infobox UK place
country = England
population= 12,581 (2006 est.)cite web |url=http://www.devon.gov.uk/index/democracycommunities/improving_our_services/facts_figures_and_statistics/facts_and_figures/thepeople/peopleestandproj/peoplepopestimates/peoplefhsasouthpar.htm|title=FHSA estimates, South Hams parishes|accessdate=2008-04-30 |work=Devon County Council]
region= South West England
os_grid_reference = SX635560
constituency_westminster= South West Devon
static_image_caption=Fore Street, the centre of Ivybridge.
website= [http://www.ivybridge.gov.uk www.ivybridge.gov.uk]
Ivybridge (pronounced Audio-IPA|En-uk-Ivybridge.ogg|/ˈaɪvibrɪdʒ/) is a small town and
civil parishin the South Hams, in Devon, England. It lies about convert|9|mi|km|1 east of Plymouth. It is at the southern extremity of Dartmoor, a National Park of England and Wales and lies along the A38 "Devon Expressway" road. Ivybridge has a population of over 12,000.
Mentioned in documents as early as the 13th century, Ivybridge's early history is marked by its status as an important crossing-point over the
River Ermeon the Exeter-to- Plymouthroute. In the 16th century mills were built using the River Erme’s power. The parish of Saint John was formed in 1836.cite web |url=http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~valhender/dirtrans/mor1870/ivybridge.htm |title= Ivybridge|accessdate=2008-04-27 |work=Morris and Co.'s Commercial Directory and Gazetteer 1870] Ivybridge became a parish in 1894 and a town in 1977.
The early urbanisation and development of Ivybridge largely coincided with the
Industrial Revolution. When the South Devon Railway Companybuilt its train route through Ivybridge in the 19th century a paper millwas constructed alongside it and this lead to an increase in housing nearby. The paper mill, now French owned, still provides local jobs. Although some people think of Ivybridge as a dormitory town, many people work in the town itself, and agriculturecontinues to play an economic role for Ivybridge. The area surrounding Ivybridge is almost completely farmland. It holds a farmer’s market every month, though most of the sellers come from outside of the immediate area.
When heavy industry diminished during the latter half of the 20th century, the population has boomed (400% in 30 years) to grow as a
dormitory town, supported by its position between Plymouth, Torbayand Exeter, from 1,574 people in 1921 to 12,056 in 2001.cite web |url=http://www.devon.gov.uk/etched?_IXP_=1&_IXR=111879 |title= Census statistics 1801-2001|accessdate=2008-04-26 |work=Devon County Council]
The name Ivybridge is derived from a small 13th-century hump-backed bridge of the same name. It was the only means of crossing the river until 1819. "Ivy" was used to describe the bridge, because there was
ivygrowing on the bridge. As the bridge was the centre of the village and important to its very existence, it was named the "parish of Ivybridge" in 1894. Edmund Barron Hartleywas born in Ivybridge on 6 May, 1847. He was awarded the Victoria Crossin Moirosi's Mountain, Basuto War, 5 June, 1879. [cite web |url=http://www.homeusers.prestel.co.uk/stewart/brookwoo.htm |title= Grave location for holders of the Victoria Cross in: Brookwood cemetery, Woking, Surrey|accessdate=2008-04-26 |work= victoriacross.org.uk]
The first mention of settlement in Ivybridge was the manor of Stowford in the
Domesday Bookof 1086. [cite book|first=Bob|last=Mann|url=http://www.ivybridge-devon.co.uk/books/bob_mann/pdf/Bob_Mann_Ivybridge.pdf|pages=Page 7|chapter=Stowford|title=Ivybridge|accessdate=2008-04-28|isbn=1899073469|publisher=Obelisk Publications|year=1996|format=PDF] Although the first mention of Ivybridge came in 1280 when it was described as "dowry of land on the west side of the River Erme, by the Ivy Bridge."cite web |url=http://www.ivybridge.gov.uk/tourism/past.htm |title=The Past and The Present|accessdate=2008-04-27 |work=Ivybridge Town Council website] There was a chapel, that was on the site of Saint John's church, since 1402. [cite book|last=Hoskins|first=William George|authorlink=W. G. Hoskins|title=Devon|url=http://www.devon.gov.uk/localstudies/110545/1.html|accessdate=2008-06-28|year=1954 |publisher=Phillimore & Company, Limited|isbn=1860772048] From the 16th century onwards mills were built in the town, harnessing the power of the river. Records show that in the 16th century there was a corn mill, a tin mill and an edge mill. One of the mills, 'Glanville's Mill' (a corn mill), was situated where many of the town's shops are today and gives its name to the shopping centre. The first church (Saint John's) was built in 1790 as a chapel of ease, but 45 years later in 1835 it was consecrated as a district church. In 1819 the Ivy Bridge lost its position as the only means of crossing the river when the 'New Bridge' was built joining Fore Street and Exeter Road.
