Jedburgh


Jedburgh

infobox UK place
country = Scotland
official_name= Jedburgh
latitude= 55.477
longitude=-2.546
gaelic_name= Deadard
scots_name= Jeddart, Jethart
population = 4,090
os_grid_reference= NT6520
unitary_scotland= Scottish Borders
lieutenancy_scotland= Roxburgh, Ettrick and Lauderdale
constituency_westminster= Berwickshire, Roxburgh and Selkirk
constituency_scottish_parliament= Roxburgh and Berwickshire
post_town= JEDBURGH
postcode_district= TD8
postcode_area=TD
dial_code= 01835

Jedburgh (Referred to locally Jeddart or Jethart) is a town and former royal burgh in the Scottish Borders and historically in Roxburghshire.

Location

Jedburgh lies on the Jed Water, a tributary of the River Teviot, it is only ten miles from the border with England, and is dominated by the substantial ruins of Jedburgh Abbey. Other notable buildings in the town include Mary, Queen of Scots' House and Jedburgh Castle Jail, now a museum.

History

A church had been at Jedburgh since the 9th century, founded by Bishop Ecgred of Lindisfarne, and king David I of Scotland made it a priory between 1118 and 1138, housing Augustinian monks from Beauvais in France. The abbey itself was founded in 1147. Border wars with England in the 16th century left the abbey a magnificent ruin, still worth a visit today.

The deeply religious Scottish king Malcolm IV died at Jedburgh in 1165, aged 24. His death was thought to be brought on by excessive fasting.

David I had also erected a castle at Jedburgh, and in 1174, it was one of five fortresses ceded to England. It was an occasional royal residence for the Scots but captured by the English so often that it was eventually demolished in 1409, when it was the last English stronghold in Scotland.In 1258 Jedburgh had also been the focus of royal attention, with negotiations between Scotland's Alexander III and England's Henry III over the heir to the Scottish throne, leaving the Comyn faction dominant. Alexander III was also to marry at the abbey in 1285.

Its proximity to England made it historically subject to raids and skirmishes by both Scottish and English forces.

Mary, Queen of Scots stayed at a house in the town in 1566 which is now a museum.

Lord of Jedburgh Forest was a barony that was granted to George Douglas, 1st Earl of Angus on the occasion of his marriage to the Princess Mary, daughter of Robert III in 1397. It is subsidiary title of the present Earl of Angus, Angus Douglas-Hamilton, 15th Duke of Hamilton. The Duke of Douglas was raised to the position of Viscount Jedburgh Forest, but he died without heir in 1761.

In 1745, the Jacobite army led by Prince Charles Edward Stuart passed through the town on its way to England, and the Prince also stayed here. The Castle Prison opened in 1823.

In 1787 the early geologist James Hutton noted what is now known as the Hutton Unconformity at Inchbonny, near Jedburgh.cite web |url=http://www.scotborders.gov.uk/pdf/18695.pdf |title=Walks around Jedburgh |accessdate=2008-03-26 |author=Graphic Design Section|date=1999 |format= |work= |publisher=Scottish Borders Council] [cite web |url=http://nagt.org/files/nagt/jge/abstracts/Montgomery_v51n5.pdf |title=Siccar Point and Teaching the History of Geology |accessdate=2008-03-26 |author=Keith Montgomery |date=2003 |format=pdf |work= |publisher=University of Wisconsin ] Layers of sedimentary rock which are tilted almost vertically are covered by newer horizontal layers of red sandstone.cite web |url= http://www.jedburgh-online.org.uk/aroundjedburgh.asp |title= Jedburgh: Hutton's Unconformity |format= html |work= Jedburgh online |quote= Whilst visiting Allar's Mill on the Jed Water, Hutton was delighted to see horizontal bands of red sandstone lying 'unconformably' on top of near vertical and folded bands of rock. ] This was one of the findings that led him to develop his concept of an immensely long geologic time scale with "no vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end."cite web |url= http://www.amnh.org/education/resources/rfl/web/essaybooks/earth/p_hutton.html |title= James Hutton: The Founder of Modern Geology |author= American Museum of Natural History |work= Earth: Inside and Out |date= 2000 ]

The expression "Jeddart justice" or "Jethart Justice", where a man was hanged first, and tried afterward (compare Lynch law), seems to have arisen from one case of summary execution of a gang of villains.

