- Cosmos (satellite)
:"For the Cosmos 1 solar sail — not part of this series — see
Cosmos is the name of a series of
satellites which were launched by the Soviet Unionand are being launched now by Russia. The first of them was launched on March 16 1962.
Any satellite which doesn't fit into any particular program is designated as a Cosmos satellite. As of June 28, 2007 there were 2427 Cosmos satellites launched. The satellites have very different roles, early ones were used for scientific exploration, some of them are failed interplanetary probes. It is suspected that most are military
reconnaissance satellites and satellites for other military uses.
Early Cosmos satellites had typic body which could be equipped with various equipment. There were six classes, labelled Cosmos A, B, C, D, E and F (a satellite of each class would be numbered independently of this). Later satellites had different bodies.
The designation is given only to satellites which are in Earth orbit. Typically, Soviet planetary missions were initially put into an Earth parking orbit as a launch platform with a rocket engine and attached probe, which would then be launched toward its targets with an engine burn with a duration of roughly 4 minutes. If the engine misfired or the burn was not completed, the probes which would be left in Earth orbit would be given a Cosmos designation, which allowed the Soviets to claim a more successful record for their planetary exploration programs, and also may have helped further disguise genuine military satellites of the Cosmos series.
Some of the Cosmos satellites are the so-called
RORSATRadar-equipped Ocean Reconnaissance Satellites.
ome Cosmos satellites
Cosmos 110- first Soviet biosatellite (contained biological experiments)
Cosmos 133- Soviet Soyuz programme test satellite
Cosmos 186and 188 - Soyuz predecessor, the first ever automatic docking of satellites
Cosmos 212and Cosmos 213- Soyuz programmetest spacecraft
Cosmos 238- final test series of Soyuz programme spacecraft
Cosmos 419- failed Mars mission
Cosmos 482- failed Venus mission, crashed in south New Zealand.
Cosmos 605- first of the Bion series, containing biological organisms
Cosmos 782- first mission in which the U.S. participated in the Soviet Cosmos program
Cosmos 954- failed and deorbited with a full nuclear payload, contaminating an area in northern Canada
Russian space program
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