In 1977 Ivybridge became a town and throughout the 1980s and 90s underwent a period of rapid growth, due to the
A38 roadby-pass. Between the censuses in 1981 and 2001 the population more than doubled from 5,106 to 12,056.
Ivybridge is represented by four tiers of elected government. Ivybridge
Town Councilforms the lowest tier of governance whose statutory role is to communicate local opinion to local and central government.cite web |url=http://www.ivybridge.gov.uk/council/ |title=Ivybridge Town Council|accessdate=2008-04-27 |work=Ivybridge Town Council website] Failed verification|date=April 2008 The next tier is the district council — South HamsDistrict Council. They take care of matters such as local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health, markets and fairs, refuse collection and recycling, cemeteries and crematoria, leisure services, parks, and tourism. The next tier is Devon County Council, who take care of much larger matter such as: education, social services, libraries, main roads, public transport, policing and fire service trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning. The Parliament of the United Kingdomis responsible for matters such as education, health and justice.
It is a town and parish divided into three wards: Ivybridge Filham (the east of the town), Ivybridge Central (the central area of the town) and Ivybridge Woodlands (the west of the town). [cite web |url=http://www.devon.gov.uk/ivybridgebaselineprofile.pdf |title= Devon Town Baseline Profile|accessdate=2008-04-26 |work=Devon County Council|format=PDF] The current mayor is Councillor Alan Wright who was appointed in 2007. In 2007 Ivybridge town council won the Aon/NALC (National Association of Local Councils) Council of the Year. [cite web |url=http://www.nalc.gov.uk/Latest_News/Councilaward07.aspx |title=Council of the Year 2007|accessdate=2008-04-27 |work=The NALC] Its town hall is located close to the centre of the town and the previous town hall - Chapel Place is still in existence and located in the centre of the town close to the Ivy Bridge.
Before 1894 Ivybridge was made up of four neighbouring parishes: Harford - convert|2|mi|km north;
Ugborough- convert|2.5|mi|km east; Ermington - convert|2|mi|km south and Cornwood- convert|3|mi|km northwest. [cite book|first=Bob|last=Mann|url=http://www.ivybridge-devon.co.uk/books/bob_mann/pdf/Bob_Mann_Ivybridge.pdf|pages=Page 10|chapter=Ivy Bridge|title=Ivybridge|accessdate=2008-04-30|isbn=1899073469|publisher=Obelisk Publications|year=1996|format=PDF] All the parishes’ boundaries met at the Ivy Bridge. In 1836 the Parish of Saint John was formed (the name of the church at the time, which was named after John the Evangelist). The parish represented the small central area of Ivybridge known at present. In 1894 St John's parish became a parish churchfor the newly created parish of Ivybridge. 83 years later the village and civil parish of Ivybridge became a town in 1977. Its local government districthas been the South Hamssince 1 April, 1974 and its county constituency has been South West Devonsince 1997.
