Anti-Europeanism


Anti-Europeanism

Anti-Europeanism is hostility, opposition or discrimination directed towards the governments, culture or people of Europe.

Anti-Europeanism, which is distinct from Euroscepticism,cite web |url= http://www.hoover.org/publications/digest/3058211.html |title= Anti-Europeanism in America |author= Timothy Garton Ash |format= html |work= Hoover Digest 2003 #2 ( [http://www.nybooks.com/articles/article-preview?article_id=16059 Earlier version] in The New York Review of Books, 13 February 2003) |quote= We have to distinguish between legitimate, informed criticism of the EU or current European attitudes and some deeper, more settled hostility to Europe and Europeans as such… Anti-Europeanism is not symmetrical with anti-Americanism… [which] is a real obsession for entire countries, notably for France, as Jean-François Revel has recently argued. ] refers to rejection of the culture of Europe and Europeanisation, sentiments, opinions and discrimination against European ethnic groups, and criticism of policies of European governments and the European Community.cite web |url= http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,887751,00.html |title= Europe? Frankly, America doesn't give a damn... |author= Todd Gitlin |format= html |work= The Guardian |date= 3 February 2003 |quote= Rumsfeld's disdain is as old as America, an extension of Europe, which in a certain sense founded itself as the anti-Europe. ] cite web |url= http://www.nationalreview.com/europress/boyles200410291315.asp |title= Like, Wow |author= Dennis Boyles |format= html |work= National Review Online |date= 29 October 2004 |quote= As "Libération" reports with some shock, after centuries during which the mere mention of "la France" was 'enough to evoke notions of elegance and refinement' (especially in American trailer parks) suddenly the word 'French' has 'become a dirty word.' ] cite web |url= http://www.economist.com/world/na/displaystory.cfm?story_id=9084422 |title= Anti-Europeanism is a bad response to anti-Americanism |author= Lexington |format= html |work= The Economist |date= 26 April 2007 |quote= ] cite web |url= http://www.commondreams.org/headlines05/0630-23.htm |title= Anti-Europeanism Flourishes on U.S. Right |author= Alan Elsner |format= html |work= Common Dreams NewsCenter (Published on Thursday, June 30, 2005 by Reuters) |quote= On the economic front, the United States has produced consistently higher growth rates and lower unemployment than many nations in Europe. Some U.S. commentators blame the excessive regulations imposed by the European Community. Others say Europeans are plain lazy. "French voters are trying to preserve a 35-hour workweek in a world where Indian engineers are ready to work a 35-hour day," wrote New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman earlier this month. ]

Some aspects of anti-Europeanism, in the United States and elsewhere, are rooted in the history of colonialism and its impact and aftermath in former European colonies.cite web |url= http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CEFDC113EF930A15755C0A967958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all |title= "Everything's Up-to-Date in 1830" |author= Eugen Weber |format= html |work= The New York Times |date= 23 June 1991 review of "The Birth of the Modern: World Society 1815-1830," by Paul Johnson. New York: HarperCollins, 1991 |quote= The age of wars of national liberation, of massacres and countermassacres, of anti-European propaganda and anticolonial rhetoric dawned in Latin America around 1810. There, as in Greece — grave of many illusions — or later in Italy, nationalists depended on foreign aid, or on the incompetence of the power they challenged. ] cite web |url= http://www.helsinki.fi/hum/ibero/xaman/articulos/9701/9701_jup.html |title= "Nationalism and Continentalism in Latin American History" |format= html |author= Jussi Pakkasvirta |date= [http://www.helsinki.fi/hum/ibero/pakkasvirta/ Professor of World Politics,] University of Helsinki - [http://www.helsinki.fi/hum/renvall/english/index.html Renvall Institute] and " [http://www.elnorte.fi/about El Norte - The Finnish Journal of Latin American Studies] " |quote= Continentalist definitions presented a fervent anti-European thinking.” Antenor Orrego: “European traditions in Latin America have been even more destructive for the well-being of the continent than US imperialism. European decadence and vices have to be replaced by 'authentic americanism.'” Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre: “Marxism was a too Eurocentric theory to be applied in Latin American circumstances. ] cite web |url= http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/ipe/gallagher.htm |title= "The Imperialism of Free Trade" |author= John Gallagher and Ronald Robinson |format= html |work= The Economic History Review, Second series, Vol. VI, no. 1 (1953) |publisher= Mount Holyoke College |quote= Foreign loans and predatory bankers by the 1870s had wrecked Egyptian finances and were tearing holes in the Egyptian political fabric. The Anglo-French dual financial control, designed to safeguard the foreign bondholders and to restore Egypt as a good risk, provoked anti-European feeling. ] cite web |url= http://science.jrank.org/pages/10399/Nationalism-in-Africa-Postcolonial-Nationalism-in-Africa.html |title= "Postcolonial Nationalism in Africa" |author= Toyin Falola and Tyler Fleming |format= html |work= Science Encyclopedia, The History of Ideas Vol 4 |quote= African nationalism of the 1950s and 1960s was overtly anticolonial or anti-European. ] cite web |url= http://worldatwar.net/chandelle/v3/v3n1/frcoin.html |title= "COIN: French Counter-Insurgency Aircraft, 1946-1965" |author= Robert Craig Johnson |format= html |work= [http://worldatwar.net/ The World at War] |date= 1998 |quote= Algeria presented France with a set of tactical and political problems as different as the North African terrain differed from that of Indochina. Politically, Algeria was an integral part of the French Republic rather than a colony. Its native Berber and Arab people were technically French citizens. But discrimination was rife, and the European immigrants, the "pieds-noirs," had a stranglehold on local government, owned most of the arable land, and controlled the police. When Arabs and Berbers were belatedly allowed to vote for half of a constituent provincial assembly in 1948 and 1951, blatant fraud gave the "pied-noir" candidates a sweeping victory. The resulting anti-European riots were savagely repressed at a cost of thousands of lives. ] cite web |url= http://www.swahilionline.com/features/articles/mazrui/mazrui7.htm |title= "Between Terrorism and Wars of Liberation" |author= Ali A. Mazrui |format= html |work= [http://www.swahilionline.com/index.html Swahili Online] |date= 1999 |quote= If anti-European and anti-colonial terrorism in Africa had produced good results in the end for Africa, anti-American and anti-Zionist terrorism in the Middle East has not yet found its moment of triumph. Both the Middle East and Africa have been paying a price for the anti-American terrorism. The violent price which the Middle East is paying is obvious, especially in Palestine, Iraq and in neighboring Afghanistan. What is the price which Africa is paying for terrorism against the United States? ]

Some anti-European attitudes are related to political differences. Foreign policy issues, particularly with respect to the 2003 invasion of Iraq from which several European governments withheld their support, prompted criticism from politicians and columnists in the United States,cite web |url= http://www.nysun.com/article/43450 |title= Steyn's New Book Combines Humor, Accuracy, Depth |author= Daniel Pipes |format= html |work= The New York Sun |publisher= Book review of "" |date= 14 November 2006 |quote= ] where some anti-European attitudes also reflect domestic policy concerns about the possible results if European policies were to be adopted there.cite web |url= http://www.fff.org/comment/com0302p.asp |title= Healthcare Socialism |author= Scott McPherson |format= html |work= Future of Freedom Foundation |date= 21 February 2003 |quote= ]

References

ee also

* Anti-German sentiment
* Eurocentrism
* Eurotrash
* Francophobia
* Old Europe
* Pan-Europeanism


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