- Fokker F28
name =Fokker F28
caption =F28 from the Argentina Air Force
first flight =
May 9, 1967
March 28 1969with Braathens
status = Active service
primary user =
Merpati Nusantara Airlines(23)
more users =
AirQuarius Aviation(10) Libyan Arab Airlines(5) Gatari Air Service(5) Icaro Air(5)
produced = 1967-1987
number built =241
unit cost =
developed from =
variants with their own articles =
Fokker 70 Fokker 100
Design and development
Announced by Fokker in April
1962, production was a collaboration between a number of European companies, namely Fokker, MBB of Germany, Fokker-VFW (also of Germany), and Short Brothersof United Kingdom. There was also government money invested in the project, with the Dutch government providing 50% of Fokker's stake and the German government having 60% of the 35% German stake.
Projected at first to transport 50 passengers to 1,650 km, the plane was later designed to have 60-65 seats. On the design sheet, the F28 was originally to mount Bristol Siddeley BS.75 turbofans, but the prototype flew with the lighter Rolls-Royce "Spey Junior", a simplified version of the Rolls-Royce Spey.
The F28 was similar in design to the
BAC 1-11and DC-9, as it had a T-tailand the engines on the back of the fuselage. The plane had, although slightly, wings with crescent angle of sweep with ailerons at the tip, simple flapsand five sections (external and internal) spoilers. The leading edgewas fix and its deicing bootwas realized with hot water. The tail cone could split and be hydraulically opened to the sides to act as a variable air brake. It had a retractable tricycle landing gear.
In terms of responsibility for production, Fokker designed and built the nose section, centre fuselage and inner wing; MBB/Fokker-VFW constructed the forward
fuselage, rear fuselage and tail assembly; and Shorts designed and built the outer wings.
Final assembly of the Fokker F28 was at
Schiphol Airportin Netherlands.
The F28-1000 prototype, registered PH-JHG, first flew on
May 9 1967(exactly one month later than the famous Boeing 737. German certification was achieved on February 24, 1969. The first order was from German airline LTU, but the first revenue-earning flight was by Braathenson March 28 1969who operated five F28s. The aircraft layout, with t-tail and two Rolls-Royce Spey 550 engines mounted on the rear fuselage made it similar to its contemporaries, the BAC 1-11and DC-9.
The F28 with an extended fuselage was named F28-2000, which could seat up to 79 passengers instead of the 65 seats on the F28-1000. The prototype for this model was a converted F28-1000 prototype, and first flew on
April 28, 1971. The models F28-6000 and F28-5000 were modified F28-2000 and F28-1000 respectively, with the inclusion of slats, with a larger wingspan, more powerful and silent engines as the main features. The F28-6000 and F28-5000 were not a commercial success; only two F28-6000 and no F28-5000 were built. After being used by Fokker for a time the F28-6000 were sold to Air Mauritanie, but not before they were converted to F28-2000s.
The most successful F28 was the F28-4000, which debuted on
October 20, 1976with the world's largest Fokker operator, Linjeflyg. This version was powered by quieter Spey 555-15H engines, and had an increased seating capacity (up to 85 passengers), a larger wingspan with reinforced wings, a new cockpit and a new interior. The F28-3000, the runner-up for the F28-1000, featured the same improvements as the F28-4000.
By the time production ended in
1987, 241 airframes were built.
"Data from" cite web |url=http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/libro?codigo=237370|title=Reactores Comerciales (1999a) (en: Comercial Jetliners) ISBN 84-95088-87-8 |work=Antonio López Ortega |publisher=Agualarga Editores S.l. |accessdate=2008-09-26 |language=Spanish]
* F.28 Mk 1000 - First variant derived from the third prototype, with a maximum capacity of 65 passengers in a high-density configuration. Dash-1000 has a length of 27.40 m. It was powered by two Rolls-Royce RB.183-2 Mk.555-15 with 4,468 kg of unitary thrust. Maximum weight at take-off is of 28,123 kg.
* F.28 Mk 1000C - All-cargo, passenger/cargo version derived from Dash-1000 with a cargo door at Port side.