The town forms part of the
county constituencyof South West Devon. Its Member of Parliamentis Gary Streeterrepresenting the Conservative party who hold 44.8% of the votes. The town’s three wards are each used for voting at the local elections and general elections. [cite web |url=http://www.southhams.gov.uk/administration/committee_agendas/council/20Dec07/item12App_SouthWestDevonConstituency.pdf |title=South West Devon constituency schedule|accessdate=2008-04-27 |work= South HamsDistrict Council|format=PDF]
Ivybridge's first official twinning was with
Saint-Pierre-sur-Divesin 1972 before Ivybridge became a town. Since then it has developed unofficial town twinnings (exchanges) and Friendship Treaties. [cite web |url=http://www.burrows.co.uk/ivybridge/index.htm |title=Ivybridge International Links |accessdate=2008-04-27 |work=Ivybridge Town Guide] Shown below is a table of all the towns that Ivybridge holds international links with:
climate chart|Ivybridgecite web |url=http://www.weather.gov.hk/wxinfo/climat/world/eng/europe/uk/plymouth_e.htm |title=Climatological Information for Plymouth, United Kingdom|accessdate=2008-04-27 |work=The Hong Kong Observatory website]
clear=bothAt coordinates coor dms|50|23|28|N|3|55|12|W|city (50.233, -3.551) Ivybridge is situated deep in the south western peninsula of
England, Ivybridge is convert|182|mi|km from London, convert|10|mi|km from Totnesand convert|28|mi|km from Exeter. The main road in and out of the town (the A38) allows fast access to its nearby city Plymouthfor many of Ivybridge’s commuters.
topographyof Ivybridge is generally hilly. This is because of the River Ermewhich flows right through the centre of town. To the east and to the west of the river the land is elevated forming a valley. The river first enters the town at convert|90|m|ft metres above sea level and leaves the town at convert|40|m|ft metres above sea level. At its height the top of the east and west of the valley is convert|80|m|ft metres above sea level. The western beacon is a hill that overlooks the town; its peak can be seen from almost anywhere in the town. It's convert|328|m|ft metres above sea level and convert|278|m|ft metres above the town. There is also an area of woodland called Longtimber woods to the north of the town, which attracts many walkers along its riverside path.
geologyof Ivybridge is varied. Throughout most of the town the rock is Old Red Sandstone(sedimentary) from the .
built environmentin and around Ivybridge is mainly characterised by its suburbanstreets plans and houses, although in the centre of Ivybridge it’s mainly characterised by victorian buildings. From the centre of the town most buildings are terraced and now many of these buildings have been converted into retail outletsalong Fore Street – the town’s central business district. In the middle layer of the town most buildings are semi-detachedand built on quite steep roads. More detached houses are found on the outer layers of the city on the east and on the west of the town. Over the past decades the town has been shaped by its two most essential pieces of infrastructure: the railwayline to the north and the A38 dual carriagewayto the south. No large scaling housing has been built on either side of these boundaries. Due to this Ivybridge has been forced to grow east and west rather than north and south; it stretches approximately convert|1.76|mi|km from east to west and convert|1|mi|km from north to south.
Along with the rest of
South West England, Ivybridge has a temperate climate which is generally wetter and milder than the rest of the British Isles. The annual mean temperature is approximately convert|11|°C|°F|0|lk=on and shows a seasonal and a diurnal variation, but due to the modifying effect of the sea the range is less than in most other parts of the British Isles. February is the coldest month with mean minimum temperatures between convert|3|°C|°F|0 and convert|4|°C|°F|0. July and August are the warmest months with mean daily maxima over convert|19|°C|°F|0. South West Englandhas a favoured location with respect to the Azoreshigh pressure when it extends its influence north-eastwards towards the British Isles, particularly in summer. Coastal areas have average annual sunshine totals over 1,600 hours.
