- 3rd millennium BC
The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle
It represents a period of time in which
imperialism, or the desire to conquer, grew to prominence, in the city states of the Middle East, but also throughout Eurasia, with Indo-European expansion to Anatolia, Europe and Central Asia.(hi)The civilization of Ancient Egypt rises to a peak with the Old Kingdom. World populationis estimated to have doubled in the course of the millennium, to some 30 million people.
The previous millennium had seen the emergence of advanced, urbanized civilizations, new bronze metallurgy extending the productivity of agricultural work, and highly developed ways of communication in the form of
writing. In the 3rd millennium BC, the growth of these riches, both intellectually and physically, became a source of contention on a political stage, and rulers sought the accumulation of more wealth and more power. Along with this came the first appearances of mega architecture, imperialism, organized absolutism and internal revolution.
The civilizations of
Sumerand Akkadin Mesopotamiabecame a collection of volatile city-states in which warfare was common. Uninterrupted conflicts drained all available resources, energies and populations. In this millennium, larger empires succeeded the last, and conquerors grew in stature until the great Sargon of Akkadpushed his empire to the whole of Mesopotamia and beyond. It would not be surpassed in size until Assyrian times 1500 years later.
Old Kingdomof Egypt, the Egyptian pyramidswere constructed and would remain the tallest and largest human constructions for thousands of years. Also in Egypt, pharaohs began to posture themselves as living Gods made of an essence different from that of other humanbeings. Even in Europe, which was still largely neolithicduring the same period of time, the builders of megaliths were constructing giant monuments of their own. In the Near Eastand the Occidentduring the 3rd millennium BC, limits were being pushed by architects and rulers.
Towards the close of the millennium, Egypt became the stage of the first popular revolution recorded in history. After lengthy wars, the Sumerians recognized the benefits of unification into a stable form of national government and became a relatively peaceful, well-organized, complex technocratic state called the
3rd dynasty of Ur. This dynasty was later to become involved with a wave of nomadic invaders known as the Amorites, who were to play a major role in the region during the following centuries.
3000 BC– 2000 BC— Vessels from Denmarkare made. They are now at National Museum, Copenhagen.
Syria: Foundation of the city of Mari ( 29th century BC).
*Semitic tribes occupy Assyria in northern part of the plain of Shinar and Akkad
*Phoenicians settle on Syrian coast, with centers at Tyre and Sidon
*Beginning of the period of the "Sage Kings" in China
*Việt Nam: Rise of the Văn Lang Kingdom by Hùng Vương I
*2815 BC–2294 BC: Old Kingdom of Egypt, 3rd to 6th dynasty
*c. 2800 BC–2700 BC — Harp Player, from
Keros, Cyclades, was made. It is now at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Iran: Creation of the Kingdom of Elam.
*Germination of the
Bristlecone pinetree "Methuselah" about 2700 BC, the oldest known treestill living now.
2600 BC— Founding of the Chalcolithic Iberian civilizations of Los Millaresand Zambujal.
2500 BC— Excavation and development of the Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieniat Paola, Malta, a subterranean templex complex subsequently used as a necropolis.
2492 BCThe Armenian patriarch Haikdefeats the Babylonianking Bel.
*c. 2452 BC —
Three Sovereigns and Five kings, a group of legendary rulers in Ancient China.
*c. 2030–1556 BC —
Xia Dynasty, first Chinese legendary dynasty and government system established [http://www.wellesley.edu/Polisci/wj/China/ancient-history.htm]
2500 BC– 2200 BC— Incised panel "Frying pan", from Syros, Cycladesis made. It is now at National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
*c. 2500 BC–2200 BC — Two figures of women, from the
Cyclades, are made. They are now at Museum of Cycladic Art, Athens.
*Golden age of
Urin Mesopotamia. ( 2474 BC– 2398 BC)
Fourth dynasty of Egypt.
Indus Valley Civilisation( 2600 BC).
Indo-Europeansfirst invade Greece( 23rd century BC).
Megalithic, Corded Ware cultureand the Beaker flourish in Europe.