Notable people

Several notable people were born in the town, including Mary Somerville (1780-1869) the eminent scientist and writer, after whom Somerville College at Oxford is named.

Others include the actor Peter McCue, in 1921, and Tory MP Michael Ancram in 1945. James Thomson (1700–1748) who wrote "Rule Britannia", was born nearby, and educated here. David Brewster, inventor of the kaleidoscope was also born in Jedburgh. The authoress and broadcaster Lavinia Derwent was born in a farmhouse a few miles outside Jedburgh.

The town's most famous rugby sons are the Scrum-half|plural=yes, Roy Laidlaw and Gary Armstrong.

The town today

The town's population in 2001 was 4,090, down from around 4,500 at the end of the 19th century.

The ruined abbey was the site of a major archaeological dig in 1984. It is maintained by Historic Scotland and open to the public (entrance charge). Many of the more important finds from the excavation are displayed on site in the modern visitor centre attached to the Abbey ruins. The Abbey, though much damaged over the years, especially by invasions from England, is still one of the finest late Norman buildings remaining in Scotland. Now roofless, part of the church was used as the parish church into the 19th century. Jedburgh Castle Jail, built in the early 19th century on the site of the medieval castle, is also open to the public. Borders traditions like the annual Callants Rideout and bands of pipes and drums add local colour, and delicacies include "Jethart Snails" and "Jethart Pears". Another annual event is the "Jethart Hand Ba'" game. The Canongate Brig dates from the 16th century, and there are some fine riverside walks. The Capon Oak Tree is reputed to be 2000 years old, and Newgate Prison and the town spire are among the town's older buildings. The town's industries included textiles, tanning and glove-making, grain mills, and electrical engineering. Central to the festival and customs associated with the town of Jedburgh are the Jedforest Instrumental band who support many civic, religious and social events throughout the year, a service provided consistently since 1854.

Jedburgh has two primary schools, Howdenburn situated on Howdenburn Drive although its actual address is Lothian Road, and Parkside on Priors Road. There were two rural schools nearby, Oxnam Primary and Glendouglas Primary but these were shut in 2005 as cost cutting measures were brought in by Scottish Borders Council. Pupils from these schools now attend Howdenburn Primary. Secondary education is served by Jedburgh Grammar School at the bottom of High Street. The pupils come from the two town primaries as well as Ancrum Primary School and Denholm Primary School. The Grammar School has the distinction of being one of only a handful of schools in Britain that has a public road (Pleasance or Anna Road) running through the middle of it. The school has also been under major re-development work starting in 1995 and finishing in 2006.

Free WiFi Hotspots arrived in various location around the town in the summer of 2008. [ [http://www.jedburgh.org.uk Jedburgh WiFi site] ]

urrounding area

Other towns of interest include Kelso, Hawick, Galashiels, Selkirk, and Melrose. There are abbeys at Melrose, Kelso and Dryburgh, and Kelso boasts a fine cobbled square.

All the border towns are famous for their rugby, and Galashiels has associations with William Wallace and Robert the Bruce. Selkirk is where William Wallace was declared Guardian of Scotland and has many links to the Earls of Douglas, where some of his descendents live to this day and Melrose was the scene of a battle in 1526 over the stewardship of James V.

Transport

Although Jedburgh has no rail access it is well located on the road network. The A68 provides direct access to Edinburgh (48 miles) and Newcastle-upon-Tyne (58 miles). Carlisle is 57 miles away and Hawick, Kelso, Selkirk and Galashiels are all within 20 miles.

Jedburgh is well known to motorists in both Edinburgh and Newcastle-upon-Tyne as Jedburgh is a control town to direct road traffic on the A68.

Sport

The town is home to one of the most famous and oldest Rugby Clubs in Scotland, Jed-Forest. Under-18 "Semi Junior" rugby is played by Jed Thistle at Lothian Park. Also football is represented by Jed Legion FC which currently plays in Division B of the Border Amateur League winning cups most seasons. They play their home matches at Woodend. Ancrum FC play in the village of Ancrum just to the north and include many players from Jedburgh. A Bowling Club play at Allars Mill. Cricket was once also played at Woodend but the club disbanded in the late 80s. Many sports activities are offered in Jedburgh to children including rugby, football, swimming and badminton amongst others.

