician Directory]

Further reading

* Subrata K. Mitra and V.B. Singh. 1999. "Democracy and Social Change in India: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the National Electorate". New Delhi: Sage Publications. ISBN 81-7036-809-X (India HB) ISBN 0-7619-9344-4 (U.S. HB).
* Subrata K. Mitra, Mike Enskat, Clemens Spiess (eds.). 2004. "Political Parties in South Asia". Greenwood: Praeger.

References


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