- Carbohydrate metabolism
The most important carbohydrate is
glucose, a simple sugar ( monosaccharide) that is metabolized by nearly all known organisms. Glucose and other carbohydrates are part of a wide variety of metabolic pathways across species: plantssynthesize carbohydrates from atmospheric gases by photosynthesisstoring the absorbed energy internally, often in the form of starchor lipids. Plant components are eaten by animals and fungi, and used as fuel for cellular respiration. Oxidation of one gram of carbohydrate yields approximately 4 kcal of energy and from lipids about 9 kcal. Energy obtained from metabolism is usually stored temporarily within cells in the form of ATP. Organisms capable of aerobic respirationmetabolize glucose and oxygento release energy with carbon dioxideand wateras byproducts.
Carbohydrates are a superior short-term fuel for organisms because they are simpler to metabolize than
fats or proteins. In animals, the most important carbohydrate is glucose; so much so, that the level of glucose is used as the main control for the central metabolic hormone, insulin. Starch, and cellulose in a few animals (eg, termites, ruminants, and some bacteria), being both glucose polymers are disassembled during digestion and absorbed as glucose. Other simple carbohydrates have their own enzymatic oxidation pathways, as do some of the more complex carbohydrates. The disaccharide lactose, for instance, requires the enzyme lactaseto be broken into into its monosaccharides components; many animals lack this enzyme in adulthood.
Carbohydrates are typically stored as long polymers of glucose molecules with
Glycosidic bonds for structural support (e.g. chitin, cellulose) or for energy storage (e.g. glycogen, starch). However, the strong affinity of most carbohydrates for water makes storage of large quantities of carbohydrates inefficient due to the large molecular weight of the solvated water-carbohydrate complex. In some organisms, such as plants, excess carbohydrates are sometimes catabolised to form Acetyl-CoA, which is a feed stock for the fatty acid synthesispathway; fatty acids, triglycerides, and other lipidsare commonly used for long-term energy storage. The hydrophobic character of lipids makes them a much more compact form of energy storage than hydrophilic carbohydrates. However, animals, including humans, lack the necessary enzymatic machinery and so do not synthesize lipids from carbohydrate.
All carbohydrates share a general formula of approximately CnH2nOn; glucose is C6H12O6. Monosaccharides may be chemically bonded together to form
disaccharidessuch as sucroseand longer polysaccharidessuch as starchand cellulose.
Oligo/polysaccharides are typically cleaved into smaller monosaccharides by enzymes called
Glycoside hydrolases. The monosaccharide units then enter monosaccharide catabolism. Organisms vary in the range of monosaccharides they can absorb and use, and also in the range of more complex carbohydrates they are capable of disassembling.
Carbon fixation, or photosynthesis, in which CO2 is reduced to carbohydrate.
Glycolysis- the oxidation metabolism of glucosemolecules to obtain ATP and Pyruvate
** Pyruvate from glycolysis enters the
Krebs cyclein aerobicorganisms.
Pentose phosphate pathway, which acts in the conversion of hexoses into pentoses and in NADPHregeneration.
Glycogenesis- the conversion of excess glucose into glycogenas a cellular storage mechanism; this prevents excessive osmotic pressurebuildup inside the cell
Glycogenolysis- the breakdown of glycogen into glucose, which provides a glucose supply for glucose-dependent tissues.
Gluconeogenesis- "de novo" synthesis of glucose molecules from simple organic compounds. an example in humans is the conversion of a few amino acids in cellular protein to glucose.
Glucoregulation is the maintenance of steady levels of
glucosein the body; it is part of homeostasis, and keeps a constant internal environment around cells in the body.
hormone insulinis the primary regulatory signal in animals, suggesting that the basic mechanism is very old and very central to animal life. When present, it causes many tissue cells to take up glucose from the circulation, causes some cells to store glucose internally in the form of glycogen, causes some cells to take in and hold lipids, and in many cases controls cellular electrolyte balances and amino acid uptake as well. Its absence turns off glucose uptake into cells, reverses electrolyte adjustments, begins glycogen breakdown and glucose release into the circulation by some cells, begins lipid release from lipid storage cells, etc. Circulatory glucose levels are the most important signal to the insulin producing cells, and as they are largely due to dietary carbohydrate intake, diet controls major aspects of metabolism via insulin. In humans, insulin is made by beta cells in the pancreas, fat is stored in adipose tissue cells, and glycogen is both stored and released as needed by liver cells. No glucose is released to the blood from internal glycogen stores from muscle cells, however, regardless of insulin levels.
glucagon, on the other hand, acts in the opposite direction to insulin, forcing the conversion of glycogen in some cells to glucose. It's release is controlled by low levels of blood glucose.
Human diseases of carbohydrate metabolism
Glycogen storage disease
* [http://diabetescorner.blogspot.com/2007/09/glucose-metabolism.html Glucose Metabolism and Diabetes]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/biology/humansasorganisms/6homeostasisrev4.shtml BBC - GCSE Bitesize - Biology | Humans | Glucoregulation]
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