- Javier Solana
name =Javier Solana
birth_date =Birth date and age|df=yes|1942|7|14
office = 1st
European Union High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy
term_start = 18 October 1999
office2 = 9th
Secretary General of NATO
term_start2 = 5 December 1995
term_end2 = 6 October 1999
successor2 = George Robertson
party = Socialist Workers' Party
Francisco Javier Solana de Madariaga, Ph.D. (born 14 July 1942 in
Madrid, Spain) is the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy(CFSP) and the Secretary-Generalof both the Council of the European Union(EU) and the Western European Union(WEU). He was named Secretary General of the 10 permanent member Western European Union in November 1999. Solana was a physicist who became a political ministerfor 13 years under Felipe Gonzálezbefore serving as Secretary General of NATOfrom 1995 to 1999.
Since October 1999, he has served as the EU's
High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy. In 2004, Solana had been designated to become the EU's Minister for Foreign Affairs for when the European Constitutionwas to come into force in 2009 but it was not ratified and his position has been renamed under the Treaty of Lisbon.Fact|date=December 2007
Background and career as physicist
Solana comes from a well-known Spanish family, being the grand nephew of Spanish
League of Nationsdisarmament chief, diplomat, writer and European integrationist Salvador de Madariaga. [ [http://www.luissolana.com/?page_id=2 Biography of Luis Solana (brother of Javier Solana) at his blog] (in Spanish):quote|Heredó de su abuelo materno la revista “España Económica”, publicación que dio cabida a jóvenes economistas críticos con el régimen de Franco. Sobrino nieto de D. Salvador de Madariaga. He inherited from his maternal grandfather the magazine "España Económica", which accommodated young economists critical of the Franco regime. (He's) the grand nephew of D. Salvador de Madariaga] His father was a chemistry professor Francisco Solana. His older brother Luis was once imprisoned for his political activities opposing the rule of Francisco FrancoFact|date=December 2007 and subsequently became a distinguished leader in the Spanish telecommunications industry, and was one of the first socialist members of the Trilateral Commission.
Solana studied at the
El Pilar College, an exclusive Catholic secondary school, before going to Complutense University(UCM). There as a student in 1963 he was sanctioned by the authorities for having organised an opposition forum at the so-called called Week of University Renovation. In 1964 he clandestinely joined the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party(PSOE), which had been illegal under Franco since the end of the Spanish Civil Warin 1939. In the same year he graduated and then spent a year furthering his studies at Spain's Higher Council for Scientific Research(CSIC) and in the United Kingdom. In 1965 he went to the United States, where he spent six years studying at various universities on a Fulbright Scholarship. [ [http://www.cidob.org/es/documentacion/biografias_lideres_politicos/europa/espana/javier_solana_madariaga Cideob biography] ] He visited the University of Chicagoand the University of California, San Diego, and then enrolled in the Graduate School of Arts & Sciences of the University of Virginiain Charlottesville. There, he taught physics classes as a Teaching Assistant and carried on independent research; he also joined in the protests against the Vietnam Warand was President of the Association of Foreign Students. He received his doctorate in physics from Virginia in 1971 with a thesis on "Theory of the Elementary Excitation Spectrum of Superfluid Helium: the Roton Lifetime", extending his planned stay in the US by a year in order to continue his research. Returning to Spain he became a lecturer in solid-state physicsat the Autonomous University of Madrid, UAM, and then in 1975 he became a Professorat Complutense University. During these years he published more than 30 articles. For a time he worked as assistant to Nicolás Cabrera, whom he had met when Cabrera was Professor at the University of Virginia. The last Ph.D. dissertations that he directed were in the early 1990s.
On returning to Spain in 1971 Solana joined the Democratic Co-ordination of Madrid as the PSOE representative.
In 1976, during PSOE's first national congress inside Spain since the civil war, he was elected Secretary of the party's Federal Executive Commission, and also Secretary for Information and Press, remaining in the post for five years. He was a close personal friend of the party's leader
Felipe González, and is considered one of the PSOE leaders responsible for the transformation of the party in the post-Franco era. In 1976 he represented the PSOE at a Socialist internationalcongress held in Suresnes, France, and again when it was held in Spain in 1977. On 20 May 1977 he accompanied González in visiting King Juan Carlos at the Zarzuela Palace.
