Order No. 227


Order No. 227
Soviet postage stamp with the famous phrase "Not a step back".

Order No. 227 of July 28, 1942 was issued by Joseph Stalin acting as People's Commissar of Defence. It is famous for its line "Not a step back!" (Russian: Ни шагу назад! / Ni Shagu Nazad!), that became a slogan of Soviet antifascist resistance.[1]

Contents

The Order

No commander had the right to retreat without an order. Anyone who did so was subject to a military tribunal of the corresponding seniority level.

Order No. 227 established that each Front must create 1 to 3 penal battalions (штрафбат, штрафной батальон, shtrafbat, shtrafnoy battalion) of soldiers accused of disciplinary problems, which were sent to the most dangerous sections of the front lines.[1] Each Front had to create penal companies for privates and NCOs. From 1942 to 1945, 427,910 soldiers were assigned to penal battalions.[2]

The order also directed that each Army must create "blocking detachments" (barrier troops (заградотряд, заградительный отряд)) which would shoot "cowards" and fleeing panicked troops at the rear.[1]

Both measures were cited in the preamble of the order as having been successfully used by the Germans during their winter retreat.

The requirement for Armies to maintain companies of barrier troops was withdrawn after just three months, on October 29, 1942. Intended to galvanise the morale of the hard-pressed Soviet Army and emphasise patriotism, it had a generally detrimental effect and was not consistently implemented by commanders who viewed diverting troops to create barrier units as a waste of manpower, so by October 1942 the idea of regular blocking units was quietly dropped.[3] By 20 November 1944 the blocking units were officially disbanded.[2]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Roberts, Geoffrey. Stalin's Wars: From World War to Cold War, 1939–1953. New Heaven, CT; London: Yale University Press, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0300112041), page 132
  2. ^ a b G. I. Krivosheev. Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7
  3. ^ Catherine Merridale. Ivan's War: Life and Death in the Red Army, 1939-1945. Page 158. Macmillan, 2006. ISBN 0805074554

References

  • Sellas, Anthony (1992). The Value of Human Life in Soviet Warfare, New York: Routledge.
  • History Channel, Monday 24 Nov 2008 @ 1400hr Eastern Time.

Wikisource


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Order No. 270 — Order No. 270, dated August 16, 1941, was issued by Joseph Stalin acting as People s Commissar of Defense.[1] By the time of the order s issuance, German troops had achieved overwhelming successes in their advancement deep into Soviet territory.… …   Wikipedia

  • Order of Preachers —     Order of Preachers     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Order of Preachers     As the Order of the Friars Preachers is the principal part of the entire Order of St. Dominic, we shall include under this title the two other parts of the order: the… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Order of Saint Isabel — The Order of Queen Saint Isabel (Ordem da Rainha Santa Isabel) is a dynastic order of which the Grand Mistress is the Duchess of Braganza. Contents 1 …   Wikipedia

  • Order of the Star in the East — The Order of the Star in the East (OSE) was an organization established by the leadership of the Theosophical Society at Adyar, India, from 1911 to 1927. Its mission was to prepare the world for the expected arrival of a messianic entity, the so… …   Wikipedia

  • Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa — The Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa (also known as The Order of Our Lady of Conception of Vila Vicosa) is an dynastic order of knighthood of the House of Braganza, the former Portuguese Royal Family. The current Grand Master of… …   Wikipedia

  • Order of Monfragüe — Ruins of the castle of Monfragüe, headquarters of the order The Order of Monfragüe[1] (Spanish: Orden de Monfragüe) was a Spanish military order founded at the castle of Monfragüe near Plasencia on …   Wikipedia

  • Order of the Sword (United States) — Honor guard members carrying a sword for an Order of the Sword ceremony. The Order of the Sword is an honor awarded within the U.S. Air Force. It is defined in the Airman s Guide by Boone Nicolls as a special program where noncommisioned officers …   Wikipedia

  • Order of battle in the Atlantic campaign of 1806 — The Battle of San Domingo, 6th February 1806, with H.M.S. Canopus Joining the Action, Thomas Lyde Hornbrook The Atlantic campaign of 1806 was one of the most important and complex naval campaigns of the post Tra …   Wikipedia

  • Ordre n°227 — Timbre de poste soviétique sur lequel est inscrit la célèbre phrase « Pas un pas en arrière ! ». L Ordre n°227 du 28 juillet 1942 signé par Joseph Staline agissant en tant que Commissaire du Peuple à la Défense, visait à interdire… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • German submarine U-227 — U Boat Infobox type=VIIC fieldpost number= yard number= order date= keel=November 8, 1941 launch=July 30, 1942 commission=August 22, 1942 yard=Germaniawerft, Kiel U Boat Patrol startdate=Start Date enddate=End Date assigned unit=Assigned Unit U… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.