Enneads


Enneads

"The Six Enneads", sometimes abbreviated to "The Enneads" or "Enneads", is the collection of writings of Plotinus, edited and compiled by his student Porphyry (c. 270 AD). Plotinus was a student of Ammonius Saccas and they were founders of Neoplatonism. His work, through Augustine of Hippo, and therefore subsequent Christian and Muslim thinkers, has greatly influenced Western and Near-Eastern thought.

Organization and content

Porphyry edited the writings of Plotinus in fifty-four treatises, which greatly vary in length and number of chapters, mostly because he split some original texts and joined others together to match this very number. Then he proceeded to set the fifty-four treatises in groups of nine (Greek. "ennea") or "Enneads". He also collected "The Enneads" into three volumes. The first volume contained the three firsts "Enneads" (I, III, III); the second the "Fourth" (IV) and the "Fifth" (V) "Enneads"; and the remaining volume was devoted to the "Sixth" (VI) and last. After correcting and naming each treatise, Porphyry wrote a biography of his master, "Life of Plotinus", intended to be an Introduction to the "Enneads".

Porphyry's edition does not follow the chronological order in which "Enneads" were written (see "Chronological Listing" below), but responds to a plan of study which leads the learner from subjects related to his own affairs to subjects concerning the uttermost principles of universe.

Although not exclusively, Porphyry tells us (Cf. "Life of Plotinus", chapters.24-26) that the "First Ennead" deals with Human or ethical topics; the "Second and Third Enneads " are mostly devoted to cosmological subjects or physical reality; The "Fourth" concerns about Soul; the "Fifth" to knowledge and intelligible reality; and finally the "Sixth" has for topics Being and what is above it, the One or first principle of all.

How to quote and refer to "The Enneads"

Since the publishing of modern critical edition of the Greek text by P. Henry and H.-R. Schwyzer ("Plotini Opera". 3 volumes. Paris-Bruxelles, 1951-1973) and the revised one ("Plotini Opera". 3 volumes. Oxford: Claredon Press, 1964-1984) there is the academic use to quote "Enneads" in such a way we first mention the number of "Ennead" (usually in Romans from I to VI), the number of treatise within each "Ennead" (in arabics from 1 to 9), the number of chapter (in arabics also), and the line(s) in one of the mentioned editions. These numbers are divided by dots, by commas or blank spaces (there is no absolute consensus about this).

E.g. For "Fourth Ennead" (IV), treatise number seven (7), chapter two (2), lines one to five (1-5), we write:

* IV.7.2.1-5

E.g. The following three mean "Third Ennead" (III), treatise number five (5), chapter nine (9), line eight (8):

* III, 5, 9,8
* 3,5,9,8
* III 5 9 8

It is important to remark that some translations or editions do not include the line numbers according to P. Henry and H.-R. Schwyzer’s. In addition to this, there is the use to indicate the chronological order of the treatises between brackets or parentheses.

E.g. For the previously given:

* IV.7 (2).2.1-5 since treatise IV.7 was the second written by Plotinus.
* III, 5 [50] , 9,8 since IV.7 was the fiftieth written by Plotinus.

Table of contents

The names of treatises may differ according to translation.

The "First Ennead"

* I.1 [53] - "What is the Living Being and What is Man?"
* I.2 [19] - "On Virtue"
* I.3 [20] - "On Dialectic [The Upward Way] ."
* I.4 [46] - "On True Happiness (Well Being)"
* I.5 [36] - "On Whether Happiness (Well Being) Increases with Time."
* I.6 [1] - "On Beauty"
* I.7 [54] - "On the Primal Good and Secondary Forms of Good [Otherwise, 'On Happiness'] "
* I.8 [51] - "On the Nature and Source of Evil"
* I.9 [16] - "On Dismissal"

The "Second Ennead"

* II.1 [40] - "On Heaven"
* II.2 [14] - "On the Movement of Heaven"
* II.3 [52] - "Whether the Stars are Causes"
* II.4 [12] - "On Matter"
* II.5 [25] - "On Potentiality and Actuality."
* II.6 [17] - "On Quality or on Substance"
* II.7 [37] - "On Complete Transfusion"
* II.8 [35] - "On Sight or on how Distant Objects Appear Small."
* II.9 [33] - "Against Those That Affirm The Creator of the Kosmos and The Kosmos Itself to be Evil: [Generally Quoted as "Against the Gnostics"] .

