Zino's Petrel


Zino's Petrel

Taxobox
name = Zino's Petrel
status = EN | status_system = IUCN3.1
trend = up
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Aves
ordo = Procellariiformes
familia = Procellariidae
genus = "Pterodroma"
species = "P. madeira"
binomial = "Pterodroma madeira"
binomial_authority = Mathews, 1934
synonyms ="Pterodroma mollis madeira"

Zino's Petrel ("Pterodroma madeira") is a small seabird in the gadfly petrel genus. It has also been called "Madeira Petrel", but this name invites confusion with Madeira Storm Petrel and is best avoided. Zino's Petrel was previously considered to be a subspecies of Soft-plumaged Petrel "P. mollis", but they are actually not closely related at all. However, "P. madeira" is very closely related to Fea's Petrel, another species recently split from "P. mollis". They are estimated to have diverged at the end of the Early Pleistocene, 850.000 years ago (Sangster "et al.", 2002). Given the uncertainties of molecular dating in Procellariiformes (Rheindt & Austin, 2005), this must be considered very tentative however.

It breeds in the north Atlantic in the mountains of the main island of Madeira. This endangered species nests in colonies in burrows. Fewer than 80 breeding pairs (2005 census) are left, estimate total of 400 birds.

This seabird is strictly nocturnal at the breeding sites to avoid predation by gulls. Like most petrels, its walking ability is limited to a short shuffle to the burrow.

This long-winged petrel has a grey back and wings, with a dark "W" marking across the wings. The undersides of the wings are dark and the belly is white. It has a fast impetuous flight. It picks planktonic food items from the ocean surface.

This species is 32–34 cm in length with an 80–86 cm wingspan and weighs 200-230 grams. It is very similar to the Fea's Petrel, but is smaller and has a thinner black bill.

It is named after the Paul Alexander Zino, who was instrumental in its conservation during the latter half of the twentieth century.

References

* Database entry includes justification for why this species is endangered

* Rheindt, F. E. & Austin, J., (2005): Major analytical and conceptual shortcomings in a recent taxonomic revision of the Procellariiformes - A reply to Penhallurick and Wink (2004). "Emu" 105(2): 181-186. [http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_id=MU04039.pdf PDF fulltext]

* Sangster, George; Knox, Alan G.; Helbig, Andreas J. & Parkin, David T. (2002): Taxonomic recommendations for European birds. "Ibis" 144(1): 153–159. DOI|10.1046/j.0019-1019.2001.00026.x [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1046/j.0019-1019.2001.00026.x PDF fulltext]

External links

* [http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html?action=SpcHTMDetails.asp&sid=3906&m=0 BirdLife Species Factsheet]
* Madeira Birds: [http://www.madeirabirds.com/zinospetrel Zino's Petrel]


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