- Philosophy of information
The philosophy of information (PI) is the area of research that studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of
computer science, information technology, and philosophy.
It includes: [Luciano Floridi, [http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/pci/downloads/introduction.pdf "What is the Philosophy of Information?"] , "Metaphilosophy", 2002, (33), 1/2.]
# the critical investigation of the conceptual nature and basic principles of
information, including its dynamics, utilisation and sciences
# the elaboration and application of information-theoretic and computational methodologies to philosophical problems.
Logic of information
The logic of information, also known as the "logical theory of information", considers the information content of logical signs and expressions along the lines initially developed by
Charles Sanders Peirce.
One source for the philosophy of information can be found in the technical work of
Norbert Wiener, Alan Turing, William Ross Ashby, Claude Shannon, Warren Weaver, and many other scientists working on computing and information theory back in the early 1950s.
Some important work on information and communication was done by
Gregory Batesonand his colleagues.
tudy of language and information
Later contributions to the field were made by
Fred Dretske, Jon Barwise, Brian Cantwell Smith, and others.
The Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI) was founded at Stanford University in 1983 by philosophers, computer scientists, linguists, and psychologists, under the direction of John Perry and
More recently this field has become known as the philosophy of information. The expression was coined in the 1990s by
Luciano Floridi, who has published prolifically in this area with the intention of elaborating a unified and coherent, conceptual frame for the whole subject.
What the word "information" means depends on how it is defined.
Peirce's concept of information serves to integrate the aspects of signs and expressions that are separately covered, on the one hand, by the concepts of denotation and extension, and on the other hand, by the concepts of connotation and comprehension.
Claude E. Shannon, for his part, was very cautious: “The word ‘information’ has been given different meanings by various writers in the general field of information theory. It is likely that at least a number of these will prove sufficiently useful in certain applications to deserve further study and permanent recognition. It is hardly to be expected that a single concept of information would satisfactorily account for the numerous possible applications of this general field.” (Shannon 1993, p. 180). Thus, following Shannon, Weaver supported a tripartite analysis of information in terms of (1) technical problems concerning the quantification of information and dealt with by Shannon's theory; (2) semantic problems relating to meaning and truth; and (3) what he called “influential” problems concerning the impact and effectiveness of information on human behaviour, which he thought had to play an equally important role. And these are only two early examples of the problems raised by any analysis of information.
A map of the main senses in which one may speak of information is provided by [http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/information-semantic/ the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy article] . The previous paragraphs are based on it.
Gregory Batesondefined information as "a difference that makes a difference". [ [http://plato.acadiau.ca/courses/educ/reid/papers/PME25-WS4/SEM.html Extract from "Steps to an Ecology of Mind"] ]
According to Floridi, four kinds of mutually compatible phenomena are commonly referred to as "information":
* Information about something (e.g. a train timetable)
* Information as something (e.g. DNA, or fingerprints)
* Information for something (e.g. algorithms or instructions)
* Information in something (e.g. a pattern or a constraint).
The word "information" is commonly used so metaphorically or so abstractly that the meaning is unclear.
Computing and philosophy
Recent creative advances and efforts in
computing, such as semantic web, ontology engineering, knowledge engineering, and modern artificial intelligenceprovide philosophywith fertile notions, new and evolving subject matters, methodologies, and models for philosophical inquiry. While computer sciencebrings new opportunities and challenges to traditional philosophical studies, and changes the ways philosophers understand foundational concepts in philosophy, further major progress in computer sciencewould only be feasible when philosophy provides sound foundations for areas such as bioinformatics, software engineering, knowledge engineering, and ontologies.
Classical topics in philosophy, namely,
mind, consciousness, experience, reasoning, knowledge, truth, moralityand creativityare rapidly becoming common concerns and foci of investigation in computer science, e.g., in areas such as agent computing, software agents, and intelligent mobile agent technologies.
According to L. Floridi [Luciano Floridi, [http://www.wolfson.ox.ac.uk/~floridi/pdf/oppi.pdf "Open Problems in the Philosophy of Information"] "Metaphilosophy" 35.4, 554-582. Revised version of "The Herbert A. Simon Lecture on Computing and Philosophy" given at Carnegie Mellon University in 2001, with [http://ethics.acusd.edu/video/CAP/CMU2001/Floridi/index.html realvideo] and [http://www.wolfson.ox.ac.uk/~floridi/pdf/opitpi.htm powerpoint presentation] ] one can think of several ways for applying computational methods towards philosophical matters:
# Conceptual experiments in silico: As an innovative extension of an ancient tradition of
thought experiment, a trend has begun in philosophy to apply computational modeling schemes to questions in logic, epistemology, philosophy of science, philosophy of biology, philosophy of mind, and so on.
Pancomputationalism: By this view, computational and informational concepts are considered to be so powerful that given the right Level of abstraction, anything in the world could be modeled and represented as a computational system, and any process could be simulated computationally. Then, however, pancomputationalists have the hard task of providing credible answers to the following two questions:
## how can one avoid blurring all differences among systems?
## what would it mean for the system under investigation not to be an informational system (or a
computationalsystem, if computation = information processing)?
Information and society
Philosophical studies of the social and cultural aspects of electronically mediated information have been carried out by numerous philosophers and other thinkers.
Albert Borgmann, Holding onto Reality: The Nature of Information at the Turn of the Millennium (Chicago University Press, 1999)
*Mark Poster, The Mode of Information (Chicago Press, 1990)
*Luciano Floridi, Informational Nature of Reality, Key Talk selected at the E-CAP conference 2006 (Trondheim, 2006)
International Association for Computing and Philosophy
Logic of information
Philosophy of artificial intelligence
Philosophy of technology
Philosophy of thermal and statistical physics
Relational quantum mechanics
* [http://web.comlab.ox.ac.uk/oucl/research/areas/ieg/ IEG site, the Oxford University research group on the philosophy of information]
* [http://orgs.unt.edu/asis/POI.htm PI website]
Luciano Floridi, "Where are we in the philosophy of information? 21.06.06, University of Bergen, Norway, Podcast"
Luciano Floridi, "What is the Philosophy of Information?", "Metaphilosophy", 33.1/2, 123-145. Reprinted in T.W. Bynum and J.H. Moor (eds.), "CyberPhilosophy: The Intersection of Philosophy and Computing" (Oxford – New York: Blackwell, 2003).
* [http://www.wolfson.ox.ac.uk/~floridi/pdf/htdpi.pdf] G.M. Greco, G. Paronitti, M. Turilli, L. Floridi, "How to Do Philosophy Informationally", "Lecture Notes on Artificial Intelligence", 3782, pp. 623–634, 2005.
* [http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/pci/default.htm] "The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information", edited by
Luciano Floridi(Oxford - New York: Blackwell, 2004).
* [http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/statphys-statmech/ Philosophy of Statistical Mechanics]
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