*Sumerian poetry, lamenting the death of Tammuz, the shepherd god
*Sumerian cuneiform writing reduces pictographs still in use to about 550
*Sumerian chief deities are Mother Goddess Innin and her son Tammuz; similar divinities are worshiped by Egyptians, Hittites, Phoenicians, and Scandinavians
*Major religious festival in Sumeria celebrates victory of god of spring over goddess of chaos
*Earliest Trojan culture
*Glass beads in Egypt
*Beginning of the
Pengtoushan culturein China.
* Major migration of Central Saharans into
West Africapossibly due to climate changestarting in 4th millennium BC.
Djoser, king of Egypt, commissions the Step Pyramidat Saqqara
Gilgamesh, fifth king of the First Dynasty of Uruk, immortalized in the world's first literary work the Epic of Gilgamesh(c. 26th century BC)
* Khufu, king of Egypt, builder of the
Great Pyramid of Giza
Urukagina, king of Lagash, creates the first known judicial code ( 24th century BC)
Lugalsaggizi, king of Urukand Ummaconquers Lagash(2371–2347 BC)
* Sargon the Great, founder of the empire of
Akkadand Sumer(2371–2316 BC middle chronology)
Ur-Nammufounder of the 3rd dynasty of Ur (2112–2095 BC middle chronology)
Three August Ones and Five Emperorsof China
3000 BC— Cycladic culturestarted in Ancient Greece.
*c. 3000 BC —
Minoan cultureappeared on Crete.
*c. 3000 BC —
Helladicperiod started in mainland Ancient Greece.
Elamiteperiod (ca. 2700 BC– 1600 BC).
Corded Ware culture(also Battle-axe culture, or Single Grave culture).
Globular Amphora culture.
Yamna culture, Catacomb culture, likely loci of Indo-European Satemization.
Sintashta-Petrovka-Arkaimculture emerges from the Catacomb culturefrom about 2200 BC, likely locus of Proto-Indo-Iranian.
*c 2500BC Austronesian peoples from Formosa have colonised Luzon in northern Philippines
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
*Pottery develops in
Americas( 30th century BC).
3000 BC— Potter's wheelappears in China.
2900 BC— 2400 BC; Sumeriansinvent phonogram (linguistics).
2300 BC— Metals are used in Northern Europe.
*Chinese record a
*Building of the Great
Pyramidof Giza( 26th century BC).
*Sails used on
ships ( 20th century BC).
ziggurats built in Sumer.
Near Eastcivilizations enter Bronze Agearound 3000 BC.
medicine wheelconstructed in the Americas.
Bronzeand metallurgyintroduced to Ireland.
*Domestication of the
horsewith the coming of Indo-Europeansin central Eurasia.
chariotemerges in Central Asia Indo-Europeansjust before 2000 BC.
*The camel domesticated [cite book|title=Smithsonian Timelines of the Ancient World|first=Chris|last=Scarre|date=1993-09-15|isbn=978-1564583055|pages=176|quote=Both the dromedary (the one-humped camel of Arabia) and the Bactrian camel (the two-humped camel of Central Asia) had been domesticated since before 2000 BC.] [cite book|title=The Camel and the Wheel|first=Richard |last=Bulliet |series=Morningside Book Series |publisher=Columbia University Press |date=1990-05-20 |origyear=1975 |pages=183 |isbn=978-0231072359|quote=As has already been mentioned, this type of utilization [camels pulling wagons] goes back to the earliest known period of two-humped camel domestication in the third millennium B.C.] (though widespread use took until mid-to-late
2nd millennium BC).
*Indoor plumbing and sewage in the
Indus Valley Civilization.
*Sumerian medicine discovers the healing qualities of mineral springs
*Weaving loom known in Europe
*Sumerian numerical system based on multiples of 6 and 12
*Egyptians discover use of papyrus
*Bow and arrow used in warfare
Austronesianpeoples have developed lanteen sail, and the out-rigger as well as extensive development of celestial navigation systems
3000 BC— 2500 BC— Tomb, Newgrange, Ireland, was built.
2750 BC— 1500 BC— Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England, is built.
*Completion of the
Great Pyramid of Giza.
*Completion of first phase of
Stonehengemonument in England.
*Era of Buena Vista pyramid /observatory in
30th century BC
29th century BC
28th century BC
27th century BC
26th century BC
25th century BC
24th century BC
23rd century BC
22nd century BC
21st century BC
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