Rainfall tends to be associated with Atlantic depressions or with convection. The Atlantic depressions are more vigorous in autumn and winter and most of the rain which falls in those seasons in the south-west is from this source. Average annual rainfall is around convert|980|mm|in|0. The number of days with snow falling is typically less than ten per winter. November to March have the highest mean wind speeds, with June to August having the lightest winds. The predominant wind direction is from the south-west.cite web | title=About south-west England | work=The
Met Office|url=http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/location/southwestengland/index.html | accessdate=2006-05-28]
Ivybridge’s most recent census indicates that Ivybridge had a population of 12,056. The
United Kingdom Census 2001was carried out by the Office for National Statisticsin England and Wales, on Sunday, 29 April, 2001.cite web |url=http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census/2011Census/default.asp |title= The 2011 Census|accessdate=2008-04-27 |work=The Office for National Statistics] The next census to take place will be on 27 March. To put that figure into comparison with the area surrounding Ivybridge: it accounts for about 15% of the South Hams' total population (83,200) and it accounts for about 1% of Devon’s total population (1,122,100). [cite web |url=http://www.devon.gov.uk/index/democracycommunities/improving_our_services/facts_figures_and_statistics/facts_and_figures/thepeople/peopleestandproj/peoplepopestimates/peoplemyedevonage.htm|title=Mid year (2006) estimates, County of Devon|work=Devon County Council|accessdate=2008-04-30] The town has a median ageof 36, [cite web|url=http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadTableView.do?a=3&b=793707&c=Ivybridge&d=16&e=15&g=437121&i=1001x1003x1004&m=0&r=1&s=1211584064843&enc=1&dsFamilyId=781|title=Parish Profile - People|work=The Office for National Statistics|accessdate=2008-05-23] which is below the national average of 39.9. [cite web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/uk.html#People|title=The World Factbook - United Kingdom, People|work=The CIA|accessdate=2008-05-23]
The ethnicity of Ivybridge is predominately white with 99.4% of the population identifying themselves as white. According to the 2001 census, there were 78 people in Ivybridge who identify themselves as belonging to a black and/or minority ethnic group. This is slightly lower than the local averages of the
South Hams(0.9%) and Devon(1.1%), but much lower than the national average for England(9.1%). [cite web |url=http://www.devon.gov.uk/ivybridgebaselineprofile.pdf |title= Ethnicity|accessdate=2008-04-27 |work=Devon County Council|format=PDF]
Ivybridge's earliest known economy relied on the
River Ermewith a corn mill, tin mill and an edge mill in existence in the town. Later development of the town relied on both the River Ermeand the railway, which was part of the Industrial Revolutionof the United KingdomThe largest employer to the town during the Industrial Revolutionwas Stowford Paper Mill, which lead to population growth in the town. The paper mill is still in use today providing jobs for the town. With the expansion of the town in the late 20th century much of the new jobs are in the service sector of Industry. Due to the A38 Ivybridge's transport to nearby city Plymouthwas made possible as a commuter route. As a result a lot of Ivybridge's work or "economy" is made in Plymouthand nearby towns. Ivybridge does still have some of its own industry with a small inustrial estate at the south of the town and very nearby an industrial estate just to the east at Lee Mill. There have been attempts to brand the town as a walking centre for southern Dartmoor. There is good access to Dartmoor from the town — one route follows the route of the old china clayrailway to Redlake in the heart of the moor. The Two Moors Way, which crosses Dartmoor and Exmoorstarts in Ivybridge and finishes in Lynmouthon the North Devoncoast. The shopping area mainly of Fore Street provides some jobs and services for the town, although a lot of jobs come from much larger centres such as: the Tesco Extra superstore at Lee Mill and from Endsleigh Garden & Leisure. The town has six public houses: The Sportsmans, The Bridge, The Exchange, The Old Smithy, The Duke of Cornwall and The Imperial.
The town's natural landmark is Western Beacon; a hill that overlooks the town. Many people walk up there for the views of Ivybridge and the
South Hams. The town's first manmade landmark is the Ivy Bridge; a 13th century hump-backed bridge covered in Ivy. It is still in use today and gives the name of the town – Ivybridge. The two remaining industrial landmarks of the town are the Viaduct over the River Ermeand the Paper Mill. They were key to the town's initial growth in the Industrial Revolutionand are still importance to the town today. In the centre of the town a war memorial was constructed ,and each year on Remembrance Daythe town holds a ceremony to those who lost their lives. The modern landmark of the town (The Watermark) began construction in 2007 and was completed in March 2008 at a cost of £1.4 million. [cite web |url=http://www.devon.gov.uk/index/democracycommunities/press_ivybridge_opening.htm |title= Customers can scan and go at new Ivybridge Library|accessdate=2008-04-27 |work=Devon County Council] It is a library and resource centre for the town located opposite the town hall.