The "Third Ennead"

* III.1 [3] - "On Fate"
* III.2 [47] - "On Providence (1)."
* III.3 [48] - "On Providence (2)."
* III.4 [15] - "On our Allotted Guardian Spirit"
* III.5 [50] - "On Love"
* III.6 [26] - "On the Impassivity of the Unembodied"
* III.7 [45] - "On Eternity and Time"
* III.8 [30] - "On Nature, Contemplation and the One"
* III.9 [13] - "Detached Considerations"

The "Fourth Ennead"

* IV.1 [21] - "On the Essence of the Soul (2)"
* IV.2 [4] - "On the Essence of the Soul (1)"
* IV.3 [27] - "On Problems of the Soul (1)"
* IV.4 [28] - "On Problems of the Soul (2)"
* IV.5 [29] - "On Problems of the Soul (3)” [Also known as, "On Sight"] .
* IV.6 [41] - "On Sense-Perception and Memory"
* IV.7 [2] - "On the Immortality of the Soul"
* IV.8 [6] - "On the Soul's Descent into Body"
* IV.9 [8] - "Are All Souls One"

The "Fifth Ennead"

* V.1 [10] - "On the Three Primary Hypostases"
* V.2 [11] - "On the Origin and Order of the Beings following after the First"
* V.3 [49] - "On the Knowing Hypostases and That Which is Beyond"
* V.4 [7] - "How That Which is After the First comes from the First, and on the One."
* V.5 [32] - "That the Intellectual Beings are not Outside the Intellect, and on the Good"
* V.6 [24] - "On the Fact that That Which is Beyond Being Does not Think, and on What is the Primary and the Secondary Thinking Principle"
* V.7 [18] - "On whether There are Ideas of Particular Beings"
* V.8 [31] - "On the Intelligible Beauty."
* V.9 [5] - "On Intellect, the Forms, and Being"

The "Sixth Ennead"

* VI.1 [42] - "On the Kinds of Being (1)"
* VI.2 [43] - "On the Kinds of Being (2)"
* VI.3 [44] - "On the Kinds of Being (3)"
* VI.4 [22] - "On the Presence of Being, One and the Same, Everywhere as a Whole (1)"
* VI.5 [23] - "On the Presence of Being, One and the Same, Everywhere as a Whole (2)"
* VI.6 [34] - "On Numbers"
* VI.7 [38] - "How the Multiplicity of Forms Came Into Being: and on the Good"
* VI.8 [39] - "On Free Will and the Will of the One"
* VI.9 [9] - "On the Good, or the One"

Note on the "Plotiniana Arabica" or "Arabic Plotinus"

After the fall of Western Roman Empire and during the period of the Byzantine Empire, the authorship of some Plotinus' texts became clouded.Many pasages of "Enneads" IV-VI, now known as "Plotiniana Arabica", circulated among Islamic scholars (as Al-Kindi, Al-Farabi and Avicenna) under the name "The Theology of Aristotle" or quoted as "Sayings of an old [wise] man".The writings had a significant effect on Islamic philosophy, due to Islamic interest in Aristotle. A Latin version of the so called "Theology" appeared in Europe in 1519. (Cf. O'MEARA, "An Introduction the Enneads". Oxford: 1995, 111ff.)

Some editions, translations and tools

Contemporary scholars refer to the Plotinus' critical editions made by

* HENRY, P. and SCHWYZER, H.-R. "Plotini Opera". ("Editio maior" in 3 vols. including English translation of "Plotiniana Arabiga" or "The Theology of Aristotle") Bruxelles and Paris: Museum Lessianum, 1964-1973.
* HENRY, P. and SCHWYZER, H.-R. "Plotini Opera". ("Editio minor" in 3 vols.) Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964-1982.

Useful tools for the study of the "Enneads" are

* SLEEMAN, J.-H and POLLET, G. "Lexikon Plotinianum". Leyden: Brill, 1980.
* DUFOUR, R. "Plotinus. A Bibliography: 1950-2000". Leyden: Brill, 2002.
* RADICE. R. and BOMBACIGNO, R. "Lexicon II: Plotinus". (Includes a CD containing the entire Greek text) Milan: Biblia, 2004.

English

* ARMSTRONG, A.H. "Plotinus". (7 vols. including Greek text of HENRY, P. and SCHWYZER a fronte) Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1966-1988.
* ATKINSON, M. "Plotinus' Ennead V.1: On the Three Principal Hypostases" Oxford: OUP, 1983.
* BUSSANICH. J. "The One and its Relation to Intellect" (Translation and comentary of selected treatises). Leiden: Brill, 1988.
* FLEET, B. "III.6" Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.

