- Jandarmeria Română
Infobox Law enforcement agency
agencyname = Romanian Gendarmerie
nativename = Jandarmeria Română
patch = Jandarmeria Română.png
patchcaption = Coat of arms of the Romanian Gendarmerie
flagcaption = Battle flag
motto = LEX ET ORDO
mottotranslated = Law and Order
formedyear = 1893
country = Romania
countryabbr = ROU
national = Yes
military = Yes
gendarmerie = Yes
chief1name = General-locotenent
chief1position = Inspector-general
parentagency = Minister of Interior and Administrative Reform
website = ro icon [http://www.jandarmeriaromana.ro Jandarmeria Română]
"Jandarmeria Română" (IPA2|ʒan.dar.me'ri.a ro'mɨ.nə) is the military branch of the two
Romanian policeforces (the civil force being the Romanian Police).
Romanian Gendarmerieis subordinated to the Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform. [http://polis.osce.org/countries/details.php?item_id=40#Country_Profile_Section_172 OSCE entry on National Gendarmerie]
Its duties [ro icon [http://www.jandarmeriaromana.ro/pagini/atributii.html "Atribuţii"] , Romanian Gendarmerie website, accessed on April 14, 2007] include:
* Maintaining and restoring the public order:
** Crowd and
** Policing the mountainous areas [ro icon [http://www.jandarmeriaromana.ro/pagini/atrib_op_montan.html "Structuri montane"] , Romanian Gendarmerie website, accessed on April 14, 2007] and the Black Sea Coast resorts [ro icon [http://www.jandarmeriaromana.ro/pagini/atrib_op_litoral.html "Structuri zona litoralului"] , Romanian Gendarmerie website, accessed on April 14, 2007]
* Pursuing and apprehending the
fugitives and deserters
* Security of sensitive and vital installations, such as:
** Public institutions, ministries and courts
** Embassies and consulates
** International airports (until 2005)
** National museums
** Nuclear power plants
* Security and protection of the secret mail all over the Romanian territory.
General Inspectorate of the Gendarmerie
The General Inspectorate of the Gendarmerie is the central structure of the Romanian Gendarmerie under the command of a General Inspector ("Inspector-general") appointed by the Minister of Interior.ro icon [http://www.jandarmeriaromana.ro/pagini/igj_atrib.html "I.G.J.R. - Atribuţii"] , Romanian Gendarmerie website, accessed on April 14, 2007]
The General Inspector is assisted by 3 deputies. [ro icon [http://www.jandarmeriaromana.ro/pagini/igj_comanda.html "I.G.J.R. - Comandă"] , Romanian Gendarmerie website, accessed on April 14, 2007] The first deputy ("prim-adjunct") is the chief of the Gendarmerie Staff and heads the Operational Planning and Management, Guard and Institutional Protection and the Public Order and Security Directorates. The other two deputies manage the Human Resources and the Military Schools Directorates, and the Logistics, IT and Communication Directorates respectively. [ro icon [http://www.jandarmeriaromana.ro/resurse/documente/Organigrama%20IGJR2007.gif"I.G.J.R. - Organigramă"] , Romanian Gendarmerie website, accessed on April 14, 2007]
The task of the General Inspectorate is to plan, manage, coordinate and control the territorial inspectorates, the Mobile Squads, the Special Intervention Brigade and the military schools. The General Inspectorate of the Gendarmerie also acts as an interface of the organization with the other law enforcement agencies and the Interior Ministry.
The Romanian Gendarmerie is divided in 41 territorial inspectorates, corresponding to each county ("
judeţ"), and the General Directorate of the Gendarmerie in Bucharest.ro icon [http://www.jandarmeriaromana.ro/pagini/structura.html "Organizarea Jandarmeriei"] , Romanian Gendarmerie website, accessed on April 14, 2007]
Additionally, eight Gendarmerie Mobile Groups ("Grupări Mobile") operate on a territorial basis, with headquarters in
Bacău, Braşov, Cluj Napoca, Constanţa, Craiova, Ploieşti, Târgu Mureşand Timişoara.ro icon [http://www.jandarmeriaromana.ro/pagini/atrib_op_mobile.html "Structuri mobile"] , Romanian Gendarmerie website, accessed on April 14, 2007]
pecial Intervention Brigade
The Special Intervention Brigade "Vlad Ţepeş" has national jurisdiction. It handles special and high-risk situations, such as heavy rioting, hostage rescue and counter-terrorist operations.ro icon [http://www.jandarmeriaromana.ro/pagini/atrib_op_antitero.html "Structuri antiteroriste"] , Romanian Gendarmerie website, accessed on April 14, 2007]
Gendarmerie military schools
In addition, the "Mihai Viteazul" Military School in Bucharest offers post-graduate courses (in collaboration with the French Gendarmerie [fr icon [http://www.ambafrance-ro.org/article.php3?id_article=388 "Inauguration de l’Ecole d’application pour les officiers de Gendarmerie "Mihai Viteazul", 13 novembre 2002"] , French Embassy in Romania, accessed on April 16, 2007] ) for commissioned officers, while the "
Grigore Alexandru Ghica" Military School in Drăgăşanitrains non-commissioned officers.