: Bittaford and Wrangaton.
The first railway station at Ivybridge was not complete when the South Devon Railway was opened, but was brought into use six weeks later on
15 June 1848. The building was situated on the north side of the track, immediately to the west of Ivybridge Viaduct. Passenger trains were withdrawn on 2 March 1965. On 15 July, 1994 a new station was opened on a new site costing £380,000 to the far east of the town. [cite book|first=Bob|last=Mann|url=http://www.ivybridge-devon.co.uk/books/bob_mann/pdf/Bob_Mann_Ivybridge.pdf|pages=Page 3|chapter=Introduction|title=Ivybridge|accessdate=2008-04-28|isbn=1899073469|publisher=Obelisk Publications|year=1996|format=PDF] It is operated by First Great Westernwho run links from Exeterto Cornwall. It also has several trains that go to London Waterloorun by South West Trains.
The town has a bus service (X80) to Plymouth,
Totnesand Torquayrun by first First Devon and Cornwall. Stagecoach operates an hourly route between Plymouth and Paignton, which includes Ivybridge as a primary stop.
The town has six schools: Four state
primary schools, the Dame Hannah Roger's special school, and Ivybridge Community College, the town's secondary state school, which has a sixth form. It has specialist status as a sports college and has recently been given awards in science and mathematics as well as languages. [cite web |url=http://www.ivybridge.devon.sch.uk/aboutus/aboutus.htm |title=About us (Ivybridge Community College)|accessdate=2008-04-27 |work= Ivybridge Community CollegeWeb Site] The school has a very large catchment area which stretches from Shaugh Prioron Dartmoor, to Bigburyon the coast and covers many of the villages in the South Hamssuch as Ugborough, Modburyand Yealmpton. There are no independent schools in Ivybridge, but Dame Hannah Rogers School provides a boarding education for children with disabilities and communication needs. The nearest university is the University of Plymouth. The town also has a youth centre. In 2008 a new library and resource centre called the Watermark was opened, replacing the small library on Keaton Road . There are two notable people from the community college. One being sports teacher Michaela Breezewho won a gold medal weightliftingin the 2002 Commonwealth Gamesfor Walesand won another gold medal in the 2006 Commonwealth Games. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport3/commonwealthgames2002/hi/other_sports/weightlifting/newsid_2164000/2164462.stm|title=Breeze claims medal hat-trick|date=2002-07-31|work=The BBC|accessdate=2008-05-22] [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/commonwealth_games/4822044.stm|date=2006-03-19|title=Breeze lands Welsh lifting gold|work=The BBC|accessdate=2008-05-22] The other being the school's principal - Geoffrey Reeswho was given a CBEat Buckingham Palace, Londonfor his services to education. [cite news|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/uk/2615335.stm|title=CBEs in this year's New Year Honours|date=2002-12-31|work=The BBC|accessdate=2008-05-22]
Ivybridge has six churches. St John's Church (Anglican) is the parish church situated near the Ivy Bridge. Also there is a
Baptist churcha Methodist churchand Ivybridge Congregational Church. On the western outskirts of the town is a Roman Catholicchurch and school — St Austin's Priory. The Salvation Armychurch is held in Chapel Place — the former town hall of Ivybridge. [cite web |url=http://www.ivybridge.gov.uk/community/religion.htm |title= Religion and Spirituality in Ivybridge|accessdate=2008-04-27 |work=Ivybridge Town Council website]
In 2001 78.55% of the population stated that they were
christian, 14.73% stated as no reigion and 6.33% did not state their religion. Furthermore there were a few people stating other religions: 0.07 (9 people) as muslim, 0.07% (8 people) stated as buddhist, 0.05% (6 people) as Jewish, 0.02% (3 people) as hindu, 0 as sikhand 0.17 (21 people) as other religions. [cite web |url=http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadTableView.do?a=3&b=548434&c=Ivybridge&d=14&e=15&g=437121&i=1001x1003x1004&o=1&m=0&r=1&s=1209151711775&enc=1&dsFamilyId=17 |title= Ivybridge Religion dataset|accessdate=2008-04-27 |work=The Office for National Statistics]