French

* Émile Bréhier. "Ennéades" (7 vols. including edition of Greek text on facing pages) Paris: Collection Budé, 1960-63 (3rd ed.)
* HADOT, P. "Plotin, Traité 38" (VI.7). Paris: Cerf, 1988.
* HADOT, P. "Plotin, Traité 50" (II.5). Paris: Cerf, 1990.
* LEROUX, G. "Traité sur la liberté et la volonté de l'Un. [VI.8(39)] " Paris: Vrin, 1990.
* NARBONE, J.-M. "II.5(25)" Paris: Cerf, 1998.
* O'MEARA, D. "I.8(51)" Paris: Cerf, 1999.
* HAM, B. "V.3 (49)" Paris: Cerf, 2000.
* BRISSON.L, PRADEAU, J.-F.(Dir.) "Plotin. Traites". Paris: GF-FlamMarion, 2002-2003 (2 vols. of this translation of the treatises following the chronological order had appeared: the first containing treatises 1 to 6, the second, 7-21, cf. supra. "Table of Contents" and infra. "Chronological Listing")

panish

* IGAL, J. Plotino "Enéadas" (3 vols.) Madrid: Gredos, 1982-1998.

Italian

* CILENTO, V. "Plotino, Enneadi" (3 vols.) Bari: 1947-1949.
* RADICE. R. "Plotino, Enneadi" (2 vols.) Milan: Biblia, 2002-2003.

German

* HARDER, R., BEUTLER, R., THEILER, W. (Eds.) "Plotins Scriften".(12 Vols.) Hambourg: 1956-1971

External links

* [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/jod/texts/plotinus "The Six Enneads"] (complete Mackenna and Page translation) in monospaced text.
* [http://www.ccel.org/ccel/plotinus/enneads.html "The Six Enneads"] (complete Mackenna and Page translation) in PDF, HTML, Microsoft Word, Plain Text, Theological Markup Language (XML), and 'Palm Doc' versions.
* [http://classics.mit.edu/Plotinus/enneads.html "The Six Enneads"] Mackenna and Page translation divided into six sections in HTML.
*"The Enneads", [http://plotin.lotophages.org Greek text] page scans of Kirchhoff's edition.
* [http://www.iep.utm.edu/p/plotinus.htm "The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Plotinus"]
* [http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/plotinus/ "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Plotinus"]
* [http://rdufour.free.fr/BibPlotin/ "Plotinian Bibliography 2001- "] by Richard Dufour (French and English versions), continues his research presented in "Plotinus: a Bibliography 1950-2000", referred above.
* [http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/jsuebersax/enneads.htm "Links to Enneads, treatises, and chapters"] in English, Greek, and French for quick reference.
* [http://www.hs-augsburg.de/~Harsch/graeca/Chronologia/S_post03/Plotinos/plo_enn0.html Ἐννεάδες] The Henry and Schwyzer 1951 edition at Bibliotheca Augustiana.

Plotinus' writings: Chronological listing

According to the fourth chapter of Porphyry's "Life of Plotinus", preserving the titles he assigned them and the corresponding treatise number in the "Enneads".