The first Gendarmerie corps was created on
April 3, 1850in Moldaviaby the Prince Grigore Alexandru Ghica. After the Union of Wallachiaand Moldavia in 1859 under Alexandru Ioan Cuza, the Gendarmerie was subordinated to the Ministry of War as a separate armed force.ro icon [http://www.jandarmeriaromana.ro/pagini/istoric.html "Repere istorice"] , Romanian Gendarmerie website, accessed on April 14, 2007]
Romanian War of Independenceof 1877-1878, it mainly served as military police, but it also took part in combat.
In 1893, the Rural Gendarmerie ("Jandarmeria Rurală") was established by the Law for the Organization of the Rural Gendarmerie ("Legea pentru organizarea Jandarmeriei rurale") as a military corps under the authority of the Ministry of Justice for policing the countryside and under the authority of Ministry of War for military police functions. The bill was proposed by
Lascăr Catargiu's Conservative government and it was promulgated by the King on August 30, 1893. The first article of the Ordinance regarding the Implementation of the Rural Gendarmerie Law mentioned that
The organization of the Rural Gendarmerie, as described in the law, makes this institution a military body, subordinated to the Interior Minister, with the mission to maintain the public order and security. It is also subordinated to the Justice Minister, the Public Minister for policing duties, and to the War Minister for all the aspects regarding military discipline, command and troops' training.
The Peasants' Revolt of 1907 revealed the unpreparedness of the Gendarmerie and its inability to control and quell the rebellion. As a result, another bill ("Legea Jandarmeriei") was adopted on March 24, 1908. The new law re-organized the institution, making it a component of the Army with provost duties and transferring commissioned officers from the Army to the Gendarmerie.
The world wars
The Romanian Gendarmerie was engaged during the
Second Balkan Warand the First World War with military police duties, policing the front, guarding important installations and organizing the evacuation during the 1916 retreat. The corps also saw actual combat during the 1917 campaign ("see also Romanian Campaign (World War I)"). The Gendarmerie oversaw the demobilizationof the Army in July 1918 and the re- mobilizationin October 1918 and maintained the public order in the new territories.
Upon the entry of Romania into the Second World War on
June 22, 1941, the Gendarmerie took over its military police duties again. It was also involved in the deportation of Jews and Gypsies to Transnistria in 1941 and 1942 ("see also Romania and the Holocaust").
After the war, the Communist regime purged and disbanded (on
January 23, 1949) the Gendarmerie, its personnel being redistributed to the newly-created Directorate for Security Troops, modeled after the NKVD Internal Troops.
The Romanian Gendarmerie was re-established on
July 5, 1990.
Starting in 2006, the corps abandoned conscription and in 2007 it became an all-professional military force.
List of commanders
The commanders of the Gendarmerie since its establishment in 1893: [ro icon [http://www.jandarmeriaromana.ro/pagini/galeriaCmd.htm "Galeria comandanţilor"] , Romanian Gendarmerie website, accessed on April 14, 2007]
The Romanian Gendarmerie is a full member of the Association of the European and Mediterranean Police Forces and Gendarmeries with Military Status (
FIEP), along with the French Gendarmerie, the Italian Carabinieri, the Spanish Guardia Civil, the Portuguese Guarda Nacional Republicana, the Turkish Gendarmerie, the Moroccan Royal Gendarmerie and the Dutch Royal Marechaussee. [ro icon [http://www.jandarmeriaromana.ro/pagini/ci_coopMulti.html "Cooperare multinaţională" (Multinational Cooperation)] , Romanian Gendarmerie website, accessed on April 14, 2007]
After Romania's accession to the
European Union, "Jandarmeria" seeks to be accepted as permanent observer to the European Gendarmerie Force, as a first step towards full membership. [ro icon [http://www.jandarmeriaromana.ro/pagini/ci_polEuro3.html "Politica europeană - Forţa de Jandarmerie Europeană" (European Policy - European Gendarmerie Force)] , Romanian Gendarmerie website, accessed on March 30, 2007]
Since February 2002, 115 Romanian gendarmes have been deployed in
Peć, Kosovo, as part of the UNMIK police force. [ro icon [http://www.jandarmeriaromana.ro/pagini/ci_misPace2.html "Jandarmeria Română în Kosovo"] , Romanian Gendarmerie website, accessed on April 14, 2007]
* [http://www.jandarmeriaromana.ro Official site]
* [http://www.fiep-asso.org/ro/index.htm Romanian Gendarmerie on the FIEP site]
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