* F.28 Mk 2000 - It first flew on April 28, 1971, being certified on August 30, 1972. This varian has a fuselage 2.21 m longer than Dash-1000, with a passenger capacity of 79 in high-density configuration in a single class. It began revenue service with
Nigeria Airwaysin October 1972. Ten frames were built.
* F.28 Mk 3000 - With the shorten fuselage of Dash-1000, it was one the more successful variants. Greater structural strength and increased fuel capacity. It began revenue service with
* F.28 Mk 4000 - The first prototype appeared on October 20, 1976 and had the longer fuselage of Dash-2000 with a passenger capacity of 85. Wingspan increased by 1.57 m and more powerful Rolls-Royce RB183 "Spey" Mk555-15P of 4,491 kg of unitary thrust. It began service with Lynjeflygh (Sweden) at the end of 1976.
* F.28 Mk 5000 - Derived from the Dash-6000, was to combine the shorten fuselage of Dash-3000 and an increased wingspan.
Slatswere to be added to the wings' border of attackand more powerful Rolls-Royce "Spey" Mk555-15H engines were to be used. Besides being an excellent plane to operate in short runways due to its superior power, it was finally not built and the proyect was abandoned.
* F.28 Mk 6000 - It first flew on September 27, 1973 and had the longer fuselage of Dash-2000/4000 with an increased wingspan. It was certified on October 1975
* F.28 Mk 6600 - Proposed version. Not built.
Accidents and incidents
As with most aircraft types, the Fokker F28 has an average number of accidents or incidents:
Braathens Flight 239- December 23, 1972, ( Asker, suburb to Oslo, Norway): 40 fatalities. First fatal crash with a Fokker Fellowship.
Turkish Airlines- January 26, 1974, ( Izmir, Turkey): 66 fatalities. the aircraft crashed down 100m away from the airfield during takeoff.
Turkish Airlines- January 30, 1975, ( Marmara sea,near to Istanbul, Turkey):41 fatalities. During landing felt down to Marmara Sea.
Turkish Airlines- December 23, 1979, ( Ankara, Turkey): 39 fatalities. Because of turbulence.
NLM Cityhopper Flight 431- October 6, 1981( Moerdijk, North Brabant, Netherlands): 17 fatalities, the aircraft flew into a tornado.
*Garuda Indonesia Domestic Flight -
March 20, 1982, runway overrun at Tanjung Karang-Branti Airport in bad weather, 27 fatalities.
Air Ontario Flight 1363- March 10, 1989( Dryden, Ontario, Canada): 24 fatalities.
USAir Flight 405- March 22, 1992( Queens, New York, United States): 27 fatalities.
Biman BangladeshFlight 609 - December 22, 1997( Sylhet, Bangladesh): No fatalities, CFIT onto a rice field approx 1 mile from runway. [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19971222-0&lang=en Aviation-Safety.net report]
Biman Bangladeshparked at Zia International Airport- April 22, 2003[http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20030422-0 Aviation-Safety.net report]
Biman BangladeshFlight 601 - October 8, 2004( Sylhet, Bangladesh): No fatalities, overran runway on landing. [http://www.airdisaster.com/photos/s2-ach/photo.shtml Pictures at AirDisaster.com] - [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20041008-0 Aviation-Safety.net report]
Icaro AirFlight 504 crashed during take off at Quito's Mariscal Sucre AirportNo Deaths, or Injuries occurred.
More complete list of incidents at [http://www.airdisaster.com/cgi-bin/view_manu_details.cgi?aircraft=F-28+Fellowship AirDisaster.com]
2006a total of 92 Fokker F28 aircraft (all variants) remain in airline service. Major operators include: Garuda Indonesia(62 in total), AirQuarius Aviation(10), Libyan Arab Airlines(5), Gatari Air Service(5), Icaro Air(5) and Merpati Nusantara Airlines(23). Some 22 airlines operate smaller numbers of the type. [ Flight International, 3-9 October 2006]
*NLD: (Dutch Royal Flight)
*PHI: (Domestic Presidential Flights).The aircraft was named "Kalayaan"
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