4th millennium BC


4th millennium BC

The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. It marks the beginning of the Bronze Age and of writing.

The city states of Sumer and the kingdom of Egypt are established and grow to prominence. Agriculture spreads widely across Eurasia. World population in the course of the millennium doubles, approximately from 7 to 14 million people.

Events

*Mesopotamia is in the Uruk period, with emerging Sumerian hegemony and development of "proto-cuneiform" writing; base-60 mathematics, astronomy and astrology, civil law, complex hydrology, the sailboat, potter's wheel and wheel; the Chalcolithic proceeds into the Early Bronze Age.
*c. 4000 BC — First neolithic settlers in the island of Thera (Santorini), Greece, migrating probably from Minoan Crete.
*c. 4000 BC — Beaker from Susa (modern Shush, Iran) is made. It is now at Musee du Louvre, Paris.
*c. 4000–2000 BC — People and animals, a detail of rock-shelter painting in Cogul, Lerida, Catalonia, are painted. It is now at Museo Arqueologico, Barcelona.
*Babylonian influence predominant in Mediterranean regions of Asia (to 2000 BC)
*In Colombia, circa 3600 BC, first rupestrian art Chiribiquete (Caquetá).
*3600 BC — Construction of the Ġgantija megalithic temple complex on the Island of Gozo, Malta: the world's oldest extant free-standing structures, and the world's oldest religious structures. (Dubious: see Göbekli Tepe)
*3600–3200 BC — Construction of the first temple within the Mnajdra solar temple complex on Malta, containing "furniture" such as stone benches and tables, that set it apart from other European megalith constructions.
*3600–3000 BC — Construction of the Ta' Ħaġrat and Kordin III temples on Malta.
*c. 3500 BC — Figures of a man and a woman, from Cernavoda, Romania, are made. They are now at National Historical Museum, Bucharest.
*3500–3400 BCJar from Hierakonpolis (today in the Brooklyn Museum) was created.
*3500–2340 BC — First cities developed in Southern Mesopotamia. Inhabitants migrated from north.
* 3372 — First date in Mayan chronology
*3300–2900 BC — Construction of the Newgrange solar observatory/passage tomb in Ireland.
*Ötzi the Iceman dies near the present-day border between Austria and Italy c. 3300 BC, only to be discovered in 1991 buried in a glacier of the Ötztal Alps. His cause of death is believed to be homicide.
*3250–3000 BC — Construction of three megalithic temples at Tarxien, Malta.
*32002500 BC — Construction of the Ħaġar Qim megalithic temple complex on Malta, featuring both solar and lunar alignments.
*c. 3150 BCPredynastic period ended in Ancient Egypt. Early Dynastic (Archaic) period started (according to French Egyptologist Nicolas Grimal. The period include 1st and 2nd Dynasties.
* February 18, 3102 BC — Beginning of the Kali yuga era. Starting date of the Hindu calendar.
* c. 3100 BC — According to the legend, Menes unifies Upper and Lower Egypt, and a new capital is erected at Memphis.
* c. 3100 BC — Narmer Palette
*c. 3100–2600 BCNeolithic settlement at Skara Brae in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, is inhabited.
*3079 BC — Ancient Vietnamese nation of Văn Lang is established by the first Hùng Vương.
*First to Fourth dynasty of Kish in Mesopotamia.
*Discovery of silver.
*The beginnings of Iberian civilizations, arrival to the peninsula dating as far back as 4000 BC.
*c. 3000 BC — First pottery in Colombia at Puerto Hormiga (Magdalena), considered one of the first attempts of pottery of the New World. First settlement at Puerto Badel (Bolivar).
*c. 3150 BC a lesser Tollmann's hypothetical bolide event may have occurred.
*August 11, 3114 — Gregorian calendar reference starting date of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar, used by the ancient Maya civilization.
*Sumerian temple of Janna at Eridu erected.
*Temple at Al-Ubaid and tome of Mes-Kalam-Dug built near Ur, Chaldea.

Cultures

*Europe
*The Trypillian culture has cities with 15,000 citizens 5500–2750 BC.
*Mesopotamia
**Uruk period (protohistoric Sumer) 4100–3100 BC
**Proto-Elamite from 3200 BC
*Neolithic Europe and Western Eurasia
** Crete: Rise of Minoan civilization.
**The Yamna culture (“Kurgan culture”), succeeding the Sredny Stog culture is the locus of the Proto-Indo-Europeans according to the Kurgan hypothesis
**The Pit Grave (“Kurgan culture”), succeeding the Sredny Stog culture is the locus of the Turkic peoples according to the Paleolithic Continuity Theory
**The Maykop culture of the Caucasus, contemporary to the Kurgan culture, is a candidate for the origin of bronze production and thus the Bronze Age.
**Vinca culture
*Indian subcontinent
** Indus & Ganges city states
**Mehrgarh III–VI
*Africa
** Naqada culture on the Nile, 4000–3000 BC. First hieroglyphs appear thus far around 3500 BC as found on labels in a ruler's tomb at Abydos.
**Nok culture, situated at the confluence of the Niger and Benue rivers
*Asia
** Neolithic Chinese settlements. They produced silk and pottery (chiefly the Yangshao and the Lungshan cultures), wore hemp clothing, and domesticated pigs and dogs.
** Vietnamese Bronze Age culture. The Đồng Đậu Culture, 4000-2500 BC, produced many wealthy bronze objects.
*c. 4000 – 3000 BC — Austronesian peoples reach Formosa (Taiwan) having crossed 150KM from China using advanced maritime technology.

