Bayinnaung


Bayinnaung

Infobox Monarch
name =Bayinnaung
title =Monarch


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reign =Toungoo Dynasty: 1551 - 1581
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predecessor =Tabinshwehti
successor =Nanda Bayin
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dynasty =Toungoo Dynasty
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date of death =1581
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Bayinnaung ( _my. ဘုရင်နောင်; IPA2|bayìnnaʊ̀n; lit. the King's Elder Brother, known in Portuguese as Braginoco, and in the Thai language as Burinnaung or Burengnong (พระเจ้าบุเรงนอง)) was a king of the Toungoo dynasty in modern-day Myanmar. He is widely revered in the country, and is best known for unifying the kingdom and conquering the Shan States, Siam and Laos. He is also well-known in Thailand on account of a popular song titled "Pu Chanah Sip Tit" meaning "Conqueror of Ten Directions."

Reconquest of Burma (1550-1555)

Bayinnaung was the name conferred by his brother-in-law King Tabinshwehti, the founder of the Second Burmese Empire, nearly 3 centuries after the fall of Bagan in 1287 to the Mongol invasion under Kublai Khan. After Tabinshwehti was assassinated by Mon members of his court in Pegu in 1550, Bayinnaung fought to recover Tabinshwehti's kingdom retaking Toungoo and Prome in 1551, Pegu, Martaban, and Bassein in 1552, and finally Ava in 1555.

Shan States and Chiang Mai (1557-1558)

After he had retaken both Upper Burma and Lower Burma, he led a military expedition northwards to the Shan region and took Mong Mit, Hsipaw, Yawnghwe, Mong Yang, and Mogaung in 1557.

The following year he marched to Mong Nai (1557) and then the Lanna kingdom of Chiang Mai ("Zin Mè" 1558) taking both cities. In 1563 he conquered the Chinese Shans of Mong Mao.

Ayutthaya (1564-1569)

In 1563, Bayinnaung launched another campaign against the kingdom of Ayutthaya, capturing the capital in 1569 despite widespread opposition and resistance among the Siamese. Siam, in effect, became a vassal state of the Toungoo kingdom, and thousands were taken back to Burma as war captives.

Starting in the late 1560s several European travellers such as Cesar Fedrici and Gaspero Balbi travelled to Pegu, the capital of Burma, and left detailed descriptions of Bayinnaung's kingdom in their travel journals (See external links below).

Lan Xang (1570s)

In the 1570s Bayinnaung marched against the kingdom of Lan Xang ("Lin Zin") in modern day Laos. The king of Lan Xang, Setthathirat, and the inhabitants of the capital Vientiane fled to the jungle where they resisted the invasion.

Bayinnaung pursued them into the jungle, but warfare in the jungle proved difficult. The enemy was difficult to find and engage in battle. Failing to achieve decisive control over Lan Xang, Bayinnaung returned to Burma.

When Bayinnaung returned to Lan Xang in 1574 he tried to lure the inhabitants back to the capital and rebuild the kingdom under a ruler of his choice.

An expedition was also sent to reassert control over the Shan state of Mogaung in the far north in 1576.

Bayinnaung's death (1581)

On the eve of his death in 1581 Bayinnaung was preparing to launch an attack against the coastal kingdom of Arakan. Bayinnaung was succeeded by his son Nanda Bayin. During his son's reign, the empire that Bayinnaung had constructed was dismembered, and Siam was liberated by Prince Naresuan after Bayinnaung's death.

Legacy

*As conqueror of predecessor of Thailand, he was well-known by the Thai people, and often with respect. Chote Praepan (pen name "Jacob"), an influential Thai journalist and author expanded his story into an epic historical fiction, "ผู้ชนะสิบทิศ" or "Puchana Sib Tid", literally winner (conqueror) of the ten directions.
*The Thai novel later spawned a tv and a movie series. The song of the same name from the movie series, performed by Charintra Nanthanakorn, remains one of the most recognizable and popular songs in Thailand.

External links

* [http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/docs/wps/wps06_064.pdf The Changing Nature of Conflict between Burma and Siam as seen from the Growth and Development of Burmese States from the 16th to the 19th Centuries] , by Pamaree Surakiat,Mar 2006, Asia Research Institute, Singapore.
* [http://www.arts.chula.ac.th/~complit/event/hantawadi.htm Biography of King Bayinnaung (r. 1551-1581)] , by U Thaw Kaung.
* [http://web.soas.ac.uk/burma/pdf/Federici.pdf Account of Pegu (c. 1569)] , by Cesar Fedrici.
* [http://web.soas.ac.uk/burma/1.2%20PDF%20FILES/1.2%2007%20Balbi.pdf Voyage to Pegu, and Observations There, Circa 1583] , Gaspero Balbi
* [http://lakdiva.com/suntimes/970406/plus2.html A king of Burma and the Sacred Tooth Relic]
* [http://web.soas.ac.uk/burma/pdf/Ferquist1.pdf The Flight of Lao War Captives from Burma back to Laos in 1596:A Comparison of Historical Sources] Jon Fernquest, Mae Fa Luang University, SOAS bulletin, Spring 2005
* [http://www.irrawaddymedia.com/article.php?art_id=6884 The Kinder Side of a Burmese King] The Back Page, "The Irrawaddy", February 2007
* [http://www.irrawaddymedia.com/article.php?art_id=6608 Thai-Burmese Historical Film Breaks Box Office Records] Khun Sam, "The Irrawaddy", January 25 2007
* [http://www.irrawaddymedia.com/article.php?art_id=6865 Thai Tourists in Burma] Sai Silp, "The Irrawaddy", February 2007


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