Jedburgh has the distinction of being the only Border town to have a dry ski slope. Built at Anna Road Sports Complex which also has two tennis courts, a small outdoor football pitch, a 100m sprint track and a sand pit for long jump and triple jump. Canoes are also available for the towns Secondary school pupils at Jedburgh Grammar School which adjoins the complex and a "rock" for climbing and abseiling, although not very high it gives a taster.

Jethart Snails

A local speciality, a brown mint-flavoured boiled sweet. The recipe is believed to have been brought to the town by French prisoners of the Napoleonic War

See also

* Jed-Forest Rugby Football Club

Notes

ources and External links

*1911
* [http://www.jedburgh.org.uk Jedburgh Town Website Website]
* [http://www.jedforestinstrumentalband.org.uk Jedburgh Brass band (Jedforest Instrumental) Website]
* [http://www.jedburgh-online.org.uk/default.asp Jedburgh Online Community Website]
* [http://www.jedforestrfc.com Jed-Forest Rugby Football Club]
* [http://www.jedburghbadmintonclub.org.uk Jedburgh Badminton Club]
* [http://www.ukattraction.com/southern-scotland/jedburgh.html Jedburgh Attractions]
* [http://www.soundclick.com/pro/view/01/default.cfm?BandID=2395&content=lyrics&SongID=2450645 Lyrics and a recording of the Victorian song 'Jedwater' by David Kilpatrick, Traditional Music and Song Association Scottish Borders branch]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Jedburgh —    JEDBURGH, a burgh, market town, and parish, in the district of Jedburgh, county of Roxburgh, of which it is the capital, 11 miles (S. W. by S.) from Kelso, and 49 (S. E. by S.) from Edinburgh; containing, with the villages of Bongate,… …   A Topographical dictionary of Scotland

  • Jedburgh — • Augustinian abbey, in the town of the same name, established as a priory by David I, King of Scots, in 1118, and colonized by Canons Regular of St. Augustine from the Abbey of St Quentin, at Beauvais, France Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Jedburgh — Jedburgh, Hauptstadt der schottischen Grafschaft Roxburgh, in einem tiefen Thale am Jed; gothische Kirche, Obergericht, Grafschaftsgefängniß, Wollen u. Baumwollenmanufacturen, Gerberei; 3000 Ew …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Jedburgh — (spr. dschéddbŏro), Hauptstadt (royal burgh) von Roxburghshire (Schottland), im tiefen Tal des Jed (zum Teviot), mit Abteiruine, Schloß (früher Gefängnis), Museum, Lateinschule, Fabrikation von Wollenzeug und Decken und (1901) 2222 Einw. J. ist… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Jedburgh — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Jedburgh (homonymie). Article détaillé : Liste des équipes Jedburgh. Jedburgh est une opération menée par les forces alliées pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, qui avait pour objectif de coordonner l action …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jedburgh — Original name in latin Jedburgh Name in other language Deadard, Dzhedburg, Jedburg, Jedburgh, jedobara, Джедбург State code GB Continent/City Europe/London longitude 55.47997 latitude 2.552 altitude 77 Population 4045 Date 2010 08 03 …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Jedburgh — /jed berr oh, bur oh/ or, esp. Brit., / breuh/, n. a border town in the Borders region, in SE Scotland: ruins of an abbey. 3874. * * * ▪ Scotland, United Kingdom       royal burgh (town), Scottish Borders council area, historic county of… …   Universalium

  • Jedburgh — geographical name royal burgh SE Scotland SE of Edinburgh …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Jedburgh — noun a) A town in the region. b) Code name for teams of three parachuted into Occupied Europe (primarily France, but also Holland and Belgium) beginning on D Day (June 6, 1944) to aid local Resistance groups. The men consisted of a British or… …   Wiktionary

  • JEDBURGH —    (3), county town of Roxburghshire, picturesquely situated on the Jed, 30 m. SW. of Berwick, and 10 m. SW. of Kelso; is an ancient town of many historic memories; made a royal burgh by David I.; contains the ruins of an abbey, and has some… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia


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