Environmental changes

Based on studies by glaciologist Lonnie Thompson (professor at Ohio State University and researcher with the Byrd Polar Research Center) [http://www.news-about-space.org/story/2409.html] a number of indicators shows there was a global change in climate 5,200 years ago:
*The climate was altered suddenly with severe impacts.
*Plants buried in the Quelccaya Ice Cap in the Peruvian Andes demonstrate the climate had shifted suddenly and severely to capture the plants and preserve them until now.
*A man trapped in an Alpine glacier ("Ötzi the Iceman") is frozen until his discovery in 1991.
*Tree rings from Ireland and England show this was their driest period.
*Ice core records showing the ratio of two oxygen isotopes retrieved from the ice fields atop Africa’s Mount Kilimanjaro, a proxy for atmospheric temperature at the time snow fell.
*Major changes in plant pollen uncovered from lakebed cores in South America.
*Record lowest levels of methane retrieved from ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica.
*End of the Neolithic Subpluvial, start of desertification of Sahara (35th century BC). North Africa shifts from a habitable region to a barren desert.
*Disastrous floods in Mesopotamian region.

ignificant persons

* Ötzi the Iceman lived c. 3300 BC.
* Predynastic pharaohs, Tiu, Thesh, Hsekiu, Wazner
* Early Dynastic Period pharaohs, Ro, Serket, Narmer

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

*c. 4000 BCpotter's wheel in Sumer. [Federico Lara Peinado, Universidad Complutense de Madrid: "La Civilización Suemria.". Historia 16, 1999.]
*4000 BC — Susa is a center of pottery production.
*c. 4000 BC — Horses are domesticated in Ukraine.
*3500 BC2340 BC; Sumer: wheeled carts, potter's wheel, White Temple ziggurat, bronze tools and weapons.
*c. 3250 BC — potter's wheel appears in Ancient Near East.
*3500 BC — The Plough is invented in the Near East. [Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.]
*3000 BCTin is in use in Mesopotamia soon after this time. [Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.]
*Beginnings of urbanisation in Mesopotamia in Sumer and Egypt.
*First writings in the cities of Uruk and Susa (cuneiform writings). Hieroglyphs in Egypt.
*Kurgan culture of what is now Southern Russia and Ukraine; possible domesticates the horse.
*Sails used in the Nile.
*Construction in England of the Sweet Track, the World's first known engineered roadway.
*Drainage and sewerage system in India well developed City states.
*Dams, canals, stone sculptures using inclined plane and lever in Sumer.
*Copper was in use, both as tools and weapons.
*Bronze was in use, specifically by the Maykop culture.
*Mastabas, the predecessors of the Egyptian pyramids.
*The earliest phase of the Stonehenge monument (a circular earth bank and ditch) dates to c. 3100 BC.
*The Céide Fields in Ireland, arguably the oldest field system in world, are developed.
*Sumerian writing, done on clay tablets, shows about 2,000 pictographic signs
*White painted pottery in Egypt and southeastern Europe
*Harps and flutes played in Egypt
*Copper alloys used by Egyptians and Sumerians; smelting of gold and silver known.
*Lyres and double clarinets (arghul, mijwiz) played in Egypt
*Earliest known numerals in Egypt
*Linen is produced in the Middle East

Mythology

* Korean mythology: According to Silla scholar Bak Jesang ( _ko. 박제상), the state Hwanguk ( _ko. 桓國) collapsed around 3898 BC.
* The Maya calendar dates the creation of the Earth to August 11 or August 13, 3114 BC (establishing that date as day zero of the Long Count 13.0.0.0.0).
* According to calculations of Aryabhata (6th century), the Hindu Kali Yuga began at midnight (00:00) on 18 February 3102 BC. Consequently, Aryabhata dates the events of the Mahabharata to around 3137 BC.
*7 October 3761 BCEpoch of the Hebrew Calendar (introduced in the 12th century)

Centuries

* 40th century BC
* 39th century BC
* 38th century BC
* 37th century BC
* 36th century BC
* 35th century BC
* 34th century BC
* 33rd century BC
* 32nd century BC
* 31st century BC

External references

* [http://www.news-about-space.org/story/2409.html 3200 BC Climate Change]

References


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