Each April the Ivybridge walking and outdoor festival takes place. There are various leisure facilities in the town: the South Dartmoor Leisure Centre features an indoor swimming pool, an outdoor swimming pool, an indoor sports hall, squash courts and gymnasium facilities. The South Devon Tennis Centre has four indoor and four outdoor courts. Next to the South Devon Tennis Centre are the Erme playing fields (Erme Valley) which hold a cricket field (with a practice net) and two football pitches. There is also a
skateparkin the centre of the town and rugby pitches on the eastern outskirts of town at Ivybridge Rugby Football Club, a cricket team, and the Erme Valley Harriers (athletics and road running). The town's football team, called Ivybridge Town F.C., was founded in 1925 and play at region level in the South West Peninsula League. [cite web |url=http://www.ivybridgefc.com/new/aboutus.htm |title= Club History Ivybridge|accessdate=2008-04-27 |work= Ivybridge Town F.C.Official Website]
South West Watersupply the town with water and sewage services. South HamsDistrict Council is responsible for waste management. The town's Distribution Network Operator is Western Power Distribution. Currently the town along with the rest of Devon relies on electricity generated further north from the national grid, although Langage Power Stationin Plymptonis due to start generating electricity for the town as early as December 2008. [cite web |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/devon/5085972.stm |title= Power plant gets go-ahead at last|accessdate=2008-04-26 |work=The BBC] The town has two health centres: Ivybridge Health Centre and Highlands health centre, both located near the centre of the town. [cite web |url=http://www.ivybridge.gov.uk/community/doctors.htm |title= Doctors serving people in Ivybridge|accessdate=2008-04-26|work=Ivybridge Town Council website] It also has three dentist surgeries: Victoria House Dental Surgery, M L Brown and Highland Street Dental Practice. [cite web |url=http://www.ivybridge.gov.uk/community/dentists.htm |title= Dentists serving people in Ivybridge|accessdate=2008-04-26 |work=Ivybridge Town Council website] Ivybridge is served by PlymouthHospitals NHS Trustand the nearest hospital is Derriford Hospitalin Plymouth. South Western Ambulance Service NHS Trust operates in Ivybridge and the rest of the south west; its headquarters are in Exeter. Devon and Cornwall Constabularyserve the town's policing matters and there is a small police station in the centre of the town. Ivybridge has one retained fire station (number 53) on the southern outskirts of town, which is in the west division of Devonas part of Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service. It has a Water Tender Ladder, Prime Mover, Environmental Pod and an Incident Support Unit. The fire station used to be closer to the centre of the town. There is also a youth centre in the centre of the town which has just recently been was opened in 2007.
*List of civil parishes in Devon
*List of schools in the South West of England
United Kingdom Census 2001
* [http://www.ivybridge.gov.uk www.ivybridge.gov.uk] , the website of Ivybridge Town Council.
* [http://www.ivybridge.devon.sch.uk www.ivybridge.devon.sch.uk] , Ivybridge Community College.
* [http://www.ivybridge-devon.co.uk www.ivybridge-devon.co.uk] , Ivybridge community and visitor resource.
* [http://www.stjohnsivybridge.btik.com www.stjohnsivybridge.btik.com] , St. John the Evangelist anglican church website.
* [http://www.burrows.co.uk/ivybridge/Images/11A.pdf www.burrows.co.uk/ivybridge/Images/11A.pdf] , detailed map of Ivybridge.
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