- 4th millennium BC
The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. It marks the beginning of the
Bronze Ageand of writing.
The city states of
Sumerand the kingdom of Egypt are established and grow to prominence. Agriculturespreads widely across Eurasia. World populationin the course of the millennium doubles, approximately from 7 to 14 million people.
Mesopotamiais in the Uruk period, with emerging Sumerian hegemony and development of "proto- cuneiform" writing; base-60 mathematics, astronomyand astrology, civil law, complex hydrology, the sailboat, potter's wheeland wheel; the Chalcolithicproceeds into the Early Bronze Age.
*c. 4000 BC — First neolithic settlers in the island of
Thera( Santorini), Greece, migrating probably from Minoan Crete.
*c. 4000 BC — Beaker from
Susa(modern Shush, Iran) is made. It is now at Musee du Louvre, Paris.
2000 BC— People and animals, a detail of rock-shelter painting in Cogul, Lerida, Catalonia, are painted. It is now at Museo Arqueologico, Barcelona.
*Babylonian influence predominant in Mediterranean regions of Asia (to 2000 BC)
Colombia, circa 3600 BC, first rupestrian art Chiribiquete( Caquetá).
3600 BC— Construction of the Ġgantijamegalithic temple complex on the Island of Gozo, Malta: the world's oldest extant free-standing structures, and the world's oldest religious structures. (Dubious: see Göbekli Tepe)
3200 BC— Construction of the first temple within the Mnajdrasolar temple complex on Malta, containing "furniture" such as stone benches and tables, that set it apart from other European megalith constructions.
3000 BC— Construction of the Ta' Ħaġrat and Kordin III temples on Malta.
3500 BC— Figures of a man and a woman, from Cernavoda, Romania, are made. They are now at National Historical Museum, Bucharest.
3400 BC— Jarfrom Hierakonpolis(today in the Brooklyn Museum) was created.
2340 BC— First cities developed in Southern Mesopotamia. Inhabitants migrated from north.
* 3372 — First date in Mayan chronology
2900 BC— Construction of the Newgrangesolar observatory/passage tomb in Ireland.
Ötzi the Icemandies near the present-day border between Austriaand Italyc. 3300 BC, only to be discovered in 1991buried in a glacierof the Ötztal Alps. His cause of deathis believed to be homicide.
3000 BC— Construction of three megalithic temples at Tarxien, Malta.
2500 BC— Construction of the Ħaġar Qimmegalithic temple complex on Malta, featuring both solar and lunar alignments.
3150 BC— Predynastic period ended in Ancient Egypt. Early Dynastic (Archaic) period started (according to French Egyptologist Nicolas Grimal. The period include 1st and 2nd Dynasties.
February 18, 3102 BC— Beginning of the Kali yugaera. Starting date of the Hindu calendar.
* c. 3100 BC — According to the legend,
Menesunifies Upper and Lower Egypt, and a new capital is erected at Memphis.
* c. 3100 BC —
2600 BC— Neolithicsettlement at Skara Braein the Orkney Islands, Scotland, is inhabited.
3079 BC— Ancient Vietnamese nation of Văn Langis established by the first Hùng Vương.
*First to Fourth dynasty of Kish in
*The beginnings of
Iberiancivilizations, arrival to the peninsula dating as far back as 4000 BC.
*c. 3000 BC — First
potteryin Colombiaat Puerto Hormiga( Magdalena), considered one of the first attempts of pottery of the New World. First settlement at Puerto Badel(Bolivar).
3150 BCa lesser Tollmann's hypothetical bolideevent may have occurred.
*August 11, 3114 —
Gregorian calendarreference starting date of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar, used by the ancient Maya civilization.
*Sumerian temple of Janna at Eridu erected.
Al-Ubaidand tome of Mes-Kalam-Dug built near Ur, Chaldea.
Trypillian culturehas cities with 15,000 citizens 5500–2750 BC.
Uruk period(protohistoric Sumer) 4100–3100 BC
Proto-Elamitefrom 3200 BC
Neolithic Europeand Western Eurasia
Crete: Rise of Minoan civilization.
Yamna culture(“Kurgan culture”), succeeding the Sredny Stog cultureis the locus of the Proto-Indo-Europeansaccording to the Kurgan hypothesis
Pit Grave(“Kurgan culture”), succeeding the Sredny Stog cultureis the locus of the Turkic peoplesaccording to the Paleolithic Continuity Theory
Maykop cultureof the Caucasus, contemporary to the Kurgan culture, is a candidate for the origin of bronzeproduction and thus the Bronze Age.