* I.6 [1] - "On Beauty"
* IV.7 [2] - "On the Immortality of the Soul"
* III.1 [3] - "On Fate"
* IV.2 [4] - "On the Essence of the Soul (1)"
* V.9 [5] - "On Intellect, the Forms, and Being"
* IV.8 [6] - "On the Soul's Descent into Body"
* V.4 [7] - "How That Which is After the First comes from the First, and on the One."
* IV.9 [8] - "If All Souls One"
* VI.9 [9] - "On the Good, or the One"
* V.1 [10] - "On the Three Primary Hypostases"
* V.2 [11] - "On the Origin and Order of the Beings following after the First"
* II.4 [12] - "On Matter"
* III.9 [13] - "Detached Considerations"
* II.2 [14] - "On the Movement of Heaven"
* III.4 [15] - "On our Allotted Guardian Spirit"
* I.9 [16] - "On Dismissal"
* II.6 [17] - "On Quality or on Substance"
* V.7 [18] - "On whether There are Ideas of Particular Beings"
* I.2 [19] - "On Virtue"
* I.3 [20] - "On Dialectic [The Upward Way] ."
* IV.1 [21] - "On the Essence of the Soul (2)"
* VI.4 [22] - "On the Presence of Being, One and the Same, Everywhere as a Whole (1)"
* VI.5 [23] - "On the Presence of Being, One and the Same, Everywhere as a Whole (2)"
* V.6 [24] - "On the Fact that That Which is Beyond Being Does not Think, and on What is the Primary and the Secondary Thinking Principle"
* II.5 [25] - "On Potentiality and Actuality."
* III.6 [26] - "On the Impassivity of the Unembodied"
* IV.3 [27] - "On Problems of the Soul (1)"
* IV.4 [28] - "On Problems of the Soul (2)"
* IV.5 [29] - "On Problems of the Soul (3)” [Also known as, "On Sight"] .
* III.8 [30] - "On Nature, Contemplation and the One"
* V.8 [31] - "On the Intelligible Beauty"
* V.5 [32] - "That the Intellectual Beings are not Outside the Intellect, and on the Good"
* II.9 [33] - "Against Those That Affirm The Creator of the Kosmos and The Kosmos Itself to be Evil: [Generally Quoted as "Against the Gnostics"] .
* VI.6 [34] - "On Numbers"
* II.8 [35] - "On Sight or on how Distant Objects Appear Small."
* I.5 [36] - "On Whether Happiness (Well Being) Increases with Time."
* II.7 [37] - "On Complete Transfusion"
* VI.7 [38] - "How the Multiplicity of Forms Came Into Being: and on the Good"
* VI.8 [39] - "On Free Will and the Will of the One"
* II.1 [40] - "On Heaven"
* IV.6 [41] - "On Sense-Perception and Memory"
* VI.1 [42] - "On the Kinds of Being (1)"
* VI.2 [43] - "On the Kinds of Being (2)"
* VI.3 [44] - "On the Kinds of Being (3)"
* III.7 [45] - "On Eternity and Time"
* I.4 [46] - "On True Happiness (Well Being)"
* III.2 [47] - "On Providence (1)"
* III.3 [48] - "On Providence (2)"
* V.3 [49] - "On the Knowing Hypostases and That Which is Beyond"
* III.5 [50] - "On Love"
* I.8 [51] - "On the Nature and Source of Evil"
* II.3 [52] - "Whether the Stars are Causes"
* I.1 [53] - "What is the Living Being and What is Man?"
* I.7 [54] - "On the Primal Good and Secondary Forms of Good [Otherwise, 'On Happiness'] "


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • enneads — n. number 9; group of twelve persons or things; group or set of nine …   English contemporary dictionary

  • The Enneads — Ennead En ne*ad, n. [Gr. ?, ?, fr. enne a nine.] The number nine or a group of nine. [1913 Webster] {The Enneads}, the title given to the works of the philosopher Plotinus, published by his pupil Porphyry; so called because each of the six books… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Plotinus — Infobox Philosopher region = Western Philosophy era = Ancient philosophy color = #B0C4DE image size = 200px image caption = Plotinus name = Plotinus birth = 204, Lycopolis death = 270, Campania school tradition = Neoplatonism main interests =… …   Wikipedia

  • Demiurge — Part of a series on God General conceptions …   Wikipedia

  • Neoplatonism — Part of a series on Neoplatonism …   Wikipedia

  • Gnosticism — This article is part of a series on Gnosticism History of Gnosticism …   Wikipedia

  • Neoplatonism and Gnosticism — Part of a series on …   Wikipedia

  • Plotinus — /ploh tuy neuhs/, n. A.D. 205? 270?, Roman philosopher, born in Egypt. * * * born AD 205, Lyco, or Lycopolis, Egypt? died 270, Campania Egyptian Roman philosopher. At age 27 he traveled to Alexandria, where he studied philosophy for 11 years. In… …   Universalium

  • Neo-Platonism — Eyjólfur K.Emilsson GENERAL INTRODUCTION Neo Platonism is usually defined as the philosophy of Plotinus, who lived in the third century AD, and his followers in the pagan Graeco Roman world in late antiquity. The most significant philosophers… …   History of philosophy

  • Plotinos — Plotin Plotin (griechisch Πλωτίνος oder Πλωτῖνος/Plōtinos, * um 205 in Lykonpolis (heute Assiut) in Ägypten; † um 270 in Minturnae, Kampanien) war ein griechischer Philosoph; er gilt als der Hauptvertreter des Neuplatonismus …   Deutsch Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.