- Trapeze (sailing)
Sailing, the trapeze refers to a wire that comes from a point high on the mast, usually where the shrouds are fixed, to a hook on the crew member's harness at approximately waist level. The position when extended on the trapeze is outside the hull, braced against it (or an extension of it outwards) with the soles of the feet, facing the masthead, and clipped on by a hook on the trapeze harness. This gives the crew member more leverage to keep the boat flat by allowing the crew member's centre of gravityto balance the force of the wind in the sails.
An additional benefit is the ability to "walk" along the
gunwhaleto balance the boat's trim fore and aft. This is necessary to prevent racing catamarans such as the Tornado from digging the bow into the water, and causing a nosedive and often a spectacular capsize.
Boats may have only one trapeze, such as the 470, where only the crew uses the trapeze. Boats, such as the 49er, may have trapeze wires for both the skipper and the crew. Trapeze has several colloquial names such as "the wire" or simply "the trap".
When a boat loses power in its sails, and heels to the
windwardside, the crew on the trapeze may get dipped in the water if they do not react in time. This accident is occasionally known as "Tea Bagging" or "Going Lipton".
Some classes allow footloops on the gunwhale to allow those on the trapeze to locate their feet with relative security. This helps to prevent the crew from swinging forward, sometimes round the
forestaywhen the boat decelerates suddenly.
Due to safety concerns, the International Sailing Federation changed the rules in 2004 concerning trapeze harnesses, effective January 1, 2009: "40.2 A trapeze or hiking harness shall have a device capable of quickly releasing the competitor from the boat at all times while in use.” These are already widely in use, and make it possible for the sailor to unhook themselves from the wire from all angles while it is under tension, thus decreasing the chance of getting trapped underwater or in dangerous conditions.
There are counterclaims for the origin of the device:
*The trapeze was originally developed at
Upper Thames Sailing Club, at Bourne Endon the Thamesin the United Kingdomon the Thames A Class Rater "Vagabond", owned by Beecher Moore. When deployed there for the first time it was called a "Bell Rope".
Austin Farrarstarted his association with the International 14 foot class and a lifelong friendship with Charles Currey. Together they worked on the development of the trapeze, now so common on racing dinghies, which was used so effectively by Sir Peter Scottand John Kift Winterduring the championships of that year.
*In 1938 a revolution in dinghy sailing took place in Falmouth. Sailors
John Kift Winterand Sir Peter Scotthad invented the first trapeze for use on their International 14, "Thunder and Lightning".
The duo used their new invention in the 1938 Prince of Wales Cup race in Falmouth and steamed over the finish line ahead of the rest of the fleet. Almost immediately, the Royal Yachting Association Dinghy Committee banned the trapeze over concerns that it was too dangerous for the user in the event of a capsize. It was reintroduced for the Flying Dutchman class 15 years later, but was not used again on an International 14 until 1970.
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