Indus & Ganges city states
Naqadaculture on the Nile, 4000– 3000 BC. First hieroglyphs appear thus far around 3500 BC as found on labels in a ruler's tomb at Abydos.
Nokculture, situated at the confluenceof the Nigerand Benuerivers
** Neolithic Chinese settlements. They produced silk and pottery (chiefly the Yangshao and the Lungshan cultures), wore hemp clothing, and domesticated pigs and dogs.
** Vietnamese Bronze Age culture. The
Đồng Đậu Culture, 4000- 2500 BC, produced many wealthy bronze objects.
*c. 4000 – 3000 BC — Austronesian peoples reach
Formosa(Taiwan) having crossed 150KM from China using advanced maritime technology.
Based on studies by
glaciologist Lonnie Thompson(professor at Ohio State Universityand researcher with the Byrd Polar Research Center) [http://www.news-about-space.org/story/2409.html] a number of indicators shows there was a global change in climate 5,200 years ago:
*The climate was altered suddenly with severe impacts.
*Plants buried in the
Quelccaya Ice Capin the Peruvian Andes demonstrate the climate had shifted suddenly and severely to capture the plants and preserve them until now.
*A man trapped in an Alpine glacier ("
Ötzi the Iceman") is frozen until his discovery in 1991.
*Tree rings from
Irelandand Englandshow this was their driest period.
*Ice core records showing the ratio of two oxygen isotopes retrieved from the ice fields atop Africa’s
Mount Kilimanjaro, a proxy for atmospheric temperature at the time snow fell.
*Major changes in plant pollen uncovered from lakebed cores in South America.
*Record lowest levels of
methaneretrieved from ice cores from Greenlandand Antarctica.
*End of the
Neolithic Subpluvial, start of desertificationof Sahara( 35th century BC). North Africashifts from a habitable region to a barren desert.
*Disastrous floods in Mesopotamian region.
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
4000 BC— potter's wheelin Sumer. [Federico Lara Peinado, Universidad Complutense de Madrid: "La Civilización Suemria.". Historia 16, 1999.]
*4000 BC —
Susais a center of potteryproduction.
*c. 4000 BC — Horses are domesticated in
3500 BC— 2340 BC; Sumer: wheeled carts, potter's wheel, White Temple ziggurat, bronze tools and weapons.
3250 BC— potter's wheel appears in Ancient Near East.
3500 BC— The Ploughis invented in the Near East. [Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.]
3000 BC— Tinis in use in Mesopotamia soon after this time. [Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.]
urbanisationin Mesopotamiain Sumerand Egypt.
writings in the cities of Urukand Susa(cuneiform writings). Hieroglyphs in Egypt.
Kurgan cultureof what is now Southern Russiaand Ukraine; possible domesticates the horse.
Sails used in the Nile.
Englandof the Sweet Track, the World's first known engineered roadway.
Drainageand sewerage system in Indiawell developed City states.
Dams, canals, stone sculptures using inclined planeand leverin Sumer.
Copperwas in use, both as tools and weapons.
Bronzewas in use, specifically by the Maykop culture.
Mastabas, the predecessors of the Egyptian pyramids.
*The earliest phase of the
Stonehengemonument (a circular earth bank and ditch) dates to c. 3100 BC.
Céide Fieldsin Ireland, arguably the oldest field system in world, are developed.
*Sumerian writing, done on clay tablets, shows about 2,000 pictographic signs
potteryin Egypt and southeastern Europe
Harps and flutes played in Egypt
*Copper alloys used by Egyptians and Sumerians; smelting of gold and silver known.
Lyres and double clarinets ( arghul, mijwiz) played in Egypt
Linenis produced in the Middle East
Korean mythology: According to Sillascholar Bak Jesang( _ko. 박제상), the state Hwanguk( _ko. 桓國) collapsed around 3898 BC.
Maya calendardates the creation of the Earthto August 11or August 13, 3114 BC(establishing that date as day zero of the Long Count 188.8.131.52.0).
* According to calculations of
Aryabhata(6th century), the Hindu Kali Yugabegan at midnight (00:00) on 18 February 3102 BC. Consequently, Aryabhata dates the events of the Mahabharatato around 3137 BC.
7 October 3761 BC— Epoch of the Hebrew Calendar(introduced in the 12th century)
40th century BC
39th century BC
38th century BC
37th century BC
36th century BC
35th century BC
34th century BC
33rd century BC
32nd century BC
31st century BC
* [http://www.news-about-space.org/story/2409.html 3200 BC Climate Change]
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