- 49 BC
__NOTOC__Year 49 BC was a year of the pre-Julian calendar.
Consuls: Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus, Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior.
*The Great Roman Civil War commences
January 1— The Roman Senatereceives a proposal from Julius Caesarthat he and Pompeyshould lay down their commands simultaneously. The Senate responds that Caesar must immediately surrender his command.
January 10— Julius Caesarleads his army across the Rubicon, which separates his jurisdiction (Cisalpine Gaul) from that of the Senate (Italy), and thus initiates a civil war. In response, the Roman senateinvokes the " senatus consultum ultimum".
**February — Pompey's flight to Epirus (in Western Greece) with most of the Senate.
March 9— Caesar advances against Pompeian forces in Spain.
April 19— Caesar's siege of Massiliaagainst the Pompeian Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus; the siege was conducted later by Caesarian Gaius Trebonius.
**June — Caesar arrives in
Spain; seizes the Pyreneespasses against the Pompeians L. Afranius and Marcus Petreius.
June 7— Ciceroslips out of Italy and goes to Salonika.
July 30— Caesar surrounds Afranius and Petreius's army in Ilerda.
August 2— Pompeians in Ilerda surrender to Caesar and are granted pardon.
August 24— Caesar's general Gaius Scribonius Curiois defeated in North Africa by the Pompeians under Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia(whom he defeated earlier in the Battle of Utica), in the Battle of the Bagradas River, and commits suicide.
Decimus Brutus, a Caesarian, defeats the combined Pompeian-Massilian naval forces in the naval Battle of Massilia, while the Caesarian fleet in the Adriaticis defeated near Curicta( Krk).
September 6— Massilia surrendered to Caesar, coming back from Spain.
**October — Caesar appointed Dictator in Rome.
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