He became a representative of a teacher's union in the Complutense University, and in this role won a parliamentary seat for PSOE on 15 June 1977. On 23 February 1981 he was in the parliament when it was taken over for 18 hours in an attempted coup by armed gunmen led by
On 28 October 1982 PSOE won a historic victory with 202 out of 350 seats in the lower house. On 3 December, along with the other members of González's first cabinet, Solana was sworn in as Minister for Culture, where he remained until moving to the Ministry of Education in 1988. On 5 July 1985 he was also made the Official Spokesman for the Government for three years.
He was made Minister for Foreign Affairs on 22 July 1992, the day before the opening of the II Ibero-American conference of heads of state in Madrid, replacing the terminally ill
Francisco Fernández Ordóñez. On November 27–28 1995, while Spain held the Presidency of the Council of the EU, Solana convened and chaired the BarcelonaConference. A treaty was achieved between the twenty-seven nations in attendance with Solana gaining credit for what he called "a process to foster cultural and economic unity in the Mediterranean region".
It was during these thirteen years as a cabinet minister that Solana's reputation as a discreet and diplomatic politician grew. By going to the foreign Ministry in the later years of González administration he avoided the political scandals of corruption, and of the dirty war allegedly being fought against
ETA, that characterised its last years. Towards the end of 1995, Solana – the only surviving member of González's original cabinet – was talked about in the press as a possible candidate to replace him and lead the PSOE in the following March elections. Instead, he made the leap to international politics.
During and after his spell as NATO secretary general (see below) Solana continues to play an active role in PSOE and Spanish politics. In June 1997, at the XXXIV PSOE Congress, Solana left their Executive Commission and joined their Federal Committee, being re-elected in second place three years later. By supporting
Colin Powell's 5 February 2003 speech to the UN Security council which claimed that Iraq had WMD's Solana contradicted the position of his party leader José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, who opposed the PP government of José María Aznar's support for the invasion of Iraq. Solana is seen, along with González, as representing the older wing of the party. On 15 February 2005 he criticised the Plan Ibarretxe for its position on Basque Country independence, saying that its call for separate Basque representation within the EU had no place within the proposed EU constitution.
On 5 December 1995, Solana became the new Secretary-General of
NATO, replacing Willy Claeswho had been forced to resign in a corruption scandal. His appointment created controversy as, in the past, he had been an opponent of NATO. He had written a pamphlet called "50 Reasons to say no to NATO", and had been on a US subversives list.Fact|date=March 2008 On 30 May 1982 Spain joined NATO. When PSOE came to power later that year, Solana and the party changed their previous anti-NATO positions into an atlanticist, pro-NATO stance. On 12 March 1986 Spain held a referendumon whether to remain in NATO, with the government and Solana successfully campaigning in favour. When criticised about his anti-NATO past, Solana argued that he was happy to be its representative as it had become disassociated from its Cold Warorigins.
Solana immediately had to deal with the
BalkansNATO mission Operation "Joint Endeavour" that consisted of a multinational peacekeeping "Implementation Force" ( IFOR) of 60,000 soldiers which took over from a United Nationsmission on 20 December. This came about through the Dayton agreement, after NATO had bombed selected targets in Bosnia and Herzegovinathe previous August and September. He did this by deploying the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps(ARRC). In December 1996 the ARRC was again activated, with IFOR being replaced by a 32,000-strong Stabilisation Force ( SFOR) operating under codenames " Joint Guard" and later " Joint Forge".
During Solana's term, NATO reorganised its political and military structure and changed its basic strategies. He gained the reputation of being a very successful, diplomatic Secretary General who was capable of negotiating between the differing NATO members and between NATO and non-NATO States. In December 1995 France partially returned to the military structure of NATO, while in November 1996 Spain joined it. On 27 May 1997, after 5 months of negotiations with Russian foreign minister
Yevgeny Primakov, an agreement was reached resulting in the Paris [http://www.nato.int/docu/basictxt/fndact-a.htm NATO-Russia Founding Act] . On the same day, Solana presided over the establishment of the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Councilto improve relations between European NATO and non-NATO countries.
Keeping the peace in the former
Yugoslaviacontinued to be both difficult and controversial. IFOR and SFOR had received a lot of criticism for their inability to capture the Bosnian Serbleaders Radovan Karadžićand Ratko Mladić. In late 1998 the conflict in the Serbian province of Kosovobetween the Yugoslav authorities and the Kosovar Albanianguerilla Kosovo Liberation Armydeteriorated, culminating in the Račak incident, a massacre of 45 Albanianson 15 January 1999. NATO decided that the conflict could only be settled by introducing a proper military peacekeeping force under their auspices, to forcibly restrain the two sides.Fact|date=March 2008 On 30 January 1999, NATO announced that it was prepared to launch air strikes against Yugoslav targets. On 6 February, Solana met both sides for negotiations at the Château de Rambouillet, but they were unsuccessful.
On 24 March, NATO forces launched air attacks on military and civilian targets in Yugoslavia, without authorization from the United Nations Security Council. Solana justified the attacks on
humanitariangrounds, and on the responsibility of NATO to keep peace in Europe and to prevent recurrences of ethnic cleansingand genocidesimilar to those which occurred during the Bosnian War(1992-1995).
Solana and NATO were criticised for the civilian casualties caused by the bombings. [ [http://www.hrw.org/press/2000/02/nato207.htm New Figures on Civilian Deaths in Kosovo War] by
Human Rights Watch] [ [http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/Kosovo/Kosovo-Current%20News176.htm Human Rights Watch Letter to NATO Secretary General Javier Solana] ] On April 23-24, the North Atlantic Councilmet in Washington D.C.where the Heads of Stateof the member nations agreed to the "New Strategic Concept", which changed the basic defensive nature of the organisation and allowed for NATO intervention in a greater range of situations than before. On 10 June, Serbian forces withdrew from Kosovo, and NATO stopped its attacks, which ended the Kosovo War. The same day UN Security Council Resolution 1244authorised NATO to active the ARRC, with the Kosovo Forcelaunching Operation "Joint Guardian" and occupying the province on 12 June. Solana left NATO on 6 October , 1999, two months ahead of schedule, and was replaced by George Robertson.
EU foreign policy chief
After leaving NATO, Solana took up a role in the
European Union. Earlier in the year, on the 1999-07-04, he was appointed by the Cologne European Council as Secretary-General of the Council of the European Union. An administrative position but it was decided that the Secretary-General would also be appointed High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy(CFSP). In this role he represented the EU abroad where there was an agreed common policy. He took up the post on 1999-10-18, shortly after standing down from NATO. The post has a budget of €40 million, most of which goes to Balkan operations. From 25 November 1999-11-25he was also appointed Secretary-General of Western European Union(WEU), overseeing the transfer of responsibilities from that organisation to the CFSP. In 2004 his 5 year mandate was renewed. He has also become president of the European Defence Agency.
The Clinton administration claimed in May 2000 that Solana was the fulfilment of
Henry Kissinger's famous desire to have a phone number to talk to Europe.Fact|date=March 2008 In December 2003 Solana released the European Security Strategy, which sets out the main priorities and identifies the main threats to the security of the EU, including terrorism. On 25 March 2004 Solana appointed Gijs de Vriesas the anti-terrorist co-ordinator for the CFSP, and outlined his duties as being to streamline, organise and co-ordinate the EU's fight against terrorism.
On 29 June 2004 he was designated to become the EU's first "Union Minister for Foreign Affairs", a position created by the European Constitutional Treaty combining the head of the
CFSPwith that of the European Commissioner for External Relations. It would give a single voice to foreign policy and combine the powers and influence of the two posts with a larger budget, more staff and a coherent diplomatic corps. The position (colloquially known as "Mr. Europe") has been partly maintained in the Reform Treaty as " High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy", but it is unknown if Solana will still take the post.
He has negotiated numerous Treaties of Association between the European Union and various
Middle Eastern and Latin Americancountries, including Boliviaand Colombia. Solana played a pivotal role in unifying the remainder of the former Yugoslavian federation. He proposed that Montenegroform a union with Serbiainstead of having full independence, stating that this was done to avoid a domino effectfrom Kosovoand Vojvodinaindependence demands. Local media sarcastically named the new country "Solania".
On 21 January 2002 Solana said that the detainees at Guantanamo Bay should be treated as prisoners of war under the
Geneva Convention. The EU has stated that it hopes to avoid another war like the Iraqi invasion through this and future negotiations, and Solana has said the most difficult moments of his job were when the United Kingdom and France, the two permanent EU Security Councilmembers, were in disagreement.
Vilnius letter, a declaration of support by eastern European countries for the United States' aim of régime change in Iraq, and the letter of the eight, a similar letter from the UK, Italy, and six second-tier countries, are generally seen as a low-water mark of the CFSP.
Solana has played an important role working toward a resolution to the
Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and continues to be a primary architect of the " Road Map for Peace," along with the UN, Russia, and the United States in the Quartet on the Middle East. On 22 July 2004 he met Ariel Sharonin Israel. Sharon had originally refused to meet Solana, but eventually accepted that, whether he liked it or not, the EU was involved in the Road Map. He criticised Israel for obstructing the Palestinian presidential election of 9 January 2005, but then met Sharon again on 13 January.
In November 2004 he assisted the United Kingdom, France and Germany in negotiating a nuclear material enrichment freeze with
Iran. In the same month he was involved in mediating between the two presidential candidates in the post-election developments in Ukraine, and on 21 January 2005 he invited Ukraine's new President Viktor Yushchenkoto discuss future EU membership.Clark, Wesley K. Waging Modern War. New York: Perseus Books Group, 2001-2002, p. 15]
Solana is married to Concepción Giménez, and they have two adult children, Diego and Vega. He lives in
Brussels, where his apartment has a reputation of being a focal point for Spanish politicians in or visiting this capital. Apart from his native Spanish, he also speaks fluent French, as well as English.
Wesley Clarkonce asked Solana the secret of his diplomatic success. He answered: "Make no enemies, and never ask a question to which you do not know or like the answer." He has been described as a "squarer of circles."Fact|date=December 2007
ambassadorto NATO Alexander Vershbowsaid of him: "He is an extraordinary consensus-builder who works behind the scenes with leaders on both sides of the Atlantic to ensure that NATO is united when it counts."Fact|date=December 2007 He is a frequent speaker at the prestigious U.S. based Council on Foreign Relations(CFR). He is likewise active in the Foreign Policy Association (FPA) as well as the New York City based East West Institute.
He is a Knight of the
Order of St Michael and St George, a member of the Spanish section of the Club of Rome. He has received the Grand Cross of Isabel the Catholic in Spain and the Manfred Wörner Medal from the German Defence Ministry. He has been President of the Madariaga European Foundationsince 1998. He received the Vision for Europe Award in 2003. Also in 2003, he received the 'Statesman of the Year Award' from the EastWest Institute, a Transatlantic think tank that organizes an annual Security Conference in Brussels. In 2006 Solana received the Carnegie-Wateler peace prize. He has also been awarded the Charlemagne Prizefor 2007 for his distinguished services on behalf of European unification. [ [http://www.karlspreis.de/index.php?id=32&doc=62 Internationaler Karlspreis zu Aachen - News ] ]
Enlargement of the European Union
General Affairs and External Affairs Council
History of Serbia and Montenegro
History of the European Constitution
History of the European Union
List of European Union-related topics
Politics of Europe
*CIDOB|europa/espana/javier_solana_madariaga (covering until 2001)
* [http://ue.eu.int/solana/cv.asp Curriculum Vitae of Javier Solana]
* [http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r104:S08DE5-237: Assessment of next NATO Secretary General]
* [http://www.statewatch.org/news/jul00/05solana.htm Civil liberties and Solana]
* [http://ec.europa.eu/comm/external_relations/med_mideast/intro/index.htm Euro-Mediterranean Partnership for Peace]
* [http://ec.europa.eu/world/enp/policy_en.htm European Neighbourhood Policy]
* [http://www.imdb.com/name/nm1535528/ IMDB page]
* [http://www.newropeans-magazine.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2154&Itemid=85 Interview about EDSP]
* [http://www.sispain.org/english/history/fisherie/position/disputes/foreign.html Interview as Spanish foreign minister in conflict with Canada]
* [http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:c0RRgAW8cvsJ:ue.eu.int/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/EN/sghr_int/84246.pdf+&hl=en&lr=lang_en lang_es&client=firefox-a Interview with Physics world magazine]
* [http://www.exploring-europe.eu/foreignpolicy Online Resource Guide to EU Foreign Policy]
* [http://www.madariaga.coleurop.be/ Madariaga European Foundation]
* [http://www.setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/en_GB/infoBios/setimes/resource_centre/bios/solana_javier Shorter biography of Javier Solana]
* [http://afa.at/globalview/052000/solana.html Solana's development of a Common Foreign and Security Policy]
* [http://www.pmo.gov.il/NR/exeres/EE42775C-31E8-469B-A76A-57905CC3348E.htm Solana meets Sharon, July 2004]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/6460925.stm The puzzle